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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053543/decreased-time-to-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-open-fractures-at-a-level-one-trauma-center
#1
Joey P Johnson, Avi D Goodman, Adam M Haag, Roman A Hayda
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether time to administration of antibiotics decreased after the implementation of an open fracture working group and antibiotic prophylaxis protocol. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: One Level 1 Trauma Center. PATIENTS: Patients 18 years of age and older who sustained an open fracture and presented directly to our emergency department. INTERVENTION: Prompt irrigation and debridement in the operating room and fracture stabilization dictated by the treating surgeon...
November 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052492/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-secondary-prophylaxis-for-prevention-of-hiv-related-toxoplasmic-encephalitis-relapse-using-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
#2
Mark P Connolly, Gertruud Haitsma, Adrián V Hernández, José E Vidal
A recent systematic literature and meta-analysis reported relative efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in HIV-infected adults. Here, we estimated relapse rates during secondary prophylaxis with TMP-SMX, and further explored differences in relapse rates prior to introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the widespread adoption of HAART. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials yielded 707 studies whereby 663 were excluded after abstract screening, and 38 were excluded after full review leaving 6 studies for extraction...
September 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051981/preoperative-optimization-of-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-undergoing-gastrointestinal-surgery-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Marie Strøm Zangenberg, Nir Horesh, Uri Kopylov, Alaa El-Hussuna
PURPOSE: Surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a challenging task. The aim of preoperative optimization (PO) is to decrease the risk of complications and reduce the length of postoperative stay. The aim of this study was to review and grade the available evidence, attain clear recommendations, and point out potential future research. METHODS: Studies were identified from electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) and scanning reference lists in relevant papers...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051310/adverse-reactions-to-two-intravenous-antibiotics-augmentin-and-zinacef-used-for-surgical-prophylaxis-in-dogs
#4
Mark James Gosling, Fernando Martínez-Taboada
Antibiotic prophylaxis in dogs undergoing surgical procedures frequently involves the administration of a product without a veterinary licence. Two drugs commonly used for this purpose are the clavulanate amoxicillin Augmentin and the cefuroxime Zinacef. This prospective observational study aims to compare the incidence of adverse events associated with these two antibiotics in a clinical setting. The authors hypothesised that a higher incidence of adverse effects would be observed with Augmentin. Sixty-five dogs were included in the study and adverse events were recorded using a modified scoring system...
October 19, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050887/antibiotic-stewardship-in-the-newborn-surgical-patient-a%C3%A2-quality-improvement-project-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#5
Sarah Walker, Ankur Datta, Roxanne L Massoumi, Erica R Gross, Michael Uhing, Marjorie J Arca
BACKGROUND: There is significant diversity in the utilization of antibiotics for neonates undergoing surgical procedures. Our institution standardized antibiotic administration for surgical neonates, in which no empiric antibiotics were given to infants with surgical conditions postnatally, and antibiotics are given no more than 72 hours perioperatively. METHODS: We compared the time periods before and after implementation of antibiotic protocol in an institution review board-approved, retrospective review of neonates with congenital surgical conditions who underwent surgical correction within 30 days after birth...
October 16, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050521/glutamate-receptor-antagonists-with-the-potential-for-migraine-treatment
#6
Anna Ferrari, Cecilia Rustichelli, Carlo Baraldi
Preclinical, clinical, and other (e.g., genetic) evidence support the concept that migraine susceptibility may at least partially result from a glutamatergic system disorder. Therefore, the receptors of the glutamatergic system are considered relatively new targets for investigational drugs to treat migraine. Investigational and established glutamate receptor antagonists (GluRAs) have been shown to possess antinociceptive properties in preclinical models of trigeminovascular nociception and have been evaluated in clinical trials...
October 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050497/simoctocog-alfa-for-the-treatment-of-hemophilia-a
#7
Massimo Morfini
Hemophilia A is the most frequent inherited bleeding disorder and most challenging coagulation disorder. To combat this, a number of new improved rFVIII/IX concentrates have recently been approved. Some of them are derived from protein fusion biotechnology or pegylation to extend their half-life (HL). However, prophylaxis has become a standard of care to prevent arthropathy in hemophiliacs though the need of frequent venipunctures is a major obstacle to primary prophylaxis. The new Extended Half-Life (EHL) rFIX concentrates allow increased intervals, while the improved HL of new rFVIII was moderate...
