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NADPH oxidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351482/suppression-of-gut-dysbiosis-reverses-western-diet-induced-vascular-dysfunction
#1
Micah L Battson, Dustin M Lee, Dillon K Jarrell, Shuofei Hou, Kayl E Ecton, Tiffany L Weir, Christopher L Gentile
OBJECTIVE: Vascular dysfunction represents a critical pre-clinical step in the development of cardiovascular disease. We examined the role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity-related vascular dysfunction. Approach and Results. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard diet (SD) (n=12) or western diet (WD) (n=24) for 5m, after which time, WD mice were randomized to receive either un-supplemented drinking water or water containing a broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail (WD+Abx) (n=12/group) for 2m...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350998/overexpression-of-the-neuronal-human-pro-renin-receptor-mediates-angiotensin-ii-independent-blood-pressure-regulation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
Hua Peng, Dane D Jensen, Wencheng Li, Michelle N Sullivan, Sophie A Buller, Caleb J Worker, Silvana G Cooper, Shiqi Zheng, Scott Earley, Curt D Sigmund, Yumei Feng
Despite advances in anti-hypertensive therapeutics, at least 15-20% of hypertensive patients have resistant hypertension through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. In this study, we provide a new mechanism for regulation of blood pressure (BP) in the central nervous system (CNS) by the (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a recently identified component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that mediates angiotensin II (Ang II) formation in the CNS. Although the PRR also mediates Ang II-independent signaling, the importance of these pathways in BP regulation is unknown...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350405/reactive-oxygen-species-induced-parthanatos-of-immunocytes-by-human-cytomegalovirus-associated-substance
#3
Jung Heon Kim, Jiyeon Kim, Jin Roh, Chan-Sik Park, Ju-Young Seoh, Eung-Soo Hwang
Previous studies examined various immune evasion strategies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to understand HCMV pathogenesis. Although the mechanism that underlies immunocyte destruction near HCMV-infected lesions has yet to be established, we show that substances produced by HCMV-infected cells induce death in several types of immunocytes, but not in fibroblasts or astrocytomas. These substances contain HCMV proteins and were termed HCMV-associated insoluble substance (HCMVAIS). We characterized this mechanism of cell death induced by HCMVAIS to understand the death of immunocytes near HCMV-infected lesions...
January 19, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349831/aortic-dysfunction-in-metabolic-syndrome-mediated-by-perivascular-adipose-tissue-tnf%C3%AE-and-nox2-dependent-pathway
#4
Evan DeVallance, Kayla W Branyan, Kent Lemaster, I Mark Olfert, David M Smith, Emidio E Pistilli, Jefferson C Frisbee, Paul D Chantler
AIMS: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is recognized for its vaso-active effects, however it's unclear how Metabolic Syndrome impact thoracic-aorta (t)PVAT and the subsequent effect on functional and structural aortic stiffness. METHODS & RESULTS: Thoracic aorta and tPVAT were removed from 16-17 week old lean (LZR, n = 16) and obese Zucker (OZR, n = 16) rats. OZR presented with aortic endothelial dysfunction, assessed by wire-myography, and increased aortic stiffness, assessed by elastic modulus...
January 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343259/influence-of-apocynin-on-cardiac-remodeling-in-rats-with-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#5
R Gimenes, C Gimenes, C M Rosa, N P Xavier, D H S Campos, A A H Fernandes, M D M Cezar, G N Guirado, L U Pagan, I D Chaer, D C Fernandes, F R Laurindo, A C Cicogna, M P Okoshi, K Okoshi
BACKGROUND: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important mechanism leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy. Apocynin, a drug isolated from the herb Picrorhiza kurroa, is considered an antioxidant agent by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity and improving ROS scavenging. This study analyzed the influence of apocynin on cardiac remodeling in diabetic rats. METHODS: Six-month-old male Wistar rats were assigned into 4 groups: control (CTL, n = 15), control + apocynin (CTL + APO, n = 20), diabetes (DM, n = 20), and diabetes + apocynin (DM + APO, n = 20)...
