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Tomoya Okazaki, Toru Hifumi, Kenya Kawakita, Ryuta Nakashima, Atsushi Matsumoto, Hajime Shishido, Daiske Ogawa, Masanobu Okauchi, Atsushi Shindo, Masahiko Kawanishi, Takashi Tamiya, Yasuhiro Kuroda
BACKGROUND: Several studies using trauma data banks and registers showed that age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score, and intraventricular hemorrhage were independent factors for neurologic outcomes in geriatric patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, these analyses did not comprehensively evaluate factors particularly associated with geriatric patients. We aimed to identify factors particularly associated with geriatric patients that affect neurologic outcomes in TBI...
September 2016: World Neurosurgery
Xueli Cai, Jianhong Guan, Shaojun Ren, Yixin Wei, Xiao Peng, Weiwen Qiu, Jun Chen
Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged patients. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms ranging from headache and neck pain to severe cerebral ischemic events. Conventional treatment is medical anticlotting therapy or involves the use of interventional tools, such as endovascular treatment. Anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy are the primary treatment modalities used to prevent thromboembolic complications from arterial dissections, however, they are unsuitable in certain cases of dissecting aneurysms...
May 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Laura de Andrade Moura, Ana Carolina Marqui de Almeida, Andreza Vieira da Silva, Vivian Rodrigues de Souza, Vitor Francisco Ferreira, Michel Vieira Menezes, Carlos Roland Kaiser, Sabrina Baptista Ferreira, André Lopes Fuly
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases, such as thrombosis and stroke, represent the major cause of disability and death worldwide; and dysfunctions in platelet aggregation and blood coagulation processes are involved. The regular antithrombotic drugs have unsatisfactory results and may produce side effects. Therefore, alternative therapies have been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: The anticoagulant and antiplatelet aggregation potential of a series of six synthetic 1,2,3-triazole derivatives were investigated through in vitro models...
May 2, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
Chao-Huei Yang, Chiung-Fang Tsao, Wang-Sheng Ko, Ya-Ling Chiou
In the pathogenesis of asthma, the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is a key factor in airway remodeling and causes airway narrowing. In addition, ASMCs are also the effector cells of airway inflammation. Fucoidan extracted from marine brown algae polysaccharides has antiviral, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticlotting, and anticancer properties; however, its effectiveness for asthma has not been elucidated thus far. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-treated primary ASMCs were cultured with or without oligo-fucoidan (100, 500, or 1000 µg/mL) to evaluate its effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and Akt, ERK1/2 signaling pathway...
January 2016: Marine Drugs
W Frank Peacock
The therapeutic landscape for anticoagulation management is undergoing a shift from the use of traditional anticlotting agents such as heparins and warfarin as the only options to the growing adoption of newer target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) with novel mechanisms of action. Dabigatran, the first TSOAC approved for use in the United States, is a direct competitive inhibitor of thrombin. It has predictable kinetics, with an elimination half-life of 12 to 17 hours in healthy volunteers. Apixaban and rivaroxaban are selective inhibitors of factor Xa, and also display first-order kinetics...
October 2014: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
Jacob Wheatley Myerson, Li He, John Stacy Allen, Todd Williams, Gregory Lanza, Douglas Tollefsen, Shelton Caruthers, Samuel Wickline
Restoring an antithrombotic surface to suppress ongoing thrombosis is an appealing strategy for treatment of acute cardiovascular disorders such as erosion of atherosclerotic plaque. An antithrombotic surface would present an alternative to systemic anticoagulation with attendant risks of bleeding. We have designed thrombin-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that bind to sites of active clotting to extinguish local thrombin activity and inhibit platelet deposition while exhibiting only transient systemic anticoagulant effects...
