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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088099/protein-templated-synthesis-of-metal-based-nanomaterials
#1
REVIEW
Arnout Rd Voet, Jeremy Rh Tame
There is currently intense interest in using protein scaffolds to prepare uniform nanometre-sized clusters of metals or other inorganic material for use as sensors, imaging agents, drugs, magnetic materials or catalysts. Non-templated chemical synthesis of such clusters often results in a product of variable size and quality, but protein molecules have proved adept at nucleating and stabilizing precise nanoclusters of various kinds. Although much research has focused on natural proteins, such as the iron-storage protein ferritin, recent developments in protein design have allowed entirely novel, symmetrical proteins to be used as templates for the first time...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088096/mycelium-transformation-of-streptomyces-toxytricini-into-pellet-role-of-culture-conditions-and-kinetics
#2
Punit Kumar, Kashyap Kumar Dubey
The present study envisages the role of different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, metals, pH, inoculum volume and agitation rate in pellet formation of S. toxytricini at shake-flask level. It was found that galactose, ammonium sulphate, sodium nitrate, Cu(2+), Zn(2+), higher inoculum volume (5% v/v) and agitation rate at 300rpm caused significant reduction in pellet size (up to the range of 30μm-0.5mm) but biomass formations was also reduced subsequently. Interestingly diffused type of morphology was obtained in Fe(2+) supplemented medium with reduced biomass (1...
January 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088094/organ-on-a-chip-for-assessing-environmental-toxicants
#3
REVIEW
Soohee Cho, Jeong-Yeol Yoon
Man-made xenobiotics, whose potential toxicological effects are not fully understood, are oversaturating the already-contaminated environment. Due to the rate of toxicant accumulation, unmanaged disposal, and unknown adverse effects to the environment and the human population, there is a crucial need to screen for environmental toxicants. Animal models and in vitro models are ineffective models in predicting in vivo responses due to inter-species difference and/or lack of physiologically-relevant 3D tissue environment...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088076/in%C3%A2-vivo-visualization-of-endogenous-mir-21-using-hyaluronic-acid-coated-graphene-oxide-for-targeted-cancer-therapy
#4
Do Won Hwang, Han Young Kim, Fangyuan Li, Ji Yong Park, Dohyun Kim, Jae Hyung Park, Hwa Seung Han, Jung Woo Byun, Yun-Sang Lee, Jae Min Jeong, Kookheon Char, Dong Soo Lee
Oncogene-targeted nucleic acid therapy has been spotlighted as a new paradigm for cancer therapeutics. However, in vivo delivery issues and uncertainty of therapeutic antisense drug reactions remain critical hurdles for a successful targeted cancer therapy. In this study, we developed a fluorescence-switchable theranostic nanoplatform using hyaluronic acid (HA)-conjugated graphene oxide (GO), which is capable of both sensing oncogenic miR-21 and inhibiting its tumorigenicity simultaneously. Cy3-labeled antisense miR-21 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes loaded onto HA-GO (HGP21) specifically targeted CD44-positive MBA-MB231 cells and showed fluorescence recovery by interacting with endogenous miR-21 in the cytoplasm of the MBA-MB231 cells...
December 31, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088060/life-cycle-analysis-of-mitigation-methodologies-for-railway-rolling-noise-and-groundbourne-vibration
#5
Mariana Valente Tuler, Sakdirat Kaewunruen
Negative outcomes such as noise and vibration generated by railways have become a challenge for both industry and academia in order to guarantee that the railway system can accomplish its purposes and at the same time provide comfort for users and people living in the neighbourhood along the railway corridor. The research interest on this field has been increasing and the advancement in noise and vibration mitigation methodologies can be observed using various engineering techniques that are constantly put into test to solve such effects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088032/oral-cannabidiol-does-not-produce-a-signal-for-abuse-liability-in-frequent-marijuana-smokers
#6
Shanna Babalonis, Margaret Haney, Robert J Malcolm, Michelle R Lofwall, Victoria R Votaw, Steven Sparenborg, Sharon L Walsh
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of the marijuana plant. In the past few years, there has been great interest in the therapeutic effects of isolated CBD and it is currently being explored for numerous disease conditions (e.g., pain, epilepsy, cancer, various drug dependencies). However, CBD remains a Schedule I drug on the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Despite its status, there are no well-controlled data available regarding its abuse liability...
December 14, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088000/efficient-degradation-of-butylparaben-by-gamma-radiolysis
#7
Jhimli Paul Guin, Y K Bhardwaj, Lalit Varshney
Gamma radiolysis and ozonolysis are two competitive advanced oxidation processes for degradation of organic pollutants present in the ground water. In this paper, the gamma radiolytic degradation of an emerging organic pollutant Butylparaben (BP) in aqueous solution has been investigated for the first time at different absorbed doses. The effect of the absorbed dose rate in the degradation and mineralization of BP has been investigated. About 65% mineralization of BP was observed at absorbed dose of 70kGy and dose rate of 0...