January 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342889/a-case-control-study-of-the-genetic-variability-in-reactive-oxygen-species-metabolizing-enzymes-in-melanoma-risk
#6
Tze-An Yuan, Vandy Yourk, Ali Farhat, Argyrios Ziogas, Frank L Meyskens, Hoda Anton-Culver, Feng Liu-Smith
Recent studies have shown that ultraviolet (UV)-induced chemiexcitation of melanin fragments leads to DNA damage; and chemiexcitation of melanin fragments requires reactive oxygen species (ROS), as ROS excite an electron in the melanin fragments. In addition, ROS also cause DNA damages on their own. We hypothesized that ROS producing and metabolizing enzymes were major contributors in UV-driven melanomas. In this case-control study of 349 participants, we genotyped 23 prioritized single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases 1 and 4 (NOX1 and NOX4, respectively), CYBA, RAC1, superoxide dismutases (SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3) and catalase (CAT), and analyzed their associated melanoma risk...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339659/fc%C3%AE-r-ros-ck2%C3%AE-is-the-key-inducer-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-a-murine-model-of-asthma
#7
June-Mo Kim, Hae-Kyoung Kim, Yoo-Na Im, Yun-Soo Bae, Suhn-Young Im, Hern-Ku Lee
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB plays a pivotal role in the development of allergic airway inflammation. However, the mechanism of NF-κB activation in asthma remains to be elucidated. METHODS: CK2α activation was assessed by CK2α phosphorylation and protein expression. Airway levels of histamine and cytokines were determined by ELISA. We used 2 (active and passive) forms of allergic pulmonary inflammation models. In the active form, the animals were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) intraperitoneally, followed by an airway challenge with OVA...
January 17, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337194/fasudil-ameliorates-the-ischemia-reperfusion-oxidative-injury-in-rat-hearts-through-suppression-of-myosin-regulatory-light-chain-nadph-oxidase-2-pathway
#8
Yi-Shuai Zhang, Li-Jing Tang, Hua Tu, Shi-Jing Wang, Bin Liu, Xiao-Jie Zhang, Nian-Sheng Li, Xiu-Ju Luo, Jun Peng
Fasudil is a potent Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor and can relax smooth muscle or cardiac muscle contraction through decreasing the phosphorylation level of myosin regulatory light chain (p-MLC20 or p-MLC2v), while p-MLC2v can function as a transcription factor to promote the NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expression in rat hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). This study aims to explore whether fasudil can protect the rat hearts against I/R oxidative injury through suppressing NOX2 expression via reduction of p-MLC2v level...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336716/reactive-oxygen-species-nitric-oxide-production-and-antioxidant-gene-expression-during-development-of-aerenchyma-formation-in-wheat
#9
Aakanksha Wany, Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta
In response to hypoxia, plant roots produce very high levels of nitric oxide. Recently, it was demonstrated that NO and ethylene both are essential for development of aerenchyma in wheat roots under hypoxia. Increased NO under hypoxia correlated with induction of NADPH oxidase gene expression, ROS production and lipid peroxidation in cortical cells. Tyrosine nitration was prominent in cells developing aerenchyma suggesting that NO and ROS play a key role in development of aerenchyma. However, the role of antioxidant genes during development of aerenchyma is not known, therefore, we checked gene expression of various antioxidants such as SOD1, AOX1A, APX and MnSOD at different time points after hypoxia treatment and found that expression of these genes elevated in 2 h but downregulated in 24 h where development of aerenchyma is prominent...
