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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931257/morphometric-analysis-of-the-middle-clinoid-process-using-maxillofacial-computed-tomography-scans
#1
Christopher Miller, Roukoz Chamoun, David Beahm
BACKGROUND: The interest in detailed anatomy of the sella and parasellar regions has resurged recently due to the wide clinical applications of the expanded endoscopic approaches to the skull base. The middle clinoid process (MCP) is a bony structure that can affect wide endoscopic exposure of the sella and parasellar region. OBJECTIVE: To study and analyze the anatomic variations of the MCP in the general population using computed tomography scans. METHODS: A total of 150 maxillofacial computed tomography scans were reviewed to characterize the MCP...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931253/relationship-of-the-optic-nerve-to-the-medial-rectus-muscle-during-endonasal-dissection-of-the-medial-intraconal-orbital-apex
#2
Dmitriy Petrov, John Craig, Jayesh Thawani, Kalil Abdullah, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, John Y K Lee
BACKGROUND: Few studies have established surgical landmarks for endoscopic endonasal dissection of the intraconal orbital apex (OA). OBJECTIVE: We describe the optic nerve (ON) anatomy and its relationships, as seen during a fully endoscopic, endonasal approach to the medial intraconal OA. METHODS: The study question was approached through a cadaver dissection and a radiographic study. Four formalin-fixed, latex-injected cadaver heads were dissected using transnasal endoscopic techniques...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931200/social-media-in-otolaryngology-head-and-neck-surgery
#3
Modupe Oyewumi, John Lee, Allan Vescan
The objective of this study was to assess the current use of social media tools within Canadian otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) programs and to assess the interest within these programs to integrate social media for networking, social, and educational programs. A prospective study from September 2013 to February 2014 was performed involving residents and faculty in Canadian OHNS programs. A 26-item questionnaire was created and sent to staff and resident physicians who met the study inclusion criteria using an online survey tool (http://surveymonkey...
September 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931085/hcv-induced-autophagosomes-are-generated-via-homotypic-fusion-of-phagophores-that-mediate-hcv-rna-replication
#4
Linya Wang, Ja Yeon Kim, Helene Minyi Liu, Michael M C Lai, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces autophagy to promote its replication, including its RNA replication, which can take place on double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes. However, how HCV induces the biogenesis of autophagosomes and how HCV RNA replication complex may be assembled on autophagosomes were largely unknown. During autophagy, crescent membrane structures known as phagophores first appear in the cytoplasm, which then progress to become autophagosomes. By conducting electron microscopy and in vitro membrane fusion assay, we found that phagophores induced by HCV underwent homotypic fusion to generate autophagosomes in a process dependent on the SNARE protein syntaxin 7 (STX7)...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931072/high-prevalence-of-non-dipping-blood-pressure-and-vascular-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-south-africans-on-antiretrovirals
#5
M S Borkum, J M Heckmann, K Manning, J A Dave, N S Levitt, B L Rayner, N Wearne
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of tissue inflammation and accelerated vascular aging ('inflamm-aging'). Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) rhythms such as non-dipping may contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in HIV infected individuals. However, little data exists on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and measures of vascular stiffness in the black African HIV infected population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of otherwise well, HIV infected outpatients on ART for >5 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931044/the-performance-of-a-new-local-false-discovery-rate-method-on-tests-of-association-between-coronary-artery-disease-cad-and-genome-wide-genetic-variants
#6
Shuyan Mei, Ali Karimnezhad, Marie Forest, David R Bickel, Celia M T Greenwood
The maximum entropy (ME) method is a recently-developed approach for estimating local false discovery rates (LFDR) that incorporates external information allowing assignment of a subset of tests to a category with a different prior probability of following the null hypothesis. Using this ME method, we have reanalyzed the findings from a recent large genome-wide association study of coronary artery disease (CAD), incorporating biologic annotations. Our revised LFDR estimates show many large reductions in LFDR, particularly among the genetic variants belonging to annotation categories that were known to be of particular interest for CAD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931041/lactobacillus-paracasei-feeding-improves-immune-control-of-influenza-infection-in-mice
#7
Nouria Belkacem, Nicolas Serafini, Richard Wheeler, Muriel Derrien, Lilia Boucinha, Aurélie Couesnon, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, James P Di Santo, Muhamed-Kkeir Taha, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard
Respiratory tract infections such as flu cause severe morbidity and mortality and are among the leading causes of death in children and adults worldwide. Commensal microbiota is critical for orchestrating tissue homeostasis and immunity in the intestine. Probiotics represent an interesting source of immune modulators and several clinical studies have addressed the potential beneficial effects of probiotics against respiratory infections. Therefore, we have investigated the mechanisms of protection conferred by L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931030/brain-regions-involved-in-observing-and-trying-to-interpret-dog-behaviour
