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Ines Dourado, Luís Augusto V da Silva, Laio Magno, Maycon Lopes, Caio Cerqueira, Adriana Prates, Sandra Brignol, Sarah MacCarthy
Trans persons, including transvestites and transsexual women, show disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates when compared to the rest of the population. However, few quantitative/qualitative studies have addressed trans persons in Brazil. Thus, a team of researchers from different fields is developing an interdisciplinary research project with the objective of shedding light on living conditions and ways of life among transvestites and transsexual women, while investigating determinant factors for HIV infection, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Alexander W Phillips, Barry Dent, Maziar Navidi, Arul Immanuel, S Michael Griffin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine whether trainee involvement in esophageal cancer resection is associated with adverse patient outcomes. BACKGROUND: Operative experience for surgical trainees is under threat. A number of factors have been implicated in this leading to fewer hours for training. Esophagogastric cancer training is particularly vulnerable due to the publication of individual surgeon results and a perception that dual consultant operating improves patient outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Hee-Jeong Yang, Yunfeng Cheng, Madeleine S Durkee, Hexin Xie, Jianghong Rao, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Kristen C Maitland
Tuberculosis is a pulmonary disease with an especially high mortality rate in immuno-compromised populations, specifically children and HIV positive individuals. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a very slow growing and difficult organism to work with, making both diagnosis and development of effective treatments cumbersome. We utilize a fiber-optic fluorescence microendoscope integrated with a whole-body imaging system for in vivo Mtb detection. The system exploits an endogenous enzyme of Mtb (β-lactamase, or BlaC) using a BlaC-specific NIR fluorogenic substrate...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Kim Tran, Chaim Bell, Nathan Stall, George Tomlinson, Allison McGeer, Andrew Morris, Michael Gardam, Howard B Abrams
BACKGROUND: Isolation precautions have negative effects on patient safety, psychological well-being, and healthcare worker contact. However, it is not known whether isolation precautions affect certain hospital-related outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of isolation precautions on hospital-related outcomes and cost of care. DESIGN: Retrospective, propensity-score matched cohort study of inpatients admitted to general internal medicine (GIM) services at three academic hospitals in Toronto, Ontario, Canada between January 2010 and December 2012...
October 17, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Divya Balaji, Linda B Mlunde, Olivia C Tran, Barrot Lambdin, Jessie Mbwambo, Cassian Nyandindi, Eva Matiko, Michael Copenhaver, R Douglas Bruce
High prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among females who use drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, contrasts strikingly with their low enrollment in HIV risk reduction services such as methadone assisted therapy (MAT). We conducted a case-control study to examine factors associated with non-enrollment in MAT, with a focus on gender-based violence. We interviewed 202 female heroin users not enrolled in MAT as cases and 93 females enrolled in MAT. We fitted logistic regression models with MAT enrollment as the outcome of interest...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Shiromani Janki, Evalyn E A P Mulder, Jan N M IJzermans, T C Khe Tran
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, surgeons appear to be experiencing more occupational musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study is to investigate the current frequency and effects of occupational musculoskeletal injuries on work absence. METHODS: An online questionnaire was conducted among all surgeons affiliated to the Dutch Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery, and Surgical Oncology. In addition, this survey was conducted among surgeons, gynaecologists, and urologists of one cluster of training hospitals in the Netherlands...
October 17, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
P Meimoun, J Clerc, D Ardourel, U Djou, S Martis, T Botoro, F Elmkies, H Zemir, A Luycx-Bore, J Boulanger
To test the usefulness of non-invasive coronary flow reserve (CFR) by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography by comparison to invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (IFR), a new vasodilator-free index of coronary stenosis severity, in patients with left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis of intermediate severity (IS) and stable coronary artery disease. 94 consecutive patients (mean age 68 ± 10 years) with angiographic LAD stenosis of IS (50-70 % diameter stenosis), were prospectively studied...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Dorothy Kammerer-Doak, Kamil Svabik, Tony Bazi
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Members of the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) come from different geographic locations and practice settings. A member survey regarding practice patterns provides valuable information for practitioners and researchers alike, and allows the IUGA to discover areas to focus on education and information dissemination. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed by the IUGA Research and Development committee and distributed electronically to IUGA surgeons...