October 3, 2014: Nanotechnology
Andrezza Campos Chagas, José Luis Ramirez, Nijole Jasinskiene, Anthony A James, José M C Ribeiro, Osvaldo Marinotti, Eric Calvo
Mosquito salivary glands have important roles in blood feeding and pathogen transmission. However, the biological relevance of many salivary components has yet to be determined. Aegyptin, a secreted salivary protein from Aedes aegypti, binds collagen and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion. We used a transgenic approach to study the relevance of Aegyptin in mosquito blood feeding. Aedes aegypti manipulated genetically to express gene-specific inverted-repeat RNA sequences exhibited significant reductions in Aegyptin mRNA accumulation (85-87%) and protein levels (>80-fold) in female mosquito salivary glands...
May 13, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Elizabeth Manias, Sharon Kinney, Noel Cranswick, Allison Williams
AIM: This study aims to explore the characteristics of reported medication errors occurring among children in an Australian children's hospital, and to examine the types, causes and contributing factors of medication errors. METHODS: A retrospective clinical audit was undertaken of medication errors reported to an online incident facility at an Australian children's hospital over a 4-year period. RESULTS: A total of 2753 medication errors were reported over the 4-year period, with an overall medication error rate of 0...
January 2014: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Wei-Jern Tsai, Chien-Chang Shen, Tung-Hu Tsai, Lie-Chwen Lin
Five new diaryldimethylbutane lignans, saurulignans A-E (1-5), four new tetrahydrofuran lignans, saurufurins A-D (6-9), and one arylnaphthalene lignan, saurunarin (10), were isolated from Saururus chinensis, along with 18 known compounds. Lignan 5 showed significant inhibition of ADP-induced aggregation with an IC50 value of 9.8 μM and AA-induced aggregation with an IC50 value of 14.0 μM. Compound 19 showed significant activity to inhibit PAF-induced aggregation with an IC50 value of 9.1 μM. In addition, five isolated compounds could induce platelet aggregation...
January 24, 2014: Journal of Natural Products
Xiaohong Tan, Sourav Kumar Dey, Cheryl Telmer, Xiaoliang Zhang, Bruce A Armitage, Marcel P Bruchez
Thrombin is the typical target in anticlotting therapy for many serious diseases such as heart attack and stroke. DNA aptamers are well-known thrombin inhibitors that prevent fibrinogen hydrolysis. We have discovered that exosite-targeting antithrombin aptamers enhance the activity of thrombin toward a small peptide substrate, Sar(N-methylglycine)-Pro-Arg-paranitroanilide, and that the activation of the enzyme by these aptamers is strongly inhibited by their complementary DNAs. Our study reveals that treatment with mixed aptamers or with a dual-aptamer construct led to an 8...
January 24, 2014: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Rohun U Palekar, Jacob W Myerson, Paul H Schlesinger, J Evan Sadler, Hua Pan, Samuel A Wickline
The goal of the present work was to design and test an acute-use nanoparticle-based antithrombotic agent that exhibits sustained local inhibition of thrombin without requiring a systemic anticoagulant effect to function against acute arterial thrombosis. To demonstrate proof of concept, we functionalized the surface of liposomes with multiple copies of the direct thrombin inhibitor, d-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-arginyl-chloromethyl ketone (PPACK), which exhibits high affinity for thrombin as a free agent but manifests too rapid clearance in vivo to be effective alone...
November 4, 2013: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jessica M Joslin, Sarah M Lantvit, Melissa M Reynolds
Tygon is a proprietary plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) polymer that is used widely in bioapplications, specifically as extracorporeal circuits. To overcome issues with blood clot formation and infection associated with the failure of these medical devices upon blood contact, we consider a Tygon coating with the ability to release the natural anticlotting and antibiotic agent, nitric oxide (NO), under simulated physiological conditions. These coatings are prepared by incorporating 20 w/w% S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) donor into a Tygon matrix...
October 9, 2013: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrew G Mercader, Alicia B Pomilio
Biflavonoids are dimers of flavonoid moieties linked by a C-C or C-O-C bond. Simple, complex, rearranged, natural and ketalized Diels-Alder adducts, benzofuran derivatives, and spirobiflavonoids are some of the structural groups of biflavonoids. These compounds are mainly distributed in the Gymnosperms, Angiosperms (monocots and dicots), ferns (Pteridophyta), and mosses (Bryophyta). Biflavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, vasorelaxant, anticlotting, among others...
