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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335525/the-history-of-clotting-factor-concentrates-pharmacokinetics
#1
REVIEW
Massimo Morfini
Clotting factor concentrates (CFCs) underwent tremendous modifications during the last forty years. Plasma-derived concentrates made the replacement therapy feasible not only in the hospital but also at patients' home by on-demand or prophylactic regimen. Virucidal methods, implemented soon after hepatitis and AIDS outbreak, and purification by Mabs made the plasma-derived concentrates safer and purer. CFCs were considered equivalent to the other drugs and general rules and methods of pharmacokinetics (PK) were applied to their study...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334018/development-of-an-evidence-evaluation-and-synthesis-system-for-drug-drug-interactions-and-its-application-to-a-systematic-review-of-hiv-and-malaria-co-infection
#2
Kay Seden, Sara Gibbons, Catia Marzolini, Jonathan M Schapiro, David M Burger, David J Back, Saye H Khoo
BACKGROUND: In all settings, there are challenges associated with safely treating patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy. The need to characterise, understand and limit harms resulting from medication use is therefore increasingly important. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are prevalent in patients taking antiretrovirals (ARVs) and if unmanaged, may pose considerable risk to treatment outcome. One of the biggest challenges in preventing DDIs is the substantial gap between theory and clinical practice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333402/vincristine-toxicity-with-co-administration-of-fluconazole-during-induction-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#3
Andrew B Smitherman, Cassidy B Faircloth, Allison Deal, Michael Troy, Stuart H Gold
BACKGROUND: Antifungal prophylaxis is recommended for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during high-risk periods such as induction; however, increased vincristine toxicities have been reported with the co-administration of triazole antifungals. We sought to determine whether vincristine-associated toxicities are higher among children with ALL concurrently given fluconazole prophylaxis compared to no prophylaxis. PROCEDURE: Using a retrospective cohort design, we reviewed records of pediatric patients treated for newly diagnosed ALL from 2003 to 2013...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332262/haploidentical-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation-without-irradiation-or-busulfan-after-reduced-intensity-conditioning-for-kmt2a-mll-rearranged-infant-b-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-report-of-two-cases
#4
Ai Yoshimi, Keisuke Kato, Sho Hosaka, Ryoko Suzuki, Hiroko Fukushima, Tomohei Nakao, Chie Kobayashi, Takashi Fukushima, Kazutoshi Koike, Ryo Sumazaki, Masahiro Tsuchida
We present two infants with KMT2A(MLL)-gene-R-associated BCP-ALL, who received HLA haploidentical PBSCT after RIC. The patients developed ALL at age 6 months and 3 months, respectively. Case 1 underwent PBSCT at the second CR with detectable KMT2A-AFF1(MLL-AF4) fusion gene transcript at 11 months of age, and Case 2 at the first CR without KMT2A-MLLT1(MLL-ENL) fusion gene transcript at 8 months of age. Both patients received G-CSF-mobilized unmanipulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from their HLA haploidentical mothers after administration of FLU, MEL, and ATG...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332097/novel-and-advanced-techniques-for-complex-ivc-filter-retrieval
#5
REVIEW
Dania Daye, T Gregory Walker
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement is indicated for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with a contraindication to or a failure of anticoagulation. With the advent of retrievable IVC filters and their ease of placement, an increasing number of such filters are being inserted for prophylaxis in patients at high risk for VTE. Available data show that only a small number of these filters are retrieved within the recommended period, if at all, prompting the FDA to issue a statement on the need for their timely removal...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332067/preoperative-chronic-sinusitis-as-significant-cause-of-postoperative-infection-and-implant-loss-after-sinus-augmentation-from-a-lateral-approach
#6
Ayako Kozuma, Masanori Sasaki, Katsuhiro Seki, Takeshi Toyoshima, Hiroyuki Nakano, Yoshihide Mori
OBJECTIVES: Among intra/postoperative complications of sinus augmentation from a lateral approach, postoperative infection and implant loss are particularly important because they have irreversible consequences. The purpose of this study was to determine the causes of postoperative infection and implant loss after a lateral approach and to determine the appropriate prophylaxis and therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 109 patients (121 sinuses, 252 implants) were included in this study...