October 17, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Teng-Fei Lu, Wei Li, Jie Chen, Fu-Quan Bai, Jian Wang, Ling-Jun He, Hong-Xing Zhang
In this work, we designed three dyes (Ru1, Ru2, and Ru3) by modifying the square-planar quadridentate ligand of the experimental Ru(ii) complex K1, [RuL(trans-NCS)2] with L = dimethyl-6,60-bis(methyl-2-pyridylamino)-2,20-bipyridine-4,40-dicarboxylate, from a theoretical viewpoint. As is known, K1 shows obvious advantages over the famous dye N749 in light absorption ability because of its highly conjugated ancillary ligands. Density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory methods were used to determine the geometrical structures, electronic structures and absorption spectra of the dye complexes...
October 18, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Charles E Anyanechi, Otasowie D Osunde, Birch D Saheeb
OBJECTIVE: To analyze cases of compound, unfavorable and non-comminuted mandibular angle fractures treated by trans-osseous wiring, presenting postoperative complications, in a low resource center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a 13-year retrospective study of 1,324 fractures in 1,317 subjects. The predictor variables were age, gender, aetiology, time lag between injury and treatment, and concomitant mandibular and mid-facial fractures. The outcome variable was the development of complication(s) after treatment...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Bruce C Allen, Melissa J Vincent, DeAnn Liska, Lynne T Haber
We conducted a meta-regression of controlled clinical trial data to investigate quantitatively the relationship between dietary intake of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Previous regression analyses included insufficient data to determine the nature of the dose response in the low-dose region and have nonetheless assumed a linear relationship between iTFA intake and LDL-C levels. This work contributes to the previous work by 1) including additional studies examining low-dose intake (identified using an evidence mapping procedure); 2) investigating a range of curve shapes, including both linear and nonlinear models; and 3) using Bayesian meta-regression to combine results across trials...
October 14, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Guoyun Zhang, Aiguo Duan, Jianguo Zhang, Caiyun He
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are >200nt longer transcripts, potentially play important roles in almost all biological processes in plants and mammals. However, the functions and profiles of lncRNAs in fruit is less understood. Therefore, it is urgent and necessary to identify and analyze the functions of lncRNAs in sea buckthorns. Using RNA-sequencing, we synthetically identified lncRNAs in mature fruit from the red and yellow sea buckthorn. We obtained 567,778,938 clean reads from six samples and identified 3428 lncRNAs in mature fruit, including 2498 intergenic lncRNAs, 593 anti-sense lncRNAs, and 337 intronic lncRNAs...
October 14, 2016: Gene
Jie Li, Yanli Zhang, Xianhui Cai, Qingqing Xia, Jingmeng Chen, Yi Liao, Zuguo Liu, Yalin Wu
Effective clearance of all-trans-retinal (atRAL) from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is important for avoiding its cytotoxicity. However, the metabolism of atRAL in RPE cells is poorly clarified. The present study was designed to analyze metabolic products of atRAL and to compare the cytotoxicity of atRAL versus its derivative all-trans-retinal dimer (atRAL-dimer) in human RPE cells. We found that all-trans-retinol (atROL) and a mixture of atRAL condensation metabolites including atRAL-dimer and A2E were generated after incubating RPE cells with atRAL for 6h, and the amount of atRAL-dimer was significantly higher than that of A2E...
