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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441053/evaluation-of-oxygen-administration-with-a-high-flow-nasal-cannula-to-clinically-normal-dogs
#1
Jennifer L Daly, Christine L Guenther, Jamie M Haggerty, Iain Keir
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of oxygen administration by use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in sedated clinically normal dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs undergoing routine dental prophylaxis. PROCEDURES Dogs were sedated with butorphanol tartrate and dexmedetomidine. An esophageal balloon catheter was inserted into the esophagus, a double-pronged nasal cannula was inserted into the nares, and a catheter was inserted into the dorsal pedal artery. Dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency...
May 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440583/topical-antibiotics-and-intravitreal-injections
#2
REVIEW
Alex P Hunyor, Rohan Merani, Archie Darbar, Jean-François Korobelnik, Paolo Lanzetta, Annabelle A Okada
There is increasing evidence that topical antibiotics, given before and/or after intravitreal injections, are ineffective in preventing endophthalmitis and are possibly harmful. In addition to the lack of efficacy and increased development of resistant organisms, the use of topical antibiotics adds significantly to the cost of delivering intravitreal therapy. Despite this, in many countries, it is still common practice to use pre- and/or postinjection topical antibiotics. This review outlines the general principles of effective antibiotic prophylaxis, and the evidence regarding topical antibiotic use as a prophylactic measure for endophthalmitis following intravitreal injections...
April 25, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440519/-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-perioperative-complications-of-bariatric-and-metabolic-surgery
#3
Haifu Wu, Ming Zhong, Di Zhou, Chenye Shi, Heng Jiao, Wei Wu, Xinxia Chang, Jing Cang, Hua Bian
Surgical operation in treating obesity and type 2 diabetes is popularizing rapidly in China. Correct prevention and recognition of perioperation-related operative complications is the premise of ensuring surgical safety. Familiar complications of the operation include deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary artery embolism, anastomotic bleeding, anastomotic fistula and marginal ulcer. The prevention of deep venous thrombosis is better than treatment. The concrete measures contain physical prophylaxis (graduated compression stocking and intermittent pneumatic compression leg sleeves) and drug prophylaxis (unfractionated heparin and low molecular heparin), and the treatment is mainly thrombolysis or operative thrombectomy...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440496/pu-1-serves-a-critical-role-in-the-innate-defense-against-aspergillus%C3%A2-fumigatus-via-dendritic-cell-associated-c-type-lectin-receptor-1-and-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-in-thp-1-derived-macrophages
#4
Chenyang Liu, Min Wang, Wenkui Sun, Feng Cai, Shen Geng, Xin Su, Yi Shi
Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is one of the most common fungal pathogens of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), which may be life threatening in immunocompromised individuals. The dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin receptor (Dectin-1), toll‑like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 are major pattern recognition receptors in alveolar macrophages that recognize A. fumigatus components. The PU.1 transcription factor is known to be important for the transcriptional control of these three receptors in mature macrophages...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440297/efficacy-and-safety-of-rectal-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-for-prophylaxis-against-post-ercp-pancreatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Yi-Chao Hou, Qiang Hu, Jiao Huang, Jing-Yuan Fang, Hua Xiong
Rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are not commonly used clinically for preventing post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of NSAIDs for post-ERCP prophylaxis, we systematically reviewed sixteen randomized controlled trials (involving 6458 patients) that compared rectal NSAIDs with placebo or no treatment for post-ERCP pancreatitis prophylaxis updated to August 2016. GRADE framework was used to assess the quality of evidence...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440005/comparing-the-burden-of-illness-of-haemophilia-between-resource-constrained-and-unconstrained-countries-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-toronto-hemophilia-study
#6
J D A Carneiro, V Blanchette, M C Ozelo, S V Antunes, P R Villaca, N L Young, D Castro, L R Brandão, M Carcao, A Abad, B M Feldman
INTRODUCTION: Although the regular replacement of clotting factor concentrates (prophylaxis) has been well established as the standard of care for severe haemophilia, the high cost of factor concentrates has limited access to prophylaxis in countries with under-developed or developing economies. AIMS: We studied the health gap that could be addressed by providing unlimited access to clotting factor concentrates with implementation of long-term prophylaxis initiated from an early age in life...
April 24, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439702/a-comparison-of-apixaban-and-dabigatran-etexilate-for-thromboprophylaxis-following-hip-and-knee-replacement-surgery
#7
Adriane Mayer, Philipp Schuster, Bernd Fink
INTRODUCTION: Patients who have undergone hip or knee replacement surgery are exposed to a high risk of developing a post-operative venous thromboembolus and so have a need for an effective, medication-based, thrombosis prophylaxis. New orally active anticoagulants have been available for a few years now. These specific substances directly block either thrombin (e.g., dabigatran etexilate) or Factor Xa (e.g., apixaban). It is not clear whether there are any efficacy differences between these two substances because there have never been any head-to-head studies carried out...