March 22, 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332028/infection-profile-in-chronic-granulomatous-disease-a-23-year-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#7
Amit Rawat, Pandiarajan Vignesh, Avinash Sharma, Jitendra K Shandilya, Madhubala Sharma, Deepti Suri, Anju Gupta, Vikas Gautam, Pallab Ray, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Kohsuke Imai, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Osamu Ohara, Yu L Lau, Surjit Singh
PURPOSE: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited phagocytic disorder characterized by recurrent infections with usually catalase-positive organisms. Infections in CGD from developing countries are expected to be different from those in the Western countries. We report the profile of infections in children diagnosed with CGD from a tertiary care center in North India. METHODOLOGY: Case records of children diagnosed with CGD at Pediatric Immunodeficiency Clinic, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, from August 1993 to April 2016 (23 years) were analyzed...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331290/effects-of-dexamethasone-coadministered-with-oseltamivir-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-oseltamivir-in-healthy-volunteers
#8
Kyungho Jang, Min-Kyoung Kim, Jaeseong Oh, SeungHwan Lee, Joo-Youn Cho, Kyung-Sang Yu, Tai Kiu Choi, Sang-Hyuk Lee, Kyoung Soo Lim
PURPOSE: Oseltamivir is widely used in the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza A and B viral infections. It is ingested as an oral prodrug that is rapidly metabolized by carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) to its active form, oseltamivir carboxylate. Dexamethasone is also used in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe complication of influenza; however, its influence on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oseltamivir is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coadministering oseltamivir and dexamethasone on the PK of oseltamivir in healthy volunteers...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330901/azacitidine-mitigates-graft-versus-host-disease-via-differential-effects-on-the-proliferation-of-t-effectors-and-natural-regulatory-t-cells-in-vivo
#9
Matthew L Cooper, Jaebok Choi, Darja Karpova, Kiran Vij, Julie Ritchey, Mark A Schroeder, John F DiPersio
Azacitidine (AzaC) mitigates graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in both murine preclinical transplant models and in human clinical trials while maintaining a robust graft-versus-leukemia effect. Previous studies have failed to investigate the role of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) on the mitigation of GvHD by AzaC, instead focusing on the generation of suppressive Tregs (CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)) through the in vivo conversion of alloreactive donor T effectors (Teffs; CD4(+)CD25(-)FOXP3(-)) and the direct antiproliferative effects of AzaC on allogeneic T cells...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329270/hsv-2-acquisition-among-hiv-1-infected-adults-treated-with-tenofovir-as-part-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-results-from-the-actg-a5175-pearls-study
#10
Connie Celum, Ting Hong, Anne Cent, Deborah Donnell, Rhoda Morrow, Jared M Baeten, Cynthia Firnhaber, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mina C Hosseinipour, Umesh Lalloo, Mulinda Nyirenda, Cynthia Riviere, Jorge Sanchez, Breno Santos, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo, James Hakim, N Kumarasamy, Thomas B Campbell
Objective: Tenofovir has in vitro activity against HSV-2 and reduced HSV-2 acquisition as pre-exposure prophylaxis. Whether tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces HSV-2 acquisition is unknown. Design: Secondary analysis of ACTG A5175, a randomized, open-label study of three ART regimens among 1,571 participants. Methods: HSV-2 serostatus was assessed at baseline, exit and prior to ART change. Results: Of 365 HSV-2 seronegative persons, 68 acquired HSV-2 with 24 on tenofovir-containing ART and 44 on ART without tenofovir (HSV-2 incidence 6...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328947/a-spontaneous-mutation-in-kdsd-a-biosynthesis-gene-for-3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic-acid-occurred-in-a-ciprofloxacin-resistant-strain-of-francisella-tularensis-and-caused-a-high-level-of-attenuation-in-murine-models-of-tularemia
#11
Taylor Chance, Jennifer Chua, Ronald G Toothman, Jason T Ladner, Jonathan E Nuss, Jo Lynne Raymond, Fabrice V Biot, Samandra Demons, Lynda Miller, Stephanie Halasohoris, Sherry Mou, Galina Koroleva, Sean Lovett, Gustavo Palacios, Nicholas J Vietri, Patricia L Worsham, Christopher K Cote, Todd M Kijek, Joel A Bozue
Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the causative agent of tularemia and able to infect many mammalian species, including humans. Because of its ability to cause a lethal infection, low infectious dose, and aerosolizable nature, F. tularensis subspecies tularensis is considered a potential biowarfare agent. Due to its in vitro efficacy, ciprofloxacin is one of the antibiotics recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis of tularemia. In order to identify therapeutics that will be efficacious against infections caused by drug resistant select-agents and to better understand the threat, we sought to characterize an existing ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) mutant in the Schu S4 strain of F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328861/relationship-between-anesthesia-and-postoperative-endophthalmitis-a-retrospective-study