October 14, 2016: Toxicology
Jay M Margolis, Steven Deitelzweig, Jeffrey Kline, Oth Tran, David M Smith, Concetta Crivera, Brahim Bookhart, Jeff Schein
PURPOSE: Using real-world data, this study compares inpatient length of stay (LOS) and costs for patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) initiating treatment with oral anticoagulation with rivaroxaban versus warfarin. METHODS: Hospitalizations from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database were selected from November 1, 2012, through December 31, 2013, for adults with a primary diagnosis of PE initiating treatment with rivaroxaban or warfarin. Warfarin patients were matched 1:1 to rivaroxaban patients using exact and propensity score matching...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Jagdish C Mohan, Madhu Shukla, Vishwas Mohan, Arvind Sethi
Left atrial dissection is a very uncommon complication of cardiac surgery and usually causes significant hemodynamic compromise. Little is known about spontaneous dissection of the left atrium. Two patients, one middle-aged man and another elderly woman were evaluated following stroke. Routine trans-thoracic echocardiogram showed vertical division of the left atrium with both chambers communicating with each other through an orifice. Detailed trans-oesophageal echocardiographic study revealed dissection of the left atrium producing an additional false chamber (pseudo-aneurysm) placed posterior to the left atrial appendage and above the postero-lateral aspect of mitral annulus...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Deepak Ameta, Rajiv Bharat Kharwar, Pallavi Aga, Rishi Sethi, Sharad Chandra, Sudhanshu Kumar Dwivedi, Varun Shankar Narain, Ram Kirti Saran
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a common congenital cardiac anomaly, and rarely, it is associated with sinus of Valsalva aneurysms (SOVAs). And very infrequently, these SOVAs rupture into left side of heart. We hereby report a case of 12-year-old male with BAV with severe aortic stenosis with a large SOVA that ruptured into the left side of the heart. The anatomy was delineated with multimodality imaging; initially with two-dimensional trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE), and later on with three-dimensional TTE and with multi detector computed tomography...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Wen Du, Maoge Zhou, Wei Zhao, Dongwan Cheng, Lifen Wang, Jingze Lu, Eli Song, Wei Feng, Yanhong Xue, Pingyong Xu, Tao Xu
Secretory granules, also known as dense core vesicles, are generated at the trans-Golgi network and undergo several maturation steps, including homotypic fusion of immature secretory granules (ISGs), and processing of prehormones to yield active peptides. The molecular mechanisms governing secretory granule maturation are largely unknown. Here, we investigate a highly conserved protein named HID-1 in a mouse model. A conditional knockout of HID-1 in pancreatic β cells leads to glucose intolerance and a remarkable increase in the serum proinsulin/insulin ratio caused by defective proinsulin processing...
October 18, 2016: ELife
Shanshan Xu, Lanlan Dong, Yingying Shi, Liujun Chen, Peipei Yuan, Shuang Wang, Zhi Li, Yan Sun, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He, Wanhong Liu
Human foamy virus (HFV) is a complex and unique retrovirus with the longest genomes among retroviruses used as vectors for gene therapy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are regarded as key regulators that involved in diverse biological processes during viral infection. However, the role of lncRNAs in HFV infection remains unknown. In this study, we utilized next-generation sequencing to first characterize lncRNAs in 293T cells after HFV infection, evaluating length distribution, exon number distribution, volcano picture and lncRNA class distribution...
October 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Dorota G Piotrowska, Graciela Andrei, Dominique Schols, Robert Snoeck, Magdalena Łysakowska
Cycloadditions of N-substituted C-(diethoxyphosphoryl)nitrones to N-allylated quinazoline-2,4-diones functionalized at N3 with substituted benzoyl or benzyl groups proceeded with moderate to good diastereoselectivities (d.e. 28-68%). The synthesized isoxazolidine phosphonates were assessed for the antiviral activity against a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses. Compounds trans-13c, cis-13c/trans-13c (86:14), cis-15b/trans-15b (87:13) and trans-15d/cis-15d (95:5) exhibited the highest activity toward both TK(+) and TK(-) VZV strains (mean EC50 values in the range of 3...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hilary C McCrary, Erynne A Faucett, Saranya Reghunathan, F Zahra Aly, Rihan Khan, Raymond F Carmody, Abraham Jacob
OBJECTIVE: Cutaneous neuroendocrine lesions of the external auditory canal (EAC) are exceptionally rare, with only five cases reported in the literature. In this case report, we present a patient with a recurrent carcinoid tumor in the EAC, which has yet to be described. PATIENTS: A 38-year-old woman presenting with otalgia, aural fullness, and decreased hearing was found to have a recurrent EAC carcinoid tumor, 8-years after initial resection at an outside facility...
September 30, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
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