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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906570/randomized-placebo-controlled-phase-iii-trial-of-fosaprepitant-ondansetron-dexamethasone-fond-versus-fond-plus-olanzapine-fond-o-for-the-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-receiving-highly-emetogenic
#1
Amber B Clemmons, Julianne Orr, Benjamin Andrick, Arpita Gandhi, Claude Sportes, David DeRemer
Evidence supports olanzapine for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV) for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC); however, most studies focus on solid malignancies and single day regimens. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare addition of olanzapine to triplet therapy (fosaprepitant, ondansetron, dexamethasone; FOND-O) versus triplet therapy alone (FOND) in preventing CINV in hematology patients receiving single and multi-day HEC and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) regimens (NCT02635984)...
June 12, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905593/delivery-of-tdf-ftc-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-to-prevent-hiv-1-acquisition-in-young-adult-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-of-color-using-a-urine-adherence-assay
#2
Linden Lalley-Chareczko, Devon Clark, S Caitlin Conyngham, Athena Zuppa, Ganesh Moorthy, Karam Mounzer, Helen Koenig
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis(PrEP) for HIV prevention with daily TDF/FTC is effective when taken consistently. Currently, there is no objective way to monitor PrEP adherence. Urine has been shown to be highly correlated with plasma tenofovir levels, with urine tenofovir levels >1000ng/mL demonstrating recent(1-2 days) adherence to PrEP. SETTING: The present study was conducted at an urban community health center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. METHODS: PrEP was administered to 50 young men who have sex with men and transgender women of color using weekly, biweekly, and/or monthly dispensation schedules...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905509/the-siludrain-trial-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-standard-versus-silver-impregnated-lumbar-drains
#3
Martin Jakobs, Sabrina Klein, Tatjana Eigenbrod, Andreas W Unterberg, Oliver W Sakowitz
OBJECTIVE Catheter-associated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infection remains a serious event, especially for patients in neurocritical care units. The use of external ventricular drain (EVD) catheters impregnated with antimicrobial substances has led to a significant reduction of infection rates. This study was undertaken to compare the use of antimicrobial, silver-impregnated external lumbar drains (si-ELDs) and conventional ELDs. METHODS Patients with an indication for ELD placement were randomized to receive either a conventional or an si-ELD catheter...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905354/-hpv-a-different-view-on-head-and-neck-cancer
#4
Claus Wittekindt, Steffen Wagner, Shachi Jenny Sharma, Nora Würdemann, Jennifer Knuth, Henrike Reder, Jens Peter Klußmann
Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer with over 500000 annually reported incident cases worldwide. Besides major risk factors tobacco and alcohol, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) show increased association with human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV-associated and HPV-negative OSCC are 2 different entities regarding biological characteristics, therapeutic response, and patient prognosis. In HPV OSCC, viral oncoprotein activity, as well as genetic (mutations and chromosomal aberrations) and epigenetic alterations plays a key role during carcinogenesis...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904874/may-migraine-attack-response-to-triptans-be-a-predictor-of-the-efficacy-of-onabotulinum-toxin-a-prophylaxis
#5
Carlo Lovati, Luca Giani, Caterina Mariotti D Alessandro, Payam Tabaee Damavandi, Claudio Mariani, Leonardo Pantoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904869/commiphora-myrra-alternative-treatment-in-migraine-prophylaxis-open-label-prospective-pilot-study
#6
Maria Clara Tonini, Laura Giordano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903784/designing-prep-and-early-hiv-treatment-interventions-for-implementation-among-female-sex-workers-in-south-africa-developing-and-learning-from-a-formative-research-process
#7
Robyn Eakle, Nyaradzo Mutanha, Judie Mbogua, Maria Sibanyoni, Adam Bourne, Gabriela Gomez, Francois Venter, Helen Rees
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to design relevant, tailored oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and early antiretroviral (ART) interventions for female sex workers (FSWs) in South Africa. This paper examines the methods, process and outcomes of employing an inductive approach to formative research exploring intervention feasibility and acceptability. SETTING: Research was conducted in several sex work-related settings including five sites in and around clinics and stakeholder offices...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903347/antibiotic-prophylaxis-against-infective-endocarditis-widening-the-net
#8
EDITORIAL