October 2013: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Ignacio A Vado-Solís, Víctor Suárez-Solís, Bertha Jiménez-Delgadillo, Jorge E Zavala-Velázquez, José C Segura-Correa
The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and DNA of women with spontaneous abortions in 2 hospitals located in Yucatan, Mexico. Between June 2008 and May 2009, blood samples were taken from 100 women with spontaneous abortion attending the Ticul City Communitarian Hospital and the Merida Mother-Kid Hospital. The sera were tested for anti- T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Blood samples (5 ml with anticlotting agent) were also used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, to detect T...
April 2013: Journal of Parasitology
Teresa C F Assumpção, Donald P Eaton, Van M Pham, Ivo M B Francischetti, Valéria Aoki, Gunter Hans-Filho, Evandro A Rivitti, Jesus G Valenzuela, Luis A Diaz, José M C Ribeiro
Triatoma matogrossensis is a Hemiptera that belongs to the oliveirai complex, a vector of Chagas' disease that feeds on vertebrate blood in all life stages. Hematophagous insects' salivary glands (SGs) produce potent pharmacologic compounds that counteract host hemostasis, including anticlotting, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory molecules. Exposure to T. matogrossensis was also found to be a risk factor associated with the endemic form of the autoimmune skin disease pemphigus foliaceus, which is described in the same regions where Chagas' disease is observed in Brazil...
June 2012: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
L A Liapina, N F Miasoedov, L A Andreeva, T Iu Obergan, T A Shubina, M E Grigor'eva, V E Pastorova
Heparin was bound to the arginine-containing peptide Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro with the molar ratio of heparin to the peptide 1:1. The complex compound showed antiplatelet, anticoagulative, and fibrin-depolymerization activities. In an in vivo study, in type 2 diabetes progression, a 5-fold intranasal administration of the compound restored both impaired insular and anticlotting functions in rats. Furthermore, blood fibrinolytic and anticoagulative activities increased.
January 2012: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia
M J Dümichen, K Seeger, H N Lode, J S Kühl, W Ebell, P Degenhardt, M Singer, C Geffers, U Querfeld
BACKGROUND: A catheter lock solution containing 1.35% taurolidine and 4% citrate could potentially disrupt bacterial surface adherence and consecutive biofilm production due to the anti-adherence properties of taurolidine and the anticlotting and chelator activities of both compounds. AIM: To compare the impact on microbial catheter colonization and infectious complications of heparin and taurolidine citrate as central venous catheter (CVC) lock solutions in paediatric patients with haematological malignancies...
April 2012: Journal of Hospital Infection
Nagila F C Secundino, Vanessa C de Freitas, Carolina C Monteiro, Ana-Clara A M Pires, Bruna A David, Paulo F P Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Sandflies are vectors of Leishmania, the causative agent of leishmaniasis in mammalian hosts, including humans. The protozoan parasite is transmitted by the sandfly bite during salivation that occurs at the moment of blood feeding. The components of vector saliva include anticlotting and vasodilatory factors that facilitate blood flow and immunomodulatory factors that inhibit wound healing and quell the immune response. Not surprisingly, these factors also play important roles in the establishment of Leishmania infection...
2012: Parasites & Vectors
Angelique St Antoine, Morgan N Ketterling, William R Sukov, Josh Lowman, Ryan A Knudson, Jason P Sinnwell, Anne E Wiktor, Rhett P Ketterling
CONTEXT: Clotted blood and bone marrow specimens account for a large proportion of failed cytogenetic studies. There are no published protocols describing salvage of clotted specimens such that conventional chromosome or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies can be performed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of thrombolytic drugs on clotted blood samples to yield intact cells suitable for cytogenetic analysis. DESIGN: Five commercially available thrombolytic drugs (alteplase, urokinase, streptokinase, tenecteplase, reteplase) were evaluated in a series of blinded experiments to identify the best drug for lysing clots to produce samples suitable for chromosome and FISH studies...
July 2011: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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