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NADPH oxidase

Naif O Al-Harbi, Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Moureq R Alotaibi, Abdullah F AlAsmari, Wael A Alanazi, Mohammad M Al-Harbi, Ahmad M El-Sherbeeny, Khalid E Ibrahim
Sepsis affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). Innate and adaptive immune cells have been shown to play an important role in AKI through release of various inflammatory mediators which include reactive oxidant species (ROS). Acetate, a short chain fatty acid produced by gut bacteria has anti-inflammatory properties and has also been shown to modulate oxidative stress in different immune cells. Effects of acetate have been shown to be both GPR43 dependent and independent in different cells/tissues...
March 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Laura Lopez-Sanz, Susana Bernal, Carlota Recio, Iolanda Lazaro, Ainhoa Oguiza, Ana Melgar, Luna Jimenez-Castilla, Jesus Egido, Carmen Gomez-Guerrero
Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or impaired antioxidant defenses is closely related to the development of diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy and atherosclerosis. Chronic activation of Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway contributes to diabetic complications by inducing expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of endogenous JAK/STAT regulators is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Fan Wu, Jinying Zhang
Epidemiological studies have confirmed that ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the underlying mechanisms in PM2.5 exposure-induced heart injury are largely unknown. It has been acknowledged that NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4 plays a critical role in CVD development. To investigate the acute effects of PM2.5 on the mouse heart and the role of Nox4 in PM2.5 exposure-induced cardiac injury, C57BL/6J mice were instilled with saline or 1.5, 3.0, 6...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Michelle N Goettge, Joel P Cioni, Kou-San Ju, Katharina Pallitsch, William W Metcalf
Several oxime-containing small molecules have useful properties, including antimicrobial, insecticidal, anticancer, and immunosuppressive activities. Phosphonocystoximate and its hydroxylated congener, hydroxyphosphonocystoximate, are recently discovered oxime-containing natural products produced by Streptomyces sp. NRRL S-481 and Streptomyces regensis NRRL WC-3744, respectively. The biosynthetic pathways for these two compounds are proposed to diverge at an early step in which 2-aminoethylphosphonate (2AEPn) is converted to (S)-1-hydroxy-2- aminoethylphosphonate ((S)-1H2AEPn) in S...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Uma Mahesh R Avula, Jonathan J Hernandez, Masatoshi Yamazaki, Carmen R Valdivia, Antony Chu, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Kuljeet Kaur, Roberto Ramos-Mondragón, Justus M Anumonwo, Stanley Nattel, Héctor H Valdivia, Jérôme Kalifa
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying spontaneous atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with atrial ischemia/infarction are incompletely elucidated. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underlying spontaneous AF in an ovine model of left atrial myocardial infarction (LAMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: LAMI was created by ligating the atrial branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. ECG loop recorders were implanted to monitor AF episodes. In 7 sheep, dantrolene-a ryanodine receptor blocker-was administered in vivo during the 8-day observation period (LAMI-D, 2...
March 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Silvia Revoltella, Giorgia Baraldo, Birgit Waltenberger, Stefan Schwaiger, Philipp Kofler, Julia Moesslacher, Astrid Huber-Seidel, Konrad Pagitz, Roland Kohl, Pidder Jansen-Duerr, Hermann Stuppner
NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) has recently been implicated as driving force in cellular senescence. Thus, there is growing interest to develop Nox4 inhibitors, which might be valuable agents for cosmeceutical applications. Alpine plants represent a valuable source for the identification of novel bioactive natural products with anti-ageing effects, especially substances that protect plants against UV radiation, which is also known to contribute to the ageing of human skin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel Nox4 inhibitors from alpine plants...
March 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Pasquale Pignatelli, Danilo Menichelli, Daniele Pastori, Francesco Violi
The role of oxidative stress in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis and its impact on the development of cardiovascular events has been widely described. Thus, an increased oxidative stress has been described in several atherosclerotic risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, peripheral artery disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. Among others, specific oxidative pathways involving both pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes seem to play a major role in the production of reactive oxidant species (ROS), such as NADPH oxidase, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase...
