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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341892/premature-aging-in-behavior-and-immune-functions-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-haploinsufficient-female-mice-a-longitudinal-study
#1
A Garrido, J Cruces, N Ceprián, C Hernández-Sánchez, M De la Fuente
Aging is accompanied by impairment in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems as well as in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. In this context, there is an age-related alteration of the physiological response to acute stress, which is modulated by catecholamine (CA), final products of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis. The involvement of CA in essential functions of the nervous system is consistent with the neuropsychological deficits found in mice with haploinsufficiency (hemizygous; HZ) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme (TH-HZ)...
January 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341339/immunomodulation-by-therapeutic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-msc-is-triggered-through-phagocytosis-of-msc-by-monocytic-cells
#2
Samantha F H de Witte, Franka Luk, Jesus M Sierra Parraga, Madhu Gargesha, Ana Merino, Sander S Korevaar, Anusha S Shankar, Lisa O'Flynn, Steve J Elliman, Debashish Roy, Michiel G H Betjes, Philip N Newsome, Carla C Baan, Martin J Hoogduijn
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation as a potential immunotherapy. MSC are usually administered via intravenous infusion, after which they are trapped in the lungs and die and disappear within a day. The fate of MSC after their disappearance from the lungs is unknown and it is unclear how MSC realize their immunomodulatory effects in their short lifespan. We examined immunological mechanisms determining the fate of infused MSC and the immunomodulatory response associated with it. Tracking viable and dead human umbilical cord MSC (ucMSC) in mice using Qtracker beads (contained in viable cells) and Hoechst33342 (staining all cells) revealed that viable ucMSC were present in the lungs immediately after infusion...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340835/repurposed-fda-approved-drugs-targeting-genes-influencing-aging-can-extend-lifespan-and-healthspan-in-rotifers
#3
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Amelia B Matthews, Hongyi Zhou, Mu Gao, Jeffrey Skolnick
Pharmaceutical interventions can slow aging in animals, and have advantages because their dose can be tightly regulated and the timing of the intervention can be closely controlled. They also may complement environmental interventions like caloric restriction by acting additively. A fertile source for therapies slowing aging is FDA approved drugs whose safety has been investigated. Because drugs bind to several protein targets, they cause multiple effects, many of which have not been characterized. It is possible that some of the side effects of drugs prescribed for one therapy may have benefits in retarding aging...
January 16, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340356/long-life-sodium-carbon-fluoride-batteries-with-flexible-binder-free-fluorinated-mesocarbon-microbead-film-electrodes
#4
Wen Liu, Yong Wang, Yong Li, Bin Shi, Ping Huang, Rui Guo, Haijuan Pei, Yi Zheng, Jiachun Lu, Jingying Xie
Home-made fluorinated mesocarbon microbeads (F-MCMBs) were synthesised and employed in sodium batteries. Flexible, binder-free F-MCMB film electrodes were fabricated to enhance the cycle stability, and 65 cycles were achieved, which is the longest lifespan reported thus far. Nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (N-GNS) were also introduced as a catalyst, with the aim of lowering the voltage gap.
January 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340215/genome-stability-maintenance-in-naked-mole-rat
#5
I O Petruseva, A N Evdokimov, O I Lavrik
The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is one of the most promising models used to study genome maintenance systems, including the effective repair of damage to DNA. The naked mole-rat is the longest lived rodent species, which is extraordinarily resistant to cancer and has a number of other unique phenotypic traits. For at least 80% of its lifespan, this animal shows no signs of aging or any increased likelihood of death and retains the ability to reproduce. The naked mole-rat draws the heightened attention of researchers who study the molecular basis of lengthy lifespan and cancer resistance...
October 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339091/an-energetic-view-of-stress-focus-on-mitochondria
#6
REVIEW
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen, Elissa Epel, Carmen Sandi
Energy is required to sustain life and enable stress adaptation. At the cellular level, energy is largely derived from mitochondria - unique multifunctional organelles with their own genome. Four main elements connect mitochondria to stress: 1) Energy is required at the molecular, (epi)genetic, cellular, organ, and systemic levels to sustain components of stress responses; 2) Glucocorticoids and other steroid hormones are produced and metabolized by mitochondria; 3) Reciprocally, mitochondria functionally respond to neuroendocrine and metabolic stress mediators; and 4) Experimentally manipulating mitochondrial functions alters physiological and behavioral responses to psychological stress...