John B Chambers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903346/infective-endocarditis-in-patients-with-bicuspid-aortic-valve-or-mitral-valve-prolapse
#9
Isabel Zegri-Reiriz, Arístides de Alarcón, Patricia Muñoz, Manuel Martínez Sellés, Victor González-Ramallo, Jose M Miro, Carles Falces, Claudia Gonzalez Rico, Xabier Kortajarena Urkola, José Antonio Lepe, Regino Rodriguez Alvarez, Jose Maria Reguera Iglesias, Enrique Navas, Fernando Dominguez, Pablo Garcia-Pavia
BACKGROUND: There is little information concerning infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Currently, IE antibiotic prophylaxis (IEAP) is not recommended for these conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the clinical and microbiological features of IE in patients with BAV and MVP and compare them with those of IE patients with and without IEAP indication, to determine the potential benefit of IEAP in these conditions...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903175/-prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-family-factors-for-children-and-adolescents-in-chongqing-city-in-2014
#10
Xuting Cheng, Hong Wang, Baocheng Yuan, Peiyu Guan, Lingyi Wang
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and family factors on metabolic syndrome( MS) in children and adolescents for Chongqing City. METHODS: Multi-stage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1309 children and adolescents between 10 and 17 years old for physical examination( height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure), blood biochemical examination( fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol)and questionnaire for family factors( breast feeding, delivery mode, birth weight, education of parents, height and weight of parents, family history of hypertension and diabetes, and so on)...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903008/immunomodulatory-properties-of-quercetin-3-o-%C3%AE-l-rhamnopyranoside-from-rapanea-melanophloeos-against-influenza-a-virus
#11
Parvaneh Mehrbod, Muna Ali Abdalla, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Masoumeh Heidarzadeh, Abimbola O Aro, Jacobus N Eloff, Lyndy J McGaw, Folorunso O Fasina
BACKGROUND: Influenza infection is a major public health threat. The role of influenza A virus-induced inflammatory response in severe cases of this disease is widely recognized. Drug resistance and side effects of chemical treatments have been observed, resulting in increased interest in alternative use of herbal medications for prophylaxis against this infection. The South African medicinal plant, Rapanea melanophloeos (RM) (L.) Mez of the family Myrsinaceae was selected owing to its traditional use for the treatment of several diseases such as respiratory ailments and also previous preliminary studies of anti-influenza activity of its methanolic extract...
June 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902831/the-effect-of-antiseptics-in-the-prophylaxis-of-infection-in-orthopaedic-surgery
#12
Martin Lüdemann, Pablo Munoz, Martin Wagner, Uwe Malzahn, Konstantin Horas, Peter Heuschmann, Maximilian Rudert
INTRODUCTION: Over the past decade, the incidence of revision arthroplasty has increased substantially. One of the main reasons for revision arthroplasty is periprosthetic joint infection, often resulting in multiple surgical interventions with variable success and poor clinical outcome. Intraoperative wound irrigation has been proposed to reduce bacterial contamination and thus the risk of periprosthetic infection. However, there is currently no widely accepted recommendation for the use of topical antiseptics within the operative setting for primary implantation...
June 14, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902821/lithium-clinics-in-berlin-and-dresden-a-50-year-experience
#13
Werner Felber, Michael Bauer, Ute Lewitzka, Bruno Müller-Oerlinghausen
Although lithium's serendipitous discovery as a medication for depression dates back more than 200 years, the first scientific evidence that it prevents mania and depression arose only in the 1960s. However, at that time there was a lack of knowledge about how to administer and monitor lithium therapy safely and properly. The lithium clinics in Dresden and Berlin were remarkably similar in their beginnings in the late 1960s regarding patient numbers and scientific expertise without being aware of one another due to the Iron Curtain separating Germany into a western and eastern part until 1990...
June 14, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902179/hybrid-stochastic-framework-predicts-efficacy-of-prophylaxis-against-hiv-an-example-with-different-dolutegravir-prophylaxis-schemes
#14
Sulav Duwal, Laura Dickinson, Saye Khoo, Max von Kleist
To achieve the 90-90-90 goals set by UNAIDS, the number of new HIV infections needs to decrease to approximately 500,000 by 2020. One of the 'five pillars' to achieve this goal is pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Truvada (emtricitabine-tenofovir) is currently the only medication approved for PrEP. Despite its advantages, Truvada is costly and requires individuals to adhere to the once-daily regimen. To improve PrEP, many next-generation regimen, including long-acting formulations, are currently investigated...