April 24, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439617/-stroke-prophylaxis-in-atrial-fibrillation-when-how-and-for-whom
#8
T Maurer, C Sohns
In patients suffering from atrial fibrillation (AF), modern antithrombotic therapy and anticoagulation strategies should be individualized based on shared decision making including patient preferences and the absolute and relative risks of stroke and bleeding. Estimation of the individual risk for stroke is still based on the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Based on the most recent guidelines for the management of AF, oral anticoagulation therapy should be considered for men with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥1 and women with a score ≥2, balancing the expected stroke reduction, risk of bleeding and patient preference...
April 24, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439611/the-saudi-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-prophylaxis-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-long-distance-travelers
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439418/prevention-practices-influencing-frequency-of-occurrence-of-vaso-occlusive-crisis-among-sickle-cell-patients-in-abeokuta-south-local-government-area-of-ogun-state-nigeria
#10
Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran, Ahmed Babatunde Jimoh, Omotola Ojo, Temitope Kuponiyi
BACKGROUND: Africa is the most affected continent with 200,000 new born affected by sickle cell anemia annually with of 5% of under five deaths. Nigeria has the largest sickle cell gene pool in the world with about 2% of all babies born to Nigerian parents. This study therefore sets out to assess the prevention practices influencing the frequency of occurrence of vaso-occlusive crisis among patients in Ogun State. METHODS: This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Abeokuta South Local Government Area Ogun State...
2017: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439408/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-organ-space-surgical-site-infections-after-elective-colon-and-rectal-surgery
#11
Aina Gomila, Jordi Carratalà, Daniel Camprubí, Evelyn Shaw, Josep Mª Badia, Antoni Cruz, Francesc Aguilar, Carmen Nicolás, Anna Marrón, Laura Mora, Rafel Perez, Lydia Martin, Rosa Vázquez, Ana Felisa Lopez, Enric Limón, Francesc Gudiol, Miquel Pujol
BACKGROUND: Organ-space surgical site infections (SSI) are the most serious and costly infections after colorectal surgery. Most previous studies of risk factors for SSI have analysed colon and rectal procedures together. The aim of the study was to determine whether colon and rectal procedures have different risk factors and outcomes for organ-space SSI. METHODS: A multicentre observational prospective cohort study of adults undergoing elective colon and rectal procedures at 10 Spanish hospitals from 2011 to 2014...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439202/a-rare-complication-of-esophageal-dilatation-brain-abscess
#12
Nagehan Aslan, Esra Sesli, Tuba Koca, Nilgün Şenol, Mustafa Akçam
Brain abscess is an uncommon serious disease, which has been reported as a rare complication of repeated esophageal dilations; however, routine periprocedural antibiotic prophylaxis is not currently recommended. Herein, we present a brain abscess that developed after esophageal dilatation for the treatment of induced caustic esophageal strictures. The clinical presentation is non-specific, the most reported signs are high fever and neurologic findings. Cases have been reported in the literature in adult and pediatric patients...
March 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439049/-calcium-and-bone-metabolism-across-women-s-life-stages-epidemiology-of-bone-and-joint-disease-in-japanese-women
#13
Shigeyuki Muraki
Bone and joint diseases are severe problems in the elderly;therefore, the development of their treatment or prophylaxis is quite important. Our study shows that the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis is very high, and its impact on quality of life is strong. The treatment rate of osteoporosis is less than 10%, and awareness programs for prevention of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis disorders such as locomotive syndrome are needed.