January 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338042/a-pharmacological-screen-for-compounds-that-rescue-the-developmental-lethality-of-a-drosophila-atm-mutant
#7
Stacey A Rimkus, David A Wassarman
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by mutation of the A-T mutated (ATM) gene. ATM encodes a protein kinase that is activated by DNA damage and phosphorylates many proteins, including those involved in DNA repair, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. Characteristic biological and molecular functions of ATM observed in mammals are conserved in Drosophila melanogaster. As an example, conditional loss-of-function ATM alleles in flies cause progressive neurodegeneration through activation of the innate immune response...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337928/protective-factors-in-the-inuit-population-of-nunavut-a-comparative-study-of-people-who-died-by-suicide-people-who-attempted-suicide-and-people-who-never-attempted-suicide
#8
Véronique Beaudoin, Monique Séguin, Nadia Chawky, William Affleck, Eduardo Chachamovich, Gustavo Turecki
Epidemiological data shows an alarming prevalence of suicide in Aboriginal populations around the world. In Canada, the highest rates are found in Inuit communities. In this article, we present the findings of a secondary analysis conducted with data previously collected as part of a larger study of psychological autopsies conducted in Nunavut, Canada. The objective of this secondary analysis was to identify protective factors in the Inuit population of Nunavut by comparing people who died by suicide, people from the general population who attempted suicide, and people from the general population who never attempted suicide...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337875/aux-iaa-gene-family-in-plants-molecular-structure-regulation-and-function
#9
REVIEW
Jie Luo, Jing-Jing Zhou, Jin-Zhi Zhang
Auxin plays a crucial role in the diverse cellular and developmental responses of plants across their lifespan. Plants can quickly sense and respond to changes in auxin levels, and these responses involve several major classes of auxin-responsive genes, including the Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) family, the auxin response factor (ARF) family, small auxin upregulated RNA (SAUR), and the auxin-responsive Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) family. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins comprising several highly conserved domains that are encoded by the auxin early response gene family...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337038/back-to-the-future-epigenetic-clock-plasticity-towards-healthy-aging
#10
REVIEW
Ken Declerck, Wim Vanden Berghe
Aging is the most important risk factor for major human lifestyle diseases, including cancer, neurological and cardiometabolic disorders. Due to the complex interplay between genetics, lifestyle and environmental factors, some individuals seem to age faster than others, whereas centenarians seem to have a slower aging process. Therefore, a biochemical biomarker reflecting the relative biological age would be helpful to predict an individual's health status and aging disease risk. Although it is already known for years that cumulative epigenetic changes occur upon aging, DNA methylation patterns were only recently used to construct an epigenetic clock predictor for biological age, which is a measure of how well your body functions compared to your chronological age...
January 11, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336544/identification-of-collateral-sensitivity-to-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase-inhibitors-in-i-plasmodium-falciparum-i
#11
Leila Saxby Ross, Maria Jose Lafuente-Monasterio, Tomoyo Sakata-Kato, Rebecca E K Mandt, Francisco-Javier Gamo, Dyann F Wirth, Amanda K Lukens
Drug resistance has been reported for every antimalarial in use highlighting the need for new strategies to protect the efficacy of therapeutics in development. We have previously shown that resistance can be suppressed with a population biology trap: by identifying situations where resistance to one compound confers hypersensitivity to another (collateral sensitivity), we can design combination therapies that not only kill the parasite, but also guide its evolution away from resistance. We applied this concept to the Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) enzyme, a well validated antimalarial target with inhibitors in the development pipeline...
January 16, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336481/the-unguarded-x-and-the-genetic-architecture-of-lifespan-inbreeding-results-in-a-potentially-maladaptive-sex-specific-reduction-of-female-lifespan-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Zahida Sultanova, Muhammed Andic, Pau Carazo
Sex differences in ageing and lifespan are ubiquitous in nature. The "unguarded-X" hypothesis (UXh) suggests they may be partly due to the expression of recessive mutations in the hemizygous sex chromosomes of the heterogametic sex, which could help explain sex-specific ageing in a broad array of taxa. A prediction central to the UX hypothesis is that inbreeding will decrease the lifespan of the homogametic sex more than the heterogametic sex, because only in the former does inbreeding increase the expression of recessive deleterious mutations...
January 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335817/repurposing-existing-drugs-for-new-ampk-activators-as-a-strategy-to-extend-lifespan-a-computer-aided-drug-discovery-study
#13
Sepideh Mofidifar, Farzin Sohraby, Milad Bagheri, Hassan Aryapour
Dietary restriction is one of the several ways which could putatively extend organisms' lifespan, ranging from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to rodents, by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an ATP/AMP sensor. Extensive researches have shown that aging reduces sensibility of AMPK and eventually causes energy imbalance in cells. Research in mammals' AMPK depicts that this signaling molecule could control autophagy, improve cellular stress resistance and suppress inflammatory responses. Hence, in this study we performed a drug repurposing of 1908 FDA-approved drugs in order to discover putative safe activators of AMPK and to find new applications for existing drugs...