October 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049752/cytomegalovirus-infection-in-living-donor-and-cadaveric-lung-transplantations
#8
Keiji Ohata, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Koji Takahashi, Akihiro Aoyama, Hideki Motoyama, Kyoko Hijiya, Masatsugu Hamaji, Toshi Menju, Toshihiko Sato, Makoto Sonobe, Shunji Takakura, Hiroshi Date
Objectives: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a major cause of morbidity after lung transplantation. Some studies have reported prognostic factors for the postoperative development of CMV infection in cadaveric lung transplantation (CLT), but no research has been performed in living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT). Therefore, we analysed the possible risk factors of post-transplant CMV infection and the differences between LDLLT and CLT. Methods: The development of CMV disease and viraemia in 110 patients undergoing lung transplantation at Kyoto University Hospital in 2008-2015 were retrospectively assessed...
August 7, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049530/risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-among-otolaryngology-patients-vs-general-surgery-and-plastic-surgery-patients
#9
John D Cramer, Amanda E Dilger, Alex Schneider, Stephanie Shintani Smith, Sandeep Samant, Urjeet A Patel
Importance: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, is the number 1 cause of preventable death in surgical patients. Current guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians provide VTE prevention recommendations that are specific to individual surgical subspecialties; however, no guidelines exist for otolaryngology. Objective: To examine the rate of VTE for various otolaryngology procedures compared with an established average-risk field (general surgery) and low-risk field (plastic surgery)...
October 19, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049053/treatment-options-for-posttraumatic-epilepsy
#10
Lara L Zimmermann, Ryan M Martin, Fady Girgis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic seizures (PTS) and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are common and debilitating consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early PTS result in secondary brain injury by raising intracranial pressure and worsening cerebral edema and metabolic crisis. PTE is a localization-related epilepsy strongly associated with TBI severity, but risk factors for PTE and epileptogenesis are incompletely understood and are active areas of research. Medical management of PTS in adults and children is reviewed...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048966/text-messaging-for-improving-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-no-effects-after-1-year-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-among-adolescents-and-young-adults
#11
Sebastian Linnemayr, Haijing Huang, Jill Luoto, Andrew Kambugu, Harsha Thirumurthy, Jessica Haberer, Glenn Wagner, Barbara Mukasa
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of Short Message Service (SMS) reminder messages on antiretroviral and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis adherence among HIV-positive youths as well as the relative effectiveness of SMS with and without a response option. METHODS: Eligible HIV-positive patients aged 15 to 22 years at 2 HIV clinics in Kampala, Uganda, participated in a year-long parallel individual-randomized controlled trial and were assigned in a 1-to-1-to-1 ratio to a weekly SMS message group, weekly SMS message with response option group, or a usual-care control group...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048955/integrating-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-prep-into-routine-preventive-health-care-to-avoid-exacerbating-disparities
#12
Sarah K Calabrese, Douglas S Krakower, Kenneth H Mayer
More than 3 decades since its emergence in the United States, HIV continues to spread and disproportionately affect socially marginalized groups. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a highly effective prevention strategy federally approved since 2012, could fundamentally alter the course of the epidemic. However, PrEP's potential has not been fully realized, in part because health care providers have been slow to adopt PrEP in clinical practice and have been selective in their discussion of PrEP with patients. This nonstandardized approach has constrained PrEP access...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048712/efficacy-and-safety-of-nuwiq-%C3%A2-human-cl-rhfviii-in-patients-with-severe-haemophilia-a-undergoing-surgical-procedures
#13
N Zozulya, C M Kessler, A Klukowska, M von Depka, K Hampton, C R M Hay, M Jansen, J Bichler, S Knaub, S Rangarajan
INTRODUCTION: Haemophilia A patients are at a high risk of excess bleeding during surgeries. The aim of haemostatic therapy during the perioperative period is to normalize FVIII level perioperatively and postoperatively to maintain normal haemostasis until wound healing is complete. AIMS/METHODS: To examine the efficacy of Nuwiq(®) (simoctocog alfa, human-cl rhFVIII), a 4(th) generation recombinant FVIII produced in a human cell line, for surgical prophylaxis in patients with severe haemophilia A...
October 19, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048252/stigma-communication-surrounding-prep-the-experiences-of-a-sample-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#14
Joseph Schwartz, Josh Grimm
HIV is a serious problem in the USA, particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM). A new means of HIV prevention, called pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), has been shown to be highly effective. However, in spite of earning FDA approval, adoption of PrEP by MSM has been limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of a sample of 38 MSM who have adopted PrEP, focusing on communication with healthcare providers and social networks. In-depth interviews were used to collect data. Findings revealed that stigmatization by healthcare providers as well as stigmatization by other MSM was a relatively common experience for participants...