March 14, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
Qixiang Zhao, Zhiwei Liu, Bing Huang, Yanliang Yuan, Xiucheng Liu, Hu Zhang, Fan Qiu, Yiqian Zhang, Yufeng Li, Haoran Miao, Hongyan Dong, Zhongming Zhang
The prevention and management of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is an essential part of coronary heart disease surgery and is becoming a major clinical problem in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Previous studies by our group have demonstrated that pigment epithelium‑derived factor (PEDF) improves cardiac function in rats with acute myocardial infarction and reduces hypoxia‑induced cell injury. However, the protective function and mechanisms underlying the effect of PEDF in MI/R injury remain to be fully understood...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yunhuan Gao, Tiantian Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Yuan Zhang, Rongcun Yang
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are major regulators of immune responses in cancer. Both C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and C/EBPβ play a critical role in regulating immunosuppressive function of MDSCs. In this study, we identified a novel long noncoding RNA termed as lnc-chop in MDSCs, which may interact with CHOP and the C/EBPβ isoform liver-enriched inhibitory protein. The binding of lnc-chop with both CHOP and the C/EBPβ isoform liver-enriched inhibitory protein promoted the activation of C/EBPβ and upregulated the expression of arginase-1, NO synthase 2, NADPH oxidase 2, and cyclooxygenase-2, which are related to the immunosuppressive function of MDSCs in inflammatory and tumor environments...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Rima S Zahr, Prasanthi Chappa, Hong Yin, Lou A Brown, Kenneth I Ataga, David R Archer
Recent studies have demonstrated pleiotropic effects of statins in various mouse models of kidney disease. In this study, Townes humanized sickle cell mice were treated for 8 weeks with atorvastatin at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day starting at 10 weeks of age. Treatment with atorvastatin significantly reduced albuminuria, and improved both urine concentrating ability and glomerular filtration rate. Atorvastatin also decreased markers of kidney injury and endothelial activation, and ameliorated oxidant stress in renal tissues and peripheral macrophages...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Ying Huang, Gui-Quan Cai, Jian-Ping Peng, Chao Shen
Based on the results from our previous study, dexamethasone (Dex) increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and subsequently induces cell death and matrix catabolism in chondrocytes. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NADPH) oxidase 4 (NOX4) is one of the major enzymes responsible for intracellular ROS production during the inflammatory process. The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of NOX4 in Dex-induced ROS over-production...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nathalie Lejal, Sandrine Truchet, Edna Bechor, Edwige Bouguyon, Vijay Khedkar, Nicolas Bertho, Jasmina Vidic, Pierre Adenot, Stéphanie Solier, Edgar Pick, Anny Slama-Schwok
BACKGROUND: Targeting cells of the host immune system is a promising approach to fight against Influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Macrophage cells use the NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2) enzymatic complex as a first line of defense against pathogens by generating superoxide ions O2 - and releasing H2 O2 . Herein, we investigated whether targeting membrane -embedded NOX2 decreased IAV entry via raft domains and reduced inflammation in infected macrophages. METHODS: Confocal microscopy and western blots monitored levels of the viral nucleoprotein NP and p67phox , NOX2 activator subunit, Elisa assays quantified TNF-α levels in LPS or IAV-activated mouse or porcine alveolar macrophages pretreated with a fluorescent NOX inhibitor, called nanoshutter NS1...
March 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Romina M Lasagni Vitar, Julia Tau, Natasha S Janezic, Agustina I Tesone, Ailen G Hvozda Arana, Claudia G Reides, Alejandro Berra, Sandra M Ferreira, Susana F Llesuy
The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory mediators in human conjunctival epithelial cells (IOBA-NHC) exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) for 1, 3, and 24 h. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid and protein oxidation, Nrf2 pathway activation, enzymatic antioxidants, glutathione (GSH) levels and synthesis, as well as cytokine release and cell proliferation were analyzed. Cells exposed to DEP showed an increase in ROS at all time points...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
L de Bari, M Favia, A Bobba, R Lassandro, L Guerra, A Atlante
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated to impaired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) channel also causing decreased glutathione (GSH) secretion, defective airway bacterial clearance and inflammation. Here we checked the main ROS-producing and ROS-scavenging enzymes as potential additional factors involved in CF pathogenesis. We found that CFBE41o-cells, expressing F508del CFTR, have increased NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity and expression level, mainly responsible of the increased ROS production, and decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, not dependent on GR protein level decrease...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Arnau Hervera, Francesco De Virgiliis, Ilaria Palmisano, Luming Zhou, Elena Tantardini, Guiping Kong, Thomas Hutson, Matt C Danzi, Rotem Ben-Tov Perry, Celio X C Santos, Alexander N Kapustin, Roland A Fleck, José Antonio Del Río, Thomas Carroll, Vance Lemmon, John L Bixby, Ajay M Shah, Mike Fainzilber, Simone Di Giovanni
In the version of this Article originally published, the affiliations for Roland A. Fleck and José Antonio Del Río were incorrect due to a technical error that resulted in affiliations 8 and 9 being switched. The correct affiliations are: Roland A. Fleck:8 Centre for Ultrastructural Imaging, Kings College London, London, UK. José Antonio Del Río:2 Cellular and Molecular Neurobiotechnology, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain;9 Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain;10 Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Barcelona, Spain...