#12
Hou-Chuan Lai, Wei-Cheng Tseng, Shu-I Pao, Chih-Shung Wong, Ren-Chih Huang, Wei-Hung Chan, Zhi-Fu Wu
Previous study showed that patients under general anesthesia (GA) had nasopharyngeal secretions on the face at the end of ocular surgery, especially in propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), it might induce postoperative endophthalmitis. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to compare the incidence of endophthalmitis after ocular surgery under topical, inhalation anesthesia, and propofol-based TIVA in our medical center from 2011 to 2015.A total of 21,032 patients were included, and we evaluated epidemiologic factors, systemic diseases, other ocular pathologic characteristics, complications during the surgery, technique of ocular surgery, method of antibiotic prophylaxis, vitreous culture, and vision outcome in these patients...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328622/quality-of-care-and-outcomes-among-hospitalized-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#13
Geoffrey C Nguyen, Sanjay K Murthy, Brian Bressler, Mindy C W Lam, Ali Alali, Asmae Toumi, Jason Reinglas, Adam Rampersad, Adam V Weizman, Waqqas Afif
BACKGROUND: Half of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) require hospitalization. We sought to characterize inpatient quality indicators of care and outcomes during IBD-related hospitalizations at 4 major IBD referral centers in Canada. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients with IBD admitted from 2011 to 2013 to tertiary centers in Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, and Vancouver. We assessed the following inpatient indicators of care: pharmacological venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis, Clostridium difficile testing, and medical rescue therapy for steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC)...
March 21, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328548/characterization-of-hiv-seroconverters-in-a-tdf-ftc-prep-study-hptn-067-adapt
#14
Mariya V Sivay, Maoji Li, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Yinfeng Zhang, Sarah E Hudelson, Mark A Marzinke, Rivet K Amico, Andrew Redd, Craig W Hendrix, Peter L Anderson, Kevin Bokoch, Linda Gail-Bekker, Frits van Griensven, Sharon Mannheimer, James P Hughes, Robert Grant, Susan H Eshleman
BACKGROUND: HPTN 067/ADAPT evaluated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in women (South Africa) and men who have sex with men (Thailand, US). Participants received once-weekly directly observed TDF/FTC (DOT), and were then randomized to daily, time-driven, or event-driven PrEP. This report describes characterization of 12 HIV seroconversion events in this trial. METHODS: HIV rapid testing was performed at study sites...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328529/evaluation-of-vitamin-d-prophylaxis-in-3-36-month-old-infants-and-children
#15
Alper Ozcan, Mustafa Kendirci, Meda Kondolot, Fatih Kardas, Leyla Akın
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (VD) deficiency (VDD) is still a population-based health problem that affects people at different ages. The aim of this study was to evaluate VD prophylaxis for the prevention of VDD in (3-36)-month-old infants and children. METHODS: Infants and children aged between 3 and 36 months, with different etiologies, admitted to outpatient and inpatient clinics from October 2010 to October 2011 at the Children's Hospital of Erciyes University, were enrolled for the study...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328347/prevention-of-hereditary-angioedema-attacks-with-a-subcutaneous-c1-inhibitor
#16
Hilary Longhurst, Marco Cicardi, Timothy Craig, Konrad Bork, Clive Grattan, James Baker, Huamin H Li, Avner Reshef, James Bonner, Jonathan A Bernstein, John Anderson, William R Lumry, Henriette Farkas, Constance H Katelaris, Gordon L Sussman, Joshua Jacobs, Marc Riedl, Michael E Manning, Jacques Hebert, Paul K Keith, Shmuel Kivity, Sergio Neri, Donald S Levy, Maria L Baeza, Robert Nathan, Lawrence B Schwartz, Teresa Caballero, William Yang, Ioana Crisan, María D Hernandez, Iftikhar Hussain, Michael Tarzi, Bruce Ritchie, Pavlina Králíčková, Mar Guilarte, Syed M Rehman, Aleena Banerji, Richard G Gower, Debra Bensen-Kennedy, Jonathan Edelman, Henrike Feuersenger, John-Philip Lawo, Thomas Machnig, Dipti Pawaskar, Ingo Pragst, Bruce L Zuraw
Background Hereditary angioedema is a disabling, potentially fatal condition caused by deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of the C1 inhibitor protein. In a phase 2 trial, the use of CSL830, a nanofiltered C1 inhibitor preparation that is suitable for subcutaneous injection, resulted in functional levels of C1 inhibitor activity that would be expected to provide effective prophylaxis of attacks. Methods We conducted an international, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of self-administered subcutaneous CSL830 in patients with type I or type II hereditary angioedema who had had four or more attacks in a consecutive 2-month period within 3 months before screening...