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439022/structure-of-a-protective-epitope-of-group-b-streptococcus-type-iii-capsular-polysaccharide
#14
Filippo Carboni, Roberto Adamo, Monica Fabbrini, Riccardo De Ricco, Vittorio Cattaneo, Barbara Brogioni, Daniele Veggi, Vittoria Pinto, Irene Passalacqua, Davide Oldrini, Rino Rappuoli, Enrico Malito, Immaculada Y Ros Margarit, Francesco Berti
Despite substantial progress in the prevention of group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease with the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, this pathogen remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. Capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have been tested in phase I/II clinical studies, showing promise for further development. Mapping of epitopes recognized by protective antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanism of action of vaccines and for enabling antigen design. In this study, we report the structure of the epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody with opsonophagocytic activity and representative of the protective response against type III GBS polysaccharide...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438936/demonstrating-the-protective-efficacy-of-the-novel-fluoroquinolone-finafloxacin-against-an-inhalational-exposure-to-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#15
Kay B Barnes, Karleigh A Hamblin, Mark I Richards, Thomas R Laws, Andreas Vente, Helen S Atkins, Sarah V Harding
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious disease endemic in South East Asia and Northern Australia. Antibiotic treatment is lengthy and relapse often occurs. Finafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with increased antibacterial activity in acidic conditions in contrast to other fluoroquinolones which demonstrate reduced activity at lower pH. Therefore finafloxacin may have improved efficacy against B. pseudomallei, which can survive within host cells where the local pH is acidic...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438932/evaluation-of-a-multi-drug-assay-for-monitoring-adherence-to-a-regimen-for-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-a-clinical-study-hiv-prevention-trials-network-073
#16
Yinfeng Zhang, William Clarke, Mark A Marzinke, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Geetha Beauchamp, Autumn Breaud, Craig W Hendrix, Gavin A Cloherty, Lynda Emel, Scott Rose, Lisa Hightow-Weidman, Marc Siegel, Steven Shoptaw, Sheldon D Fields, Darrell Wheeler, Susan H Eshleman
Daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is a safe and effective intervention for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We evaluated the performance of a qualitative assay that detects 20 antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for assessing recent PrEP exposure (multi-drug assay; detection limit: 2-20 ng/mL). Samples were obtained from 216 Black men who have sex with men in the United States who were enrolled in a study evaluating acceptability of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) PrEP (208 HIV-uninfected men and eight seroconverters; 165 of the uninfected men and five of the seroconverters accepted PrEP)...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438880/testicular-dose-during-prophylaxis-of-heterotopic-ossification-with-radiation-therapy
#17
Waleed F Mourad, John K Ma, Satyaseelan Packianathan, Weisi Yan, Sherif G Shaaban, Edward M Marchan, Lamiaa E Abdallah, Rei He, Paul N Mobit, Chunli Claus Yang, Srinivasan Vijayakumar
AIM: A single-institution, retrospective study was performed to investigate potential techniques to minimize radiation exposure to the testicles during heterotopic ossification (HO) prophylaxis. We report the impact of split-beam technique (SBT) and different photon energies on the total dose of radiation received by the testicles during prophylaxis of HO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2008 and 2010, we identified 64 patients with traumatic acetabular fractures who underwent surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT) without testicular shielding...
May 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438855/the-effectiveness-of-febrile-neutropenia-prophylaxis-with-lipegfilgrastim-in-routine-clinical-practice
#18
REVIEW
Lubos Holubec, Jiri Polivka, Lenka Lisnerova, Tereza Kubikova, Martin Safanda
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common and potentially fatal complication of anticancer treatment, particularly in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. It has been shown that prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), especially its pegylated forms, significantly reduces the incidence of FN, the likelihood of chemotherapy dose intensity reduction and, also, the number of hospitalizations due to FN. This review discusses currently published results from clinical trials dealing with FN prophylaxis in routine clinical practice in patients with solid tumors and myeloproliferative malignancies with a focus on lipegfilgrastim, which is the newest modification of the original molecule filgrastim...
May 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438590/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-cataract-surgery-in-the-setting-of-penicillin-allergy-a-decision-making-algorithm
#19
REVIEW
Benjamin R LaHood, Nicholas Andrew, Michael Goggin
Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in many developed countries. Post-operative endophthalmitis is a rare complication with potentially devastating visual outcomes. Currently, there is no global consensus regarding antibiotic prophylaxis in cataract surgery despite growing evidence of the benefits of prophylactic intracameral cefuroxime at the conclusion of surgery. The decision about which antibiotic regimen to use is further complicated in patients reporting penicillin allergy...
April 21, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438539/recurrent-acute-rhinosinusitis-prevention-by-azithromycin-in-children-with-nonallergic-rhinitis
#20
Jittima Veskitkul, Patcharaporn Wongkaewpothong, Tanita Thaweethamchareon, Kitirat Ungkanont, Nualanong Visitsunthorn, Punchama Pacharn, Pakit Vichyanond, Orathai Jirapongsananuruk
BACKGROUND: Recurrent acute rhinosinusitis (RARS) is characterized by multiple episodes of acute rhinosinusitis between which symptoms and signs resolve completely. The role of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent RARS in children with nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of azithromycin to prevent RARS in children with NAR. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in NAR children (5-15 years) with RARS...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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