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Beta barrell membrane protein

Konstantinos D Tsirigos, Arne Elofsson, Pantelis G Bagos
MOTIVATION: The PRED-TMBB method is based on Hidden Markov Models and is capable of predicting the topology of beta-barrel outer membrane proteins and discriminate them from water-soluble ones. Here, we present an updated version of the method, PRED-TMBB2, with several newly developed features that improve its performance. The inclusion of a properly defined end state allows for better modeling of the beta-barrel domain, while different emission probabilities for the adjacent residues in strands are used to incorporate knowledge concerning the asymmetric amino acid distribution occurring there...
September 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Martin Bommer, Ana-Nicoleta Bondar, Athina Zouni, Holger Dobbek, Holger Dau
In all organisms that employ oxygenic photosynthesis, the membrane-extrinsic PsbO protein is a functionally important component of photosystem II. To study the previously proposed proton antenna function of carboxylate clusters at the protein-water interface, we combined crystallography and simulations of a truncated cyanobacterial (Thermosynechococcus elongatus) PsbO without peripheral loops. We expressed the PsbO β-barrel heterologously and determined crystal structures at resolutions of 1.15-1.5 Å at 100 K at various pH values and at 297 K and pH 6...
August 23, 2016: Biochemistry
Leonie van 't Hag, Hsin-Hui Shen, Tsung-Wu Lin, Sally L Gras, Calum J Drummond, Charlotte E Conn
A fundamental understanding of the effect of amphiphilic protein encapsulation on the nanostructure of the bicontinuous cubic phase is crucial to progressing biomedical and biological applications of these hybrid protein-lipid materials, including as drug delivery vehicles, as biosensors, biofuel cells and for in meso crystallization. The relationship between the lipid nanomaterial and the encapsulated protein, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of incorporating the five transmembrane and lipo-proteins which make up the β-barrel assembly machinery from Gram-negative bacteria within a series of bicontinuous cubic phases...
June 21, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Anand Kumar Rai, Kausik Chattopadhyay
Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a membrane-damaging beta-barrel pore-forming toxin (beta-PFT). VCC causes permeabilization of the target membranes by forming transmembrane oligomeric beta-barrel pores. Oligomerization is a key step in the mode of action of any beta-PFT, including that of VCC. Earlier studies have identified some of the key residues in VCC that are directly involved in the generation of the inter-protomer contacts, thus playing critical roles in the oligomerization of the membrane-bound toxin...
June 3, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Andrea Magrì, Maria Carmela Di Rosa, Marianna Flora Tomasello, Francesca Guarino, Simona Reina, Angela Messina, Vito De Pinto
Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1), the most important antioxidant defense against ROS in eukaryotic cells, localizes in cytosol and intermembrane space of mitochondria (IMS). Several evidences show a SOD1 intersection with both fermentative and respiratory metabolism. The Voltage Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) is the main pore-forming protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM), and is considered the gatekeeper of mitochondrial metabolism. Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking VDAC1 (Δpor1) is a very convenient model system, since it shows an impaired growth rate on non-fermentable carbon source...
June 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Wangfei Wang, Constance J Jeffery
Proteins expressed on the bacterial cell surface play important roles in infection and virulence and can be targets for vaccine development or used as biomarkers. Surprisingly, an increasing number of surface proteins are being found to be identical to intracellular enzymes and chaperones, and a few dozen intracellular/surface moonlighting proteins have been found that have different functions inside the cell and on the cell surface. The results of twenty-two published bacterial surface proteomics studies were analyzed using bioinformatics tools to consider how many additional intracellular proteins are also found on the cell surface...