January 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336467/nox4-ros-mediate-ethanol%C3%A2-induced-apoptosis-via-mapk-signal-pathway-in-l%C3%A2-02-cells
#10
Cheng-Fang Yang, Yu-Juan Zhong, Zuheng Ma, Li Li, Lin Shi, Li Chen, Chen Li, Dan Wu, Qi Chen, Yong-Wen Li
The aim of the present study was to assess the molecular mechanism of ethanol‑induced oxidative stress‑mediated apoptosis in L‑02 liver cells in order to elucidate novel pathways associated with alcoholic liver disease. L‑02 cells were treated with 400 mM ethanol with or without inhibitors. The cell viability was measured by an MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and a single‑stranded DNA (ssDNA) assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of L‑02 cells was determined using the 2',7'‑dichlorofluorescein‑diacetate dye...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336033/h2-o2-mediates-nitrate-induced-iron-chlorosis-by-regulating-iron-homeostasis-in-rice
#11
Haifei Chen, Quan Zhang, Hongmei Cai, Wei Zhou, Fangsen Xu
The uptake of nitrate by plant roots causes a pH increment in rhizosphere and leads to iron (Fe) deficiency in rice. However, little is known about the mechanism how the nitrate uptake-induced high rhizosphere pH causes Fe deficiency. Here, we found that rice showed severe leaf chlorosis and large amounts of Fe plaque were aggregated on the root surface and intercellular space outside the exodermis in a form of ferrihydrite under alkaline conditions. In this case, there was significantly decreased Fe concentration in shoots and the Fe deficiency responsive genes were strongly induced in the roots...
January 16, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334762/altered-redox-state-modulates-endothelial-kca2-3-and-kca3-1-levels-in-normal-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#12
Shinkyu Choi, Ji Aee Kim, Hai-Yan Li, Sae-Jin Lee, Ye Seon Seok, Tae Hun Kim, Ki-Hwan Han, Mi Hye Park, Geum Joon Cho, Suk Hyo Suh
AIMS: Altered redox state has been related to the development of normal pregnancy (NP) and preeclampsia (PE). Endothelial KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 (KCas) play an important role in vasodilation, and KCas levels are affected by oxidative stress. We investigated the mechanisms of oxidative stress-mediated KCas expression modulation during NP and PE. RESULTS: Human uterine microvascular endothelial cells were incubated in serum from normal non-pregnant women (n=13) and women with NP (n=24) or PE (n=15), or in VEGF, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), progesterone, or estradiol-17-containing medium for 24 hours...
January 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331982/a-false-carrier-state-for-the-c-579g-a-mutation-in-the-ncf1-gene-in-ashkenazi-jews
#13
Martin De Boer, Ronit Gavrieli, Karin van Leeuwen, Haike Reznik Wolf, Maya Dushnitzki, Yifaat Bar-Yosef, Anat Bar-Ziv, Doron Behar, Shlomo Lipitz, Tal Elkan Miller, Anton T J Tool, Taco W Kuijpers, Timo K van den Berg, Baruch Wolach, Dirk Roos, Elon Pras
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the NCF1 gene that encodes p47phox, a subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, cause chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). In Kavkazi Jews, a c.579G>A (p.Trp193Ter) mutation in NCF1 is frequently found, leading to CGD. The same mutation is found in about 1% of Ashkenazi Jews, although Ashkenazi CGD patients with this mutation have never been described. METHODS: We used Sanger sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), gene scan analysis and Ion Torrent Next Generation Sequencing for genetic analysis, and measured NADPH oxidase activity and p47phox expression...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331880/preventive-effects-of-indole-3-carbinol-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice-via-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-role-of-gut-liver-adipose-tissue-axis
#14
Youngshim Choi, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Byoung-Joon Song
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in Brassica family vegetables, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties. Here, we aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of I3C against ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury and study the protective mechanism(s) by using the well-established chronic-plus-binge alcohol exposure model. The preventive effects of I3C were evaluated by conducting various histological, biochemical, and real-time PCR analyses in mouse liver, adipose tissue, and colon, since functional alterations of adipose tissue and intestine can also participate in promoting EtOH-induced liver damage...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330095/crosstalk-between-rac1-mediated-actin-regulation-and-ros-production
#15
REVIEW
Alejandro Acevedo, Christian González-Billault
The small RhoGTPase Rac1 is implicated in a variety of events related to actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Remarkably, another event that is completely different from those related to actin regulation has the same relevance; the Rac1-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidases (NOX). Each outcome involves different Rac1 downstream effectors; on one hand, events related to the actin cytoskeleton require Rac1 to bind to WAVEs proteins and PAKs that ultimately promote actin branching and turnover, on the other, NOX-derived ROS production demands active Rac1 to be bound to a cytosolic activator of NOX...