December 24, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087942/the-mutualistic-interaction-between-plants-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#8
Luisa Lanfranco, Paola Bonfante, Andrea Genre
Mycorrhizal fungi belong to several taxa and develop mutualistic symbiotic associations with over 90% of all plant species, from liverworts to angiosperms. While descriptive approaches have dominated the initial studies of these fascinating symbioses, the advent of molecular biology, live cell imaging, and "omics" techniques have provided new and powerful tools to decipher the cellular and molecular mechanisms that rule mutualistic plant-fungus interactions. In this article we focus on the most common mycorrhizal association, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), which is formed by a group of soil fungi belonging to Glomeromycota...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087808/identification-of-a-novel-liver-x-receptor-agonist-that-regulates-the-expression-of-key-cholesterol-homeostasis-genes-with-distinct-pharmacological-characteristics
#9
Ni Li, Xiao Wang, Yanni Xu, Yuan Lin, Ningyu Zhu, Peng Liu, Duo Lu, Shuyi Si
Activation of Liver X receptor (LXR) is associated with cholesterol metabolism and anti-inflammatory processes, which makes beneficial to anti-atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, existing agonists which target LXR, for example TO901317, are related to unwanted side-effects. In the present study, using a screening method we identified IMB-808, which displayed potent dual LXRα/β agonistic activity. In vitro, IMB-808 effectively increased the expressing quantity of genes related to reverse cholesterol transport process as well as those associated with cholesterol metabolism pathway in multiple cell lines...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087784/interactions-between-zinc-and-allosteric-modulators-of-the-glycine-receptor
#10
Garrett L Cornelison, Anna W Daszkowski, Natasha C Pflanz, S John Mihic
The glycine receptor is a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel involved in fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Zinc is an allosteric modulator of glycine receptor function, enhancing the effects of glycine at nM to low μM concentrations, and inhibiting its effects at higher concentrations. Low nM concentrations of contaminating zinc in electrophysiological buffers are capable of synergistically enhancing receptor modulation by other compounds such as ethanol. This suggests that, unless accounted for, previous studies of glycine receptor modulation were measuring the effects of modulator plus co-modulation by zinc on receptor function...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087776/seed-plant-specific-gene-lineages-involved-in-carpel-development
#11
Kai C Pfannebecker, Matthias Lange, Oliver Rupp, Annette Becker
Evolutionary innovations are important drivers of speciation and some are the defining characters of entire phyla. One such major innovation is the carpel, the unifying character and most complex plant organ, composed of many clearly distinct tissue types to ensure reproductive success. The origin of the carpel is unknown, but many components of the gene regulatory network (GRN) governing carpel development and their genetic interactions are known from the core eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana To unravel the evolution of the carpel GRN and to discriminate between "early" and "late" steps in carpel evolution we calculated thorough phylogeny reconstructions based on sequenced genomes...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087771/genome-wide-convergence-during-evolution-of-mangroves-from-woody-plants
#12
Shaohua Xu, Ziwen He, Zixiao Guo, Zhang Zhang, Gerald J Wyckoff, Anthony Greenberg, Chung-I Wu, Suhua Shi
When living organisms independently invade a new environment, the evolution of similar phenotypic traits is often observed. An interesting but contentious issue is whether the underlying molecular biology also converges in the new habitat. Independent invasions of tropical intertidal zones by woody plants, collectively referred to as mangrove trees, represent some dramatic examples. The high salinity, hypoxia and other stressors in the new habitat might have affected both genomic features and protein structures...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#13
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087720/a-liminal-stage-after-predictive-testing-for-huntington-disease
#14
Marcela Gargiulo, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel, Marie France Jutras, Ariane Herson, Cecile Cazeneuve, Alexandra Durr
BACKGROUND: Following predictive testing for Huntington disease (HD), knowledge of one's carrier status may have consequences on disease onset. Our study aimed to address two questions. First, does knowledge of being a carrier of the pathological HD mutation trigger onset of the disease? Second, does this knowledge influence self-awareness and allow carriers to identify signs and symptoms of disease onset? METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 75 HD mutation carriers were examined using the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor score...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087712/pdx1-dynamically-regulates-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-initiation-and-maintenance
#15
Nilotpal Roy, Kenneth K Takeuchi, Jeanine M Ruggeri, Peter Bailey, David Chang, Joey Li, Laura Leonhardt, Sapna Puri, Megan T Hoffman, Shan Gao, Christopher J Halbrook, Yan Song, Mats Ljungman, Shivani Malik, Christopher V E Wright, David W Dawson, Andrew V Biankin, Matthias Hebrok, Howard C Crawford
Aberrant activation of embryonic signaling pathways is frequent in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), making developmental regulators therapeutically attractive. Here we demonstrate diverse functions for pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), a transcription factor indispensable for pancreas development, in the progression from normal exocrine cells to metastatic PDA. We identify a critical role for PDX1 in maintaining acinar cell identity, thus resisting the formation of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN)-derived PDA...