June 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901863/pharmacology-of-antiretrovirals-in-the-female-genital-track-for-hiv-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Melanie R Nicol, Joseph A Corbino, Mackenzie L Cottrell
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a powerful tool that, as part of a comprehensive prevention package, has potential to significantly impact the HIV epidemic. PrEP effectiveness is believed to be dependent on the exposure and efficacy of antiretrovirals at the site of HIV transmission. Clinical trial results as well as modeling and simulation indicate the threshold of adherence required for PrEP efficacy of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may differ between sites of HIV transmission with less forgiveness for missed doses in women exposed through genital tissue compared to people exposed through colorectal tissue...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901839/prophylactic-bypassing-agent-use-before-and-during-immune-tolerance-induction-in-patients-with-haemophilia-a-and-inhibitors-to-fviii
#16
REVIEW
S L Carpenter, K Khair, A Gringeri, L A Valentino
The development of high-titre inhibitory antibodies (inhibitors) against factor VIII (FVIII) remains a challenge in the management of patients with haemophilia A (HA). Patients with high-titre inhibitors are more likely to experience uncontrolled bleeding, physical disability from chronic arthropathy and premature death compared with those without this complication. Immune tolerance induction (ITI), utilizing repeated infusions of FVIII, is an effective therapeutic approach to eliminating inhibitory antibodies...
June 14, 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901213/pbpk-modeling-strategy-for-predicting-complex-drug-interactions-of-letermovir-as-a-perpetrator-in-support-of-product-labeling
#17
Ying-Hong Wang, Dapeng Chen, Georgy Hartmann, Carolyn R Cho, Karsten Menzel
Letermovir is a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) terminase inhibitor for the prophylaxis of CMV infection in allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In vitro, letermovir is a time-dependent inhibitor and an inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A, and an inhibitor of CYP2C8 and organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B. A stepwise approach was taken to qualify the interaction model of an existing letermovir physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict letermovir interactions with CYP3A and OATP1B...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900824/an-implementation-of-next-generation-sequencing-for-prevention-and-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-urology
#18
Vladimir Mouraviev, Michael McDonald
INTRODUCTION: The changing face of current infection phenotypes from planktonic to biofilm type has been developed implicating bacterial biofilms in recurrent infection. To date, no specific medical treatment exists to specifically target biofilms in the human host. Similarly, the identification of a biofilm has relied upon the analysis of tissue samples with electron microscopy or DNA identification with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Standard culture and sensitivity test is not able to detect a presence of biofilms...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900560/scoring-system-for-risk-stratification-of-viral-reactivation-during-prophylactic-antiviral-treatment-in-korean-patients-with-hepatitis-b-undergoing-anticancer-chemotherapy-a-multicenter-study
#19
Hwi Young Kim, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Sohee Oh, Su Jong Yu, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Won Kim, Yong Jin Jung, Bo Hyun Kim, Chang-Min Kim, Joong-Won Park, Jeong-Hoon Lee
Prophylactic antiviral therapy is recommended for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with malignancies who are undergoing systemic chemotherapy. In the present study, we aimed to develop a risk scoring system to guide the selection of prophylactic antiviral agents. In this retrospective analysis, we included consecutive chronic hepatitis B patients who received antiviral prophylaxis for chemotherapy of solid or hematologic malignancies at 3 large-volume hospitals in Korea. The primary endpoint was HBV reactivation...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900012/current-status-of-zika-vaccine-development-zika-vaccines-advance-into-clinical-evaluation
#20
REVIEW
Alan D T Barrett
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was first identified in the 1940s in Uganda in Africa and emerged in the Americas in Brazil in May 2015. In the 30 months since ZIKV emerged as a major public health problem, spectacular progress has been made with vaccine development cumulating with the publication of three reports of phase 1 clinical trials in the 4th quarter of 2017. Clinical trials involving candidate DNA and purified inactivated virus vaccines showed all were safe and well-tolerated in the small number of volunteers and all induced neutralizing antibodies, although these varied by vaccine candidate and dosing regimen...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
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