March 8, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Razieh Rabani, Allen Volchuk, Mirjana Jerkic, Lindsay Ormesher, Linda Garces-Ramirez, Johnathan Canton, Claire Masterson, Stephane Gagnon, Kate C Tatham, John Marshall, Sergio Grinstein, John G Laffey, Katalin Szaszi, Gerard F Curley
Human Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs) have been reported to produce an M2-like, alternatively activated phenotype in macrophages. In addition, MSCs mediate effective bacterial clearance in pre-clinical sepsis models. Thus, MSCs have a paradoxical anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory response that is not understood. Here we studied the phenotypic and functional response of monocyte-derived human macrophages to MSC exposure in vitro MSCs induced two distinct, co-existent phenotypes: M2-like macrophages (generally elongated morphology, CD163 positive, acute phagosomal acidification, low NADPH oxidase expression and low phagosomal superoxide production) and M1-like macrophages, characterised by high levels of phagosomal superoxide production...
March 8, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Ákos M Lőrincz, Viktória Szeifert, Balázs Bartos, Erzsébet Ligeti
Techniques currently used for assessment of bacterial count or growth are time-consuming, offer low throughput, or they are complicated or expensive. The aim of the present work was to elaborate a new method that is able to detect the antibacterial effect of cells, subcellular particles, and soluble compounds in a fast, cost, and labor effective way. Our proposed technique is based on flow cytometry (FC) optimized for detection of small particles and on fluorescently labeled bacteria. It allows direct determination of the bacterial count in 3 hours...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Sonia Emanuele, Antonella D'Anneo, Giuseppe Calvaruso, Cesare Cernigliaro, Michela Giuliano, Marianna Lauricella
The intracellular redox state in the cell depends on the balance between the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of defensive systems including antioxidant enzymes. This balance is a dynamic process that can change in relation to many factors and/or stimuli induced within the cell. ROS production is derived from physiological metabolic events. For instance, mitochondria represent the major ROS sources during oxidative phosphorylation, but other systems, such as NADPH oxidase or specific enzymes in certain metabolisms, may account for ROS production as well...
March 7, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Yong Liang, Jing Xu, Yu Wang, Jia-Yu Tang, Song-Lin Yang, Hong-Guang Xiang, Shi-Xing Wu, Xiao-Juan Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involves multiple independently fatal terminal pathways. CK2α/NADPH oxidase is an important signaling pathway associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury, and miR-125b can regulate oxidative stress-related injury. In this study, we investigated whether the effect of miR-125b in rat brain I/R injury occurs through its modulation of the CK2α/NADPH oxidase pathway. METHODS: Rats were subjected to 2 h of cerebral ischemia followed by 24 h of reperfusion to establish an I/R injury model...
February 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ceyda Ozfidan-Konakci, Evren Yildiztugay, Mustafa Bahtiyar, Mustafa Kucukoduk
The using of bio-stimulant in plants grown under stress conditions for enhancing nutrition efficiency and crop quality traits is an effective approach. One of the bio-stimulants, humus material, is defined as humic acid (HA). HA application as a promotion of plant growth to plants grown in the heavy metals-contaminated soils has promised hope in terms of effects on plants but the its limiting effect is the application dose. Therefore, the wheat seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 d and the various concentrations of humic acid (HA; 750 or 1500 mg L-1 ) were treated alone or in combination with cadmium (Cd) stress (100 or 200 μM) for 7 d...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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