December 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087674/yeast-as-a-tool-to-express-sugar-acid-transporters-with-biotechnological-interest
#16
David Ribas, Joana Sá-Pessoa, Isabel Soares-Silva, Sandra Paiva, Yvonne Nygård, Laura Ruohonen, Merja Penttilä, Margarida Casal
Sugar acids can be used as platform chemicals to generate primary building blocks of industrially relevant products. Microbial production of these organic compounds at high yields requires the engineering of the enzymatic machinery and the presence of plasma membrane transporters able to export them outside the cells. In this study several yeast carboxylic acid transporters belonging to the Jen family were screened for the transport of biotechnologically relevant sugar acids, namely gluconic, saccharic, mucic, xylaric and xylonic acid, and functionally characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae We show that Jen permeases are capable of transporting most of these sugar acids, although with different specificities...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087657/european-consensus-conference-on-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-clinical-practice
#17
Giovanni Cammarota, Gianluca Ianiro, Herbert Tilg, Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović, Patrizia Kump, Reetta Satokari, Harry Sokol, Perttu Arkkila, Cristina Pintus, Ailsa Hart, Jonathan Segal, Marina Aloi, Luca Masucci, Antonio Molinaro, Franco Scaldaferri, Giovanni Gasbarrini, Antonio Lopez-Sanroman, Alexander Link, Pieter de Groot, Willem M de Vos, Christoph Högenauer, Peter Malfertheiner, Eero Mattila, Tomica Milosavljević, Max Nieuwdorp, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Magnus Simren, Antonio Gasbarrini
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for Clostridium difficile infection. Promising findings suggest that FMT may play a role also in the management of other disorders associated with the alteration of gut microbiota. Although the health community is assessing FMT with renewed interest and patients are becoming more aware, there are technical and logistical issues in establishing such a non-standardised treatment into the clinical practice with safety and proper governance...
January 13, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087651/frontline-science-multiple-cathepsins-promote-inflammasome-independent-particle-induced-cell-death-during-nlrp3-dependent-il-1%C3%AE-activation
#18
Gregory M Orlowski, Shruti Sharma, Jeff D Colbert, Matthew Bogyo, Stephanie A Robertson, Hiroshi Kataoka, Francis K Chan, Kenneth L Rock
Sterile particles cause several chronic, inflammatory diseases, characterized by repeating cycles of particle phagocytosis and inflammatory cell death. Recent studies have proposed that these processes are driven by the NLRP3 inflammasome, a platform activated by phagocytosed particles, which controls both caspase-1-dependent cell death (pyroptosis) and mature IL-1β secretion. After phagocytosis, particles can disrupt lysosomes, and inhibitor studies have suggested that the resulting release of a lysosomal protease-cathepsin B-into the cytosol somehow activates NLRP3...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087639/vegfd-modulates-both-angiogenesis-and-lymphangiogenesis-during-zebrafish-embryonic-development
#19
Neil I Bower, Adam J Vogrin, Ludovic Le Guen, Huijun Chen, Steven A Stacker, Marc G Achen, Benjamin M Hogan
Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) control angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during development and in pathological conditions. In the zebrafish trunk, Vegfa controls the formation of intersegmental arteries by primary angiogenesis and Vegfc is essential for secondary angiogenesis, the formation of veins and lymphatics. VEGFD has been largely thought of as dispensable for vascular development in vertebrates. Here, we generated a zebrafish vegfd mutant by genome editing. vegfd mutants display significant defects in facial lymphangiogenesis independent of vegfc function...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087635/rb-controls-growth-survival-and-neuronal-migration-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#20
Takeshi Matsui, Vanesa Nieto-Estévez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Jay W Schneider, Jenny Hsieh
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a tumor suppressor gene which regulates cell cycle entry to S phase via E2F transcription factors. Using knockout (KO) mice, it has been described that Rb plays a role in cell migration and differentiation in developing and adult brain as well as apoptosis. In addition, the RB family is required for the self-renewal and survival of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, little is known about the role of this gene in human brain development. Here, we investigated the role of RB in cerebral organoids from human ESCs deficient for RB...
January 13, 2017: Development
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