March 23, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328157/lack-of-small-colony-variants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-lower-respiratory-tract-specimens
#17
Rosemary Carzino, Emily Hart, Philip Sutton, Louise King, Sarath Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with worse lung disease in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), exhibit a higher resistance to antibiotics and co-colonize more commonly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to the normal phenotype. The prevalence of SCVs in lower airway specimens from children with CF is largely unknown. METHODS: Each visible morphotype of S. aureus was subcultured onto horse blood agar (HBA) to enable identification of SCVs...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327930/the-use-of-vancomycin-powder-for-surgical-prophylaxis-following-craniotomy
#18
Vinod Ravikumar, Allen L Ho, Arjun V Pendhakar, Eric S Sussman, Kevin Kwong-Hon Chow, Gordon Li
BACKGROUND: Intrawound vancomycin powder has been studied extensively in spinal fusion surgeries and been found to reduce rates of surgical site infections (SSIs) significantly. Despite its success in spinal surgeries, topical vancomycin has not been extensively studied with respect to cranial neurosurgery. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of intrawound topical vancomycin for prevention of SSIs following open craniotomies. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a large series of 350 patients from 2011 to 2015 in a pre/postintervention study of use of topical vancomycin to reduce postoperative craniotomy infection rates...
January 25, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326849/long-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-prophylaxis-with-rfviii-in-chinese-pediatric-patients-with-hemophilia-a-a-multi-center-retrospective-non-interventional-phase-iv-recare-study
#19
Changgang Li, Xinsheng Zhang, Yongqiang Zhao, Runhui Wu, Qun Hu, Vicky Xu, Jing Sun, Renchi Yang, Xiaojing Li, Rongfu Zhou, Shinmei Lian, Jian Gu, Junde Wu, Qingsong Hou
BACKGROUND: The first recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) product was launched in China in 2007. However, till date, no study has been conducted to describe the efficacy and safety of prophylaxis with rFVIII in Chinese pediatric patients with hemophilia A (HA). OBJECTIVE: To summarize the efficacy and safety data of prophylaxis with rFVIII in Chinese pediatric patients with HA. METHODS: ReCARE (Retrospective study in Chinese pediatric hemophilia A patients with rFVIII contained regular prophylaxis) was a retrospective study conducted in 12 hemophilia treatment centers (HTC's) across China...
March 22, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326488/is-lmwh-sufficient-for-anticoagulant-prophylaxis-in-bariatric-surgery-prospective-study
#20
Farraj Moaad, Bramnik Zakhar, Kvasha Anton, Merie Moner, Sbeit Wisam, Farraj Safy, Waksman Igor
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the coagulation profile by thromboelastography in morbidly obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery. Morbid obesity entails increased risk for thromboembolic events. There is no clear protocol for thromboembolic prophylaxis, regarding timing and length of treatment, in bariatric surgery. Thromboelastography provides data on a coagulation process from creation of the clot until the fibrinolysis. METHODS: Ninety-three morbidly obese patients were prospectively recruited within a 2-year period...
March 22, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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