January 15, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335673/desistance-and-severity-of-alcohol-use-disorder-a-lifespan-developmental-investigation
#14
Matthew R Lee, Cassandra L Boness, Yoanna E McDowell, Alvaro Vergés, Douglas L Steinley, Kenneth J Sher
Key to an understanding of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are the drinking-related reductions that begin in young adulthood and continue throughout the adult lifespan. Research is needed to precisely characterize the form of these reductions, including possible developmental differences across the lifespan. Using U.S.-representative data, we estimated multiple-group Markov models characterizing longitudinal transitions among five drinking statuses and differences in transition patterns across six adult age periods...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335528/exd2-governs-germ-stem-cell-homeostasis-and-lifespan-by-promoting-mitoribosome-integrity-and-translation
#15
Joana Silva, Suvi Aivio, Philip A Knobel, Laura J Bailey, Andreu Casali, Maria Vinaixa, Isabel Garcia-Cao, Étienne Coyaud, Alexis A Jourdain, Pablo Pérez-Ferreros, Ana M Rojas, Albert Antolin-Fontes, Sara Samino-Gené, Brian Raught, Acaimo González-Reyes, Lluís Ribas de Pouplana, Aidan J Doherty, Oscar Yanes, Travis H Stracker
Mitochondria are subcellular organelles that are critical for meeting the bioenergetic and biosynthetic needs of the cell. Mitochondrial function relies on genes and RNA species encoded both in the nucleus and mitochondria, and on their coordinated translation, import and respiratory complex assembly. Here, we characterize EXD2 (exonuclease 3'-5' domain-containing 2), a nuclear-encoded gene, and show that it is targeted to the mitochondria and prevents the aberrant association of messenger RNAs with the mitochondrial ribosome...
January 15, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335422/lifetime-preserving-reference-models-for-characterizing-spreading-dynamics-on-temporal-networks
#16
Mingwu Li, Vikyath D Rao, Tim Gernat, Harry Dankowicz
To study how a certain network feature affects processes occurring on a temporal network, one often compares properties of the original network against those of a randomized reference model that lacks the feature in question. The randomly permuted times (PT) reference model is widely used to probe how temporal features affect spreading dynamics on temporal networks. However, PT implicitly assumes that edges and nodes are continuously active during the network sampling period - an assumption that does not always hold in real networks...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335381/the-fetal-programming-of-telomere-biology-hypothesis-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Sonja Entringer, Karin de Punder, Claudia Buss, Pathik D Wadhwa
Research on mechanisms underlying fetal programming of health and disease risk has focused primarily on processes that are specific to cell types, organs or phenotypes of interest. However, the observation that developmental conditions concomitantly influence a diverse set of phenotypes, the majority of which are implicated in age-related disorders, raises the possibility that such developmental conditions may additionally exert effects via a common underlying mechanism that involves cellular/molecular ageing-related processes...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335371/the-relationship-between-telomere-length-and-mortality-risk-in-non-model-vertebrate-systems-a-meta-analysis
#18
Rachael V Wilbourn, Joshua P Moatt, Hannah Froy, Craig A Walling, Daniel H Nussey, Jelle J Boonekamp
Telomere length (TL) has become a biomarker of increasing interest within ecology and evolutionary biology, and has been found to predict subsequent survival in some recent avian studies but not others. Here, we undertake the first formal meta-analysis to test whether there is an overall association between TL and subsequent mortality risk in vertebrates other than humans and model laboratory rodents. We identified 27 suitable studies and obtained standardized estimates of the hazard ratio associated with TL from each...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335370/somatic-growth-and-telomere-dynamics-in-vertebrates-relationships-mechanisms-and-consequences
#19
REVIEW
Pat Monaghan, Susan E Ozanne
Much telomere loss takes place during the period of most rapid growth when cell proliferation and potentially energy expenditure are high. Fast growth is linked to reduced longevity. Therefore, the effects of somatic cell proliferation on telomere loss and cell senescence might play a significant role in driving the growth-lifespan trade-off. While different species will have evolved a growth strategy that maximizes lifetime fitness, environmental conditions encountered during periods of growth will influence individual optima...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335369/the-rate-of-telomere-loss-is-related-to-maximum-lifespan-in-birds
#20
Gianna M Tricola, Mirre J P Simons, Els Atema, Raoul K Boughton, J L Brown, Donald C Dearborn, G Divoky, John A Eimes, Charles E Huntington, Alexander S Kitaysky, Frans A Juola, David B Lank, Hannah P Litwa, Ellis G A Mulder, Ian C T Nisbet, Kazuo Okanoya, Rebecca J Safran, Stephan J Schoech, Elizabeth A Schreiber, Paul M Thompson, Simon Verhulst, Nathaniel T Wheelwright, David W Winkler, Rebecca Young, Carol M Vleck, Mark F Haussmann
Telomeres are highly conserved regions of DNA that protect the ends of linear chromosomes. The loss of telomeres can signal an irreversible change to a cell's state, including cellular senescence. Senescent cells no longer divide and can damage nearby healthy cells, thus potentially placing them at the crossroads of cancer and ageing. While the epidemiology, cellular and molecular biology of telomeres are well studied, a newer field exploring telomere biology in the context of ecology and evolution is just emerging...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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