April 26, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Maria A Schumacher, Wenjie Zeng, Kuo-Hsiang Huang, Lukasz Tchorzewski, Anuradha Janakiraman
In Escherichia coli cell division is driven by the tubulin-like GTPase, FtsZ, which forms the cytokinetic Z-ring. The Z-ring serves as a dynamic platform for the assembly of the multiprotein divisome, which catalyzes membrane cleavage to create equal daughter cells. Several proteins effect FtsZ assembly, thereby providing spatiotemporal control over cell division. One important class of FtsZ interacting/regulatory proteins is the Z-ring-associated proteins, Zaps, which typically modulate Z-ring formation by increasing lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments...
January 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Lavinia Liguori, Barry Stidder, Jean-Pierre Alcaraz, Jean-Luc Lenormand, Philippe Cinquin, Donald K Martin
The mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a pivotal protein since it provides the major transport pathway between the cytosol and the mitochondrial intermembrane space and it is implicated in cell apoptosis by functioning as a gatekeeper for the trafficking of mitochondrial death molecules. VDAC is a beta-barrel channel with a large conductance, and we use it as a model transport protein for the design of biomimetic systems. To overcome the limitations of classical overexpression methods for producing and purifying membrane proteins (MPs) we describe here the use of an optimized cell-free system...
August 17, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Thomas Ulrich, Philipp Oberhettinger, Ingo B Autenrieth, Doron Rapaport
Beta-barrel proteins are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. The evolutionary conservation in the biogenesis of these proteins allows mitochondria to assemble bacterial β-barrel proteins in their functional form. In this chapter, we describe exemplarily how the capacity of yeast mitochondria to process the trimeric autotransporter YadA can be used to study the role of bacterial periplasmic chaperones in this process.
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anna Konovalova, Thomas J Silhavy
Bacterial lipoproteins are lipid-anchored proteins that contain acyl groups covalently attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue of the mature protein. Lipoproteins are synthesized in precursor form with an N-terminal signal sequence (SS) that targets translocation across the cytoplasmic or inner membrane (IM). Lipid modification and SS processing take place at the periplasmic face of the IM. Outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins take the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) export pathway, which ends with the insertion of the N-terminal lipid moiety into the inner leaflet of the OM...
October 5, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Karen G Fleming
In vitro folding studies of outer membrane beta-barrels have been invaluable in revealing the lipid effects on folding rates and efficiencies as well as folding free energies. Here, the biophysical results are summarized, and these kinetic and thermodynamic findings are considered in terms of the requirements for folding in the context of the cellular environment. Because the periplasm lacks an external energy source the only driving forces for sorting and folding available within this compartment are binding or folding free energies and their associated rates...
October 5, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Barkha Khilwani, Kausik Chattopadhyay
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are a distinct class of membrane-damaging cytolytic proteins that contribute significantly towards the virulence processes employed by various pathogenic bacteria. Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a prominent member of the beta-barrel PFT (beta-PFT) family. It is secreted by most of the pathogenic strains of the intestinal pathogen V. cholerae. Owing to its potent membrane-damaging cell-killing activity, VCC is believed to play critical roles in V. cholerae pathogenesis, particularly in those strains that lack the cholera toxin...
August 2015: Toxins
Anand Kumar Rai, Nidhi Kundu, Kausik Chattopadhyay
Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a potent membrane-damaging cytotoxic protein. VCC causes permeabilization of the target cell membranes by forming transmembrane oligomeric beta-barrel pores. Membrane pore formation by VCC involves following key steps: (i) membrane binding, (ii) formation of a pre-pore oligomeric intermediate, (iii) membrane insertion of the pore-forming motifs, and (iv) formation of the functional transmembrane pore. Membrane binding, oligomerization, and subsequent pore-formation process of VCC appear to be facilitated by multiple regulatory mechanisms that are only partly understood...
October 1, 2015: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Emily J Danoff, Karen G Fleming
Unfolded outer membrane beta-barrel proteins have been shown to self-associate in the absence of lipid bilayers. We previously investigated the formation of high molecular weight species by OmpA, with both the transmembrane domain alone and the full-length protein, and discovered that the oligomeric form contains non-native β-sheet structure. We have further probed the conformation of self-associated OmpA by monitoring binding to Thioflavin T, a dye that is known to bind the cross-β a structure inherent in amyloid fibrils, and by observing the species by electron microscopy...