#8
Charlotte Desmet, Alko van der Wiel, Marcel Brass
Humans and dogs have interacted for millennia. As a result, humans (and especially dog owners) sometimes try to interpret dog behaviour. While there is extensive research on the brain regions that are involved in mentalizing about other peoples' behaviour, surprisingly little is known of whether we use these same brain regions to mentalize about animal behaviour. In this fMRI study we investigate whether brain regions involved in mentalizing about human behaviour are also engaged when observing dog behaviour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931020/a-new-species-of-hermit-crab-diogenes-heteropsammicola-crustacea-decapoda-anomura-diogenidae-replaces-a-mutualistic-sipunculan-in-a-walking-coral-symbiosis
#9
Momoko Igawa, Makoto Kato
Symbiont shift is rare in obligate mutualisms because both the partners are reciprocally dependent on and specialized to each other. In the obligate accommodation-transportation mutualism between walking corals and sipunculans, however, an unusual saltatory symbiont shift was discovered. In shallow waters of southern Japan, an undescribed hermit crab species was found living in corallums of solitary scleractinian corals of the genera Heterocyathus and Heteropsammia, replacing the usual sipunculan symbiont. We described the hermit crab as a new species Diogenes heteropsammicola (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae), and explored its association with the walking corals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931018/pyrethroid-resistance-alters-the-blood-feeding-behavior-in-puerto-rican-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-exposed-to-treated-fabric
#10
Natasha M Agramonte, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Ulrich R Bernier
Emerging insecticide resistance is a major issue for vector control. It decreases the effectiveness of insecticides, thereby requiring greater quantities for comparable control with a net increase in risk of disease resurgence, product cost, and damage risk to the ecosystem. Pyrethroid resistance has been documented in Puerto Rican populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. In this study, topical toxicity of five insecticides (permethrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, DDT, transfluthrin) was determined for susceptible (Orlando-ORL) and resistant (Puerto Rico-PR) strains of Ae...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931014/phonological-memory-in-sign-language-relies-on-the-visuomotor-neural-system-outside-the-left-hemisphere-language-network
#11
Yuji Kanazawa, Kimihiro Nakamura, Toru Ishii, Toshihiko Aso, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Koichi Omori
Sign language is an essential medium for everyday social interaction for deaf people and plays a critical role in verbal learning. In particular, language development in those people should heavily rely on the verbal short-term memory (STM) via sign language. Most previous studies compared neural activations during signed language processing in deaf signers and those during spoken language processing in hearing speakers. For sign language users, it thus remains unclear how visuospatial inputs are converted into the verbal STM operating in the left-hemisphere language network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931011/individual-versus-group-decision-making-jurors-reliance-on-central-and-peripheral-information-to-evaluate-expert-testimony
#12
Jessica M Salerno, Bette L Bottoms, Liana C Peter-Hagene
To investigate dual-process persuasion theories in the context of group decision making, we studied low and high need-for-cognition (NFC) participants within a mock trial study. Participants considered plaintiff and defense expert scientific testimony that varied in argument strength. All participants heard a cross-examination of the experts focusing on peripheral information (e.g., credentials) about the expert, but half were randomly assigned to also hear central information highlighting flaws in the expert's message (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930995/stereotactic-atlas-guided-laser-capture-microdissection-of-brain-regions-affected-by-traumatic-injury
#13
Harris A Weisz, Deborah R Boone, Stacy L Sell, Helen L Hellmich
The ability to isolate specific brain regions of interest can be impeded in tissue disassociation techniques that do not preserve their spatial distribution. Such techniques also potentially skew gene expression analysis because the process itself can alter expression patterns in individual cells. Here we describe a laser capture microdissection (LCM) method to selectively collect specific brain regions affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI) by using a modified Nissl (cresyl violet) staining protocol and the guidance of a rat brain atlas...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930994/measuring-in-vivo-changes-in-extracellular-neurotransmitters-during-naturally-rewarding-behaviors-in-female-syrian-hamsters
#14
Kelsey M Moore, Brett T Himmler, Benjamin A Teplitzky, Matthew D Johnson, Robert L Meisel
The ability to measure neurotransmitter release on a rapid time scale allows patterns of neurotransmission to be linked to specific behaviors or manipulations; a powerful tool in elucidating underlying mechanisms and circuitry. While the technique of microdialysis has been used for decades to measure nearly any analyte of interest in the brain, this technique is limited in temporal resolution. Alternatively, fast scan cyclic voltammetry is both temporally precise and extremely sensitive; however, because this technically difficult method relies on the electroactivity of the analyte of interest, the possibility to detect nonelectroactive substances (e...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930989/demonstration-of-a-hyperlens-integrated-microscope-and-super-resolution-imaging