October 19, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047161/donor-lymphocyte-infusion-and-methotrexate-for-immune-recovery-after-t-cell-depleted-haploidentical-transplantation
#15
Andrew L Gilman, Wing Leung, Morton J Cowan, Mark Cannon, Stacy Epstein, Carrie Barnhart, Krishna Shah, Michelle Hyland, Tracy Fukes, Anastasia Ivanova
CD34+ cell selection minimizes graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after haploidentical donor stem cell transplant but is associated with slow immune recovery and infections. We report a Phase I/II study of prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) followed by methotrexate (MTX) GVHD prophylaxis after CD34-selected haploidentical donor transplant. A prophylactic DLI was given between day +30 and +42. Rituximab was given with DLI for the last 10 patients. The goal of the study was to determine a DLI dose that would result in a CD4+ cell count > 100/µL at Day +120 in ≥ 66% of patients with ≤ 33% grade II-III, ≤ 17% grade III, and no grade IV acute GVHD by Day +180...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047020/rotavirus-epidemiology-and-vaccine-demand-considering-bangladesh-chapter-through-the-book-of-global-disease-burden
#16
REVIEW
Abdullah Mahmud-Al-Rafat, Abdul Muktadir, Hasneen Muktadir, Mahbubul Karim, Arpan Maheshwari, Mohammad Mainul Ahasan
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the major cause of gastroenteritis in children throughout the world. Every year, a large number of children aged < 5 years die from rotavirus-related diarrhoeal diseases. Though these infections are vaccine-preventable, the vast majority of children in low-income countries suffer from the infection. The situation leads to severe economic loss and constitutes a major public health problem. METHODS: We searched electronic databases including PubMed and Google scholar using the following words: "features of rotavirus," "epidemiology of rotavirus," "rotavirus serotypes," "rotavirus in Bangladesh," "disease burden of rotavirus," "rotavirus vaccine," "low efficacy of rotavirus vaccine," "inactivated rotavirus vaccine"...
October 19, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046933/-regional-anesthesia-are-the-standards-changing
#17
REVIEW
T Volk, C Kubulus
Regional anesthesia has undergone many changes over the years and the increasing use of ultrasound has certainly played an important role in this. Apart from individual case reports in the literature of very different blocking options, some new procedures seem to have become established and can be broadly applied. Among these are blockades, by which ultrasound-guided injection of local anesthetics is carried out in fascial or muscular layers rather than around target nerves (e.g. cervical plexus blocks and truncal blocks)...
October 18, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046773/dexamethasone-alone-versus-in-combination-with-intra-operative-super-hydration-for-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-prophylaxis-in-female-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Eman A Ismail, Mohamed H Bakri, Sayed Kaoud Abd-Elshafy
BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone has a prophylactic effect on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and perioperative hydration is believed to play a role in PONV prophylaxis. This study was performed to examine the combined effects of pre-induction dexamethasone plus super-hydration on PONV and pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). METHODS: A total of 100 female patients undergoing LC were enrolled and randomized equally into two groups. Group DF received 5 mg dexamethasone (pre-induction) plus 30 ml/kg Ringer's lactate (intraoperative) and group D received 5 mg dexamethasone (pre-induction) alone...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046448/in-vitro-neutralization-is-not-predictive-of-prophylactic-efficacy-of-broadly-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibodies-cr6261-and-cr9114-against-lethal-h2-influenza-virus-challenge-in-mice
#19
Troy C Sutton, Elaine W Lamirande, Kevin W Bock, Ian N Moore, Wouter Koudstaal, Muniza Rehman, Gerrit Jan Weverling, Jaap Goudsmit, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza viruses of the H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes have caused previous pandemics. H2 influenza viruses represent a pandemic threat due to continued circulation in wild birds and limited immunity in the human population. In the event of a pandemic, anti-viral agents are the mainstay for treatment, but broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may be a viable alternative for short-term prophylaxis or treatment. The hemagglutinin stem binding bNAbs CR6261 and CR9114 have been shown to protect mice from severe disease following challenge with H1N1 and H5N1, and H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B viruses, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045740/adding-vancomycin-to-perioperative-prophylaxis-decreases-deep-sternal-wound-infections-in-high-risk-cardiac-surgery-patients
#20
Sylvia Reineke, Thierry P Carrel, Verena Eigenmann, Brigitta Gahl, Urs Fuehrer, Christian Seidl, David Reineke, Eva Roost, Magi Bächli, Jonas Marschall, Lars Englberger
OBJECTIVES: Perioperative prophylaxis with cephalosporins reduces sternal wound infections (SWIs) after cardiac surgery. However, more than 50% of coagulase-negative staphylococci, an important pathogen, are cephalosporin resistant. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of adjunctive vancomycin on SWIs in high-risk patients. METHODS: We conducted a pre- and postintervention study in an academic hospital. Preintervention (2010-2011), all patients received prophylaxis with 1...
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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