January 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329924/effects-of-dark-chocolate-on-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#16
L Loffredo, F Baratta, P Ludovica, S Battaglia, R Carnevale, C Nocella, M Novo, G Pannitteri, F Ceci, F Angelico, F Violi, M Del Ben
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in inducing endothelial dysfunction and progression from simple fatty liver steatosis (FLD) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Polyphenols could reduce oxidative stress and restore endothelial function by inhibiting the nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate (NADPH) oxidase isoform Nox2. The aim of this study was to assess endothelial function and oxidative stress in a population affected by simple FLD and NASH. Furthermore, we analysed the effect of high vs low content of cocoa polyphenols on endothelial function and oxidative stress in patients with NASH...
November 13, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329393/tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-nadph-oxidase-4-dependent-oxidative-stress-promotes-colistin-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#17
Bo Young Jeong, Se-Ra Park, Sungkwon Cho, Seong-Lan Yu, Hoi Young Lee, Chang Gyo Park, Jaeku Kang, Da-Young Jung, Moon Hyang Park, Won-Min Hwang, Sung-Ro Yun, Ju-Young Jung, Se-Hee Yoon
Background: Colistin (polymyxin E) is an important constituent of the polymyxin class of cationic polypeptide antibiotics. Intrarenal oxidative stress can contribute to colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 3-phosphate oxidases (Noxs) are important sources of reactive oxygen species. Among the various types of Noxs, Nox4 is predominantly expressed in the kidney. Objectives: We investigated the role of Nox4 and benefit of Nox4 inhibition in colistin-induced acute kidney injury using in vivo and in vitro models...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329317/oxidative-stress-caused-by-activation-of-nadph-oxidase-4-promotes-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#18
Bo Young Jeong, Hoi Young Lee, Chang Gyo Park, Jaeku Kang, Seong-Lan Yu, Du-Ri Choi, Seung-Yun Han, Moon Hyang Park, Sungkwon Cho, Soo Young Lee, Won-Min Hwang, Sung-Ro Yun, Hye-Myung Ryu, Eun-Joo Oh, Sun-Hee Park, Yong-Lim Kim, Se-Hee Yoon
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury following radiographic procedures. Intrarenal oxidative stress plays a critical role in CIAKI. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 3-phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Noxs) are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the various types of Noxs, Nox4 is expressed predominantly in the kidney in rodents. Here, we evaluated the role of Nox4 and benefit of Nox4 inhibition on CIAKI using in vivo and in vitro models. HK-2 cells were treated with iohexol, with or without Nox4 knockdown, or the most specific Nox1/4 inhibitor (GKT137831)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329289/burkholderia-pseudomallei-modulates-host-iron-homeostasis-to-facilitate-iron-availability-and-intracellular-survival
#19
Imke H E Schmidt, Claudia Gildhorn, Martha A L Böning, Vera A Kulow, Ivo Steinmetz, Antje Bast
BACKGROUND: The control over iron homeostasis is critical in host-pathogen-interaction. Iron plays not only multiple roles for bacterial growth and pathogenicity, but also for modulation of innate immune responses. Hepcidin is a key regulator of host iron metabolism triggering degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. Although iron overload in humans is known to increase susceptibility to Burkholderia pseudomallei, it is unclear how the pathogen competes with the host for the metal during infection...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326065/hydrogen-sulfide-supplement-attenuates-the-apoptosis-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-experimental-glaucoma
#20
Shouyue Huang, Ping Huang, Zhongjing Lin, Xiaohong Liu, Xing Xu, Lei Guo, Xi Shen, Changwei Li, Yisheng Zhong
Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative eye diseases characterized by progressive impairment of visual function due to loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC). As hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was reported to play a role in the process of glaucomatous neuropathy and improve RGC survival in experimental glaucoma, the authors aimed to investigate the anti-apoptosis effect of H2S supplement in a rat glaucoma model, and further tried to explore the involved factors in the neuroprotection. A chronic ocular hypertension (COH) rat model induced by intracameral injection of cross-linking hydrogel was employed to simulate glaucoma and 288 rats were subjected to experimental procedures in the present study...
January 8, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
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