#15
Dasol Lee, Minkyung Kim, Sunae So, Inki Kim, Gwanho Yoon, Kyunghoon Kim, Junsuk Rho
The use of super-resolution imaging to overcome the diffraction limit of conventional microscopy has attracted the interest of researchers in biology and nanotechnology. Although near-field scanning microscopy and superlenses have improved the resolution in the near-field region, far-field imaging in real-time remains a significant challenge. Recently, the hyperlens, which magnifies and converts evanescent waves into propagating waves, has emerged as a novel approach to far-field imaging. Here, we report the fabrication of a spherical hyperlens composed of alternating silver (Ag) and titanium oxide (TiO2) thin layers...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930986/low-pressure-vapor-assisted-solution-process-for-tunable-band-gap-pinhole-free-methylammonium-lead-halide-perovskite-films
#16
Carolin M Sutter-Fella, Yanbo Li, Nicola Cefarin, Aya Buckley, Quynh Phuong Ngo, Ali Javey, Ian D Sharp, Francesca M Toma
Organo-lead halide perovskites have recently attracted great interest for potential applications in thin-film photovoltaics and optoelectronics. Herein, we present a protocol for the fabrication of this material via the low-pressure vapor assisted solution process (LP-VASP) method, which yields ~19% power conversion efficiency in planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. First, we report the synthesis of methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I) and methylammonium bromide (CH3NH3Br) from methylamine and the corresponding halide acid (HI or HBr)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930957/clot-dynamics-and-mortality-the-ma-r-ratio
#17
Stephanie A Savage, Ben L Zarzaur, Timothy H Pohlman, Brian L Brewer, Louis J Magnotti, Martin A Croce, Garrett H Lim, Ali C Martin
INTRODUCTION: The coagulopathy of trauma, illustrated by a short R-time, is common and well understood. The physiology behind this may be early thrombin burst with rapid clot formation. Rapid consumption of fibrinogen, however, may result in weak clot and substrate depletion, resulting in low MA. While these characteristics are interesting, utilizing thromboelastography (TEG) to identify those at risk of subsequent bleeding diathesis, especially in those who do not demonstrate early signs of physiologic derangement, is challenging...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930871/reliability-and-measurement-error-of-tensiomyography-to-assess-mechanical-muscle-function-a-systematic-review
#18
Saúl Martín-Rodríguez, Irineu Loturco, Angus M Hunter, David Rodríguez-Ruiz, Diego Munguia-Izquierdo
Interest in studying mechanical skeletal muscle function through tensiomyography (TMG) has increased in recent years. This systematic review aimed to (a) report the reliability and measurement error of all TMG parameters [i.e., maximum radial displacement of the muscle belly (Dm), contraction time (Tc), delay time (Td), half-relaxation time (½ Tr), and sustained contraction time (Ts)] and (b) to provide critical reflection on how to perform accurate and appropriate measurements for informing clinicians, exercise professionals, and researchers...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930861/targeted-gene-panel-sequencing-for-early-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-chronic-diarrhea
#19
Britt-Sabina Petersen, Dietrich August, Renate Abt, Moudjahed Alddafari, Lida Atarod, Safa Baris, Hemant Bhavsar, Florian Brinkert, Mary Buchta, Alla Bulashevska, Ronnie Chee, Ana I Cordeiro, Naghi Dara, Gregor Dückers, Aisha Elmarsafy, Natalie Frede, Nermeen Galal, Patrick Gerner, Erik-Oliver Glocker, Sigune Goldacker, Jutta Hammermann, Peter Hasselblatt, Zuzana Havlicekova, Katrin Hübscher, Milos Jesenak, Neslihan E Karaca, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Mahboubeh M Kharaghani, Sara S Kilic, Ayca Kiykim, Christoph Klein, Christian Klemann, Robin Kobbe, Daniel Kotlarz, Martin W Laass, T Ronan Leahy, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Sally Mitton, João F Neves, Birol Öztürk, Luis F Pereira, Jan Rohr, Jessica L R Restrepo, Gunda Ruzaike, Nadia Saleh, Suranjith Seneviratne, Ebru Senol, Carsten Speckmann, Daniel Tegtmeyer, Paul Thankam, Jutte van der Werff Ten Bosch, Horst von Bernuth, Sebastian Zeissig, Yvonne Zeissig, Andre Franke, Bodo Grimbacher
BACKGROUND: In contrast to adult-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), where many genetic loci have been shown to be involved in complex disease etiology, early-onset IBD (eoIBD) and associated syndromes can sometimes present as monogenic conditions. As a result, the clinical phenotype and ideal disease management in these patients often differ from those in adult-onset IBD. However, due to high costs and the complexity of data analysis, high-throughput screening for genetic causes has not yet become a standard part of the diagnostic work-up of eoIBD patients...
September 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930796/navigating-t-cell-immunometabolism-in-transplantation
#20
Naoki Tanimine, Laurence A Turka, Bhavana Priyadharshini
Recently, a new discipline termed "immunometabolism" has transformed the field of immunology. It encompasses the study of the intrinsic metabolic pathways of different immune subsets and their impact on cellular fate and function. For instance, broadly speaking, pro-inflammatory cells depend upon glycolysis and glutamine oxidation while cells involved in anti-inflammatory response such as Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) utilize predominantly fatty acid oxidation. However, while a useful paradigm, this actually is a reductionist view and the engagement of these metabolic pathways is not mutually exclusive between these subsets...
September 19, 2017: Transplantation
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