2015: PloS One
Laura Monlezun, Gilles Phan, Houssain Benabdelhak, Marie-Bernard Lascombe, Véronique Y N Enguéné, Martin Picard, Isabelle Broutin
Among the different mechanisms used by bacteria to resist antibiotics, active efflux plays a major role. In Gram-negative bacteria, active efflux is carried out by tripartite efflux pumps that form a macromolecular assembly spanning both membranes of the cellular wall. At the outer membrane level, a well-conserved outer membrane factor (OMF) protein acts as an exit duct, but its sequence varies greatly among different species. The OMFs share a similar tri-dimensional structure that includes a beta-barrel pore domain that stabilizes the channel within the membrane...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eva Heinz, Joel Selkrig, Matthew J Belousoff, Trevor Lithgow
Bacterial outer membrane proteins require the beta-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) for their correct folding and function. The central component of this machinery is BamA, an Omp85 protein that is essential and found in all Gram-negative bacteria. An additional feature of the BAM is the translocation and assembly module (TAM), comprised TamA (an Omp85 family protein) and TamB. We report that TamA and a closely related protein TamL are confined almost exclusively to Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi respectively, whereas TamB is widely distributed across the majority of Gram-negative bacterial lineages...
June 2015: Genome Biology and Evolution
Magdalena Zulpo, Malgorzata Kotulska
Cylindrin is a six-stranded antiparallel beta barrel obtained from amyloidogenic strands of crystallin. It induces cell toxicity through an unknown mechanism. In this work, the potential use of the structure of cylindrin as a template for modeling amyloid pores-hypothetical transmembrane structures which appear during amyloid diseases-was studied. Using comparative modeling (performed by Modeller), we tested the stability of cylindrin-based pores made from several amyloid-forming and non-amyloid-forming strands deriving from mutated cylindrin and the prion sup35...
June 2015: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Amanda J Brinkworth, Carl H Hammer, L Renee Olano, Scott D Kobayashi, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Frank R DeLeo
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have emerged as a cause of life-threatening infections in susceptible individuals (e.g., transplant recipients and critically ill patients). Strains classified as multilocus sequence type (ST) 258 are among the most prominent causes of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections worldwide, but the basis for the success of this lineage remains incompletely determined. To gain a more comprehensive view of the molecules potentially involved in the success of ST258, we used a proteomics approach to identify surface-associated and culture supernatant proteins produced by ST258...
2015: PloS One
Mark D Allen, Mary Christie, Peter Jones, Benjamin T Porebski, Brendan Roome, Stefan M V Freund, Ashley M Buckle, Mark Bycroft, Daniel Christ
We have previously reported a phage display method for the identification of protein domains on a genome-wide scale (shotgun proteolysis). Here we present the solution structure of a fragment of the Escherichia coli membrane protein yrfF, as identified by shotgun proteolysis, and determined by NMR spectroscopy. Despite the absence of computational predictions, the fragment formed a well-defined beta-barrel structure, distantly falling within the OB-fold classification. Our results highlight the potential of high-throughput experimental approaches for the identification of protein domains for structural studies...
October 2015: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Joshua A Lieberman, Courtney D Petro, Stefani Thomas, Austin Yang, Michael S Donnenberg
UNLABELLED: Type IV pili (T4Ps) are surface appendages used by Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens for motility and attachment to epithelial surfaces. In Gram-negative bacteria, such as the important pediatric pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), during extension and retraction, the pilus passes through an outer membrane (OM) pore formed by the multimeric secretin complex. The secretin is common to Gram-negative assemblies, including the related type 2 secretion (T2S) system and the type 3 secretion (T3S) system...
2015: MBio
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