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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144896/atg9-antagonizes-tor-signaling-to-regulate-intestinal-cell-growth-and-epithelial-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#1
Jung-Kun Wen, Yi-Ting Wang, Chih-Chiang Chan, Cheng-Wen Hsieh, Hsiao-Man Liao, Chin-Chun Hung, Guang-Chao Chen
Autophagy is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival under various stress conditions. Autophagy-related gene 9 (Atg9) encodes a multipass transmembrane protein thought to act as a membrane carrier for forming autophagosomes. However, the molecular regulation and physiological importance of Atg9 in animal development remain largely unclear. Here, we generated Atg9 null mutant flies and found that loss of Atg9 led to shortened lifespan, locomotor defects, and increased susceptibility to stress...
November 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144048/teenage-boy-with-thickened-dorsal-hands-and-feet
#2
Samantha L Schneider, Devika Patel, Tor A Shwayder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143405/cost-effectiveness-modeling-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-compared-to-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-treatment-resistant-depression-in-singapore
#3
Ying Jiao Zhao, Phern Chern Tor, Ai Leng Khoo, Monica Teng, Boon Peng Lim, Yee Ming Mok
BACKGROUND: Compared to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), the cost-effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the management of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of rTMS vs. ECT for TRD from Singapore societal perspective. METHODS: We constructed a Markov model to project the cost and benefit of rTMS compared with ECT over one year in patients with TRD...
November 16, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137436/tumor-biopsy-stratification-based-on-mtor-pathway-activity-and-functional-mutations-in-the-upstream-genes-pik3ca-and-pten
#4
Jean-François Laes, Sebastien Sauvage, Gregori Ghitti
The mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is frequently activated in human cancers. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between mTOR-pathway activity and functional mutations in the upstream genes PIK3CA and PTEN in solid-tumor biopsies from a broad selection of cancer types. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). TOR-pathway activation was identified by expression (by IHC) of the downstream effector p-4E-BP1...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136123/amyloid-network-topology-characterizes-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-during-the-predementia-stages
#5
Joana B Pereira, Tor Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Giovanni Volpe, Danielle van Westen, Eric Westman, Oskar Hansson
There is increasing evidence showing that the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into extracellular plaques is a central event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These abnormalities can be detected as lowered levels of Aβ42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and are followed by increased amyloid burden on positron emission tomography (PET) several years before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to assess amyloid network topology in nondemented individuals with early stage Aβ accumulation, defined as abnormal CSF Aβ42 levels and normal Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET-), and more advanced Aβ accumulation, defined as both abnormal CSF Aβ42 and Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET+)...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133179/stage-related-central-corneal-epithelial-transformation-in-congenital-aniridia-associated-keratopathy
#6
Neil Lagali, Bogumil Wowra, Dariusz Dobrowolski, Tor Paaske Utheim, Per Fagerholm, Edward Wylegala
PURPOSE: To relate central corneal epithelial phenotype to degree of keratopathy in a limbal stem cell deficient population. METHODS: 37 patients (67 eyes) with aniridia-associated keratopathy (AAK) underwent corneal examination including slit lamp biomicroscopy to determine the Grade of AAK, Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry, and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) to assess morphology of the central corneal epithelium and subepithelial region. RESULTS: AAK Grade ranged from 1 (limbal involvement only) to 4 (total conjunctivalisation), with progression from Grade 1 occurring after the age of 20...
November 10, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129276/amino-acid-modulation-of-lifespan-and-reproduction-in-drosophila
#7
REVIEW
Katja M Hoedjes, Marisa A Rodrigues, Thomas Flatt
Manipulating amino acid (AA) intake in Drosophila can profoundly affect lifespan and reproduction. Remarkably, AA manipulation can uncouple the commonly observed trade-off between these traits. This finding seems to challenge the idea that this trade-off is due to competitive resource allocation, but here we argue that this view might be too simplistic. We also discuss the mechanisms of the AA response, mediated by the IIS/TOR and GCN2 pathways. Elucidating how these pathways respond to specific AA will likely yield important insights into how AA modulate the reproduction-lifespan relationship...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128426/detection-of-early-changes-in-the-coronary-artery-microstructure-after-heart-transplantation-a-prospective-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#8
Tor Skibsted Clemmensen, Niels Ramsing Holm, Hans Eiskjær, Lars Jakobsen, Katrine Berg, Omeed Neghabat, Brian Bridal Løgstrup, Evald Høj Christiansen, Jouke Dijkstra, Christian Juhl Terkelsen, Michael Maeng, Steen Hvitfeldt Poulsen
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables in-vivo cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) microstructure characterization. Early coronary artery microstructure changes after heart transplantation (HTx) may provide valuable mechanistic information regarding CAV development. Our in this study was to describe and characterize changes in the coronary artery microstructure during the first year after HTx using serial OCT scans. METHODS: Twenty-six patients were enrolled at routine baseline coronary angiography 3 months after HTx...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128262/intraoperative-imaging-during-minimally-invasive-transoral-robotic-surgery-using-near-infrared-light
#9
Nicholas Scott-Wittenborn, Ryan S Jackson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the FIREFLY imaging system could be an asset in transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). The system uses indocyanine green dye (ICG), which fluoresces when illuminated by near-infrared light from the Da Vinci robot. The system may improve visualization of tumor margins, highlight important vascular structures, and help identify the location of tumors and unknown primary head and neck cancers...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127028/effects-of-dietary-panax-notoginseng-extract-on-growth-performance-fish-composition-immune-responses-intestinal-histology-and-immune-related-genes-expression-of-hybrid-grouper-epinephelus-lanceolatus-%C3%A2-%C3%A3-epinephelus-fuscoguttatus-%C3%A2-fed-high-lipid-diets
#10
Zhenzhu Sun, Xiaohong Tan, Huaqun Ye, Cuiyun Zou, Chaoxia Ye, Anli Wang
Growth, plasma biochemical parameters, fish composition, immune parameters, intestinal histology, and expressions of immune-related genes were examined in hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂ × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀) that fed respectively six diets containing Panax notoginseng extract (PNE) at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 10 g kg(-1) after 8 weeks. Results indicated that dietary PNE significantly improved growth, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and protein deposit rate, and significantly increased crude protein and crude lipid levels of whole body and crude protein level of muscle...
November 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123068/integrated-view-of-vibrio-cholerae-in-the-americas
#11
Daryl Domman, Marie-Laure Quilici, Matthew J Dorman, Elisabeth Njamkepo, Ankur Mutreja, Alison E Mather, Gabriella Delgado, Rosario Morales-Espinosa, Patrick A D Grimont, Marcial Leonardo Lizárraga-Partida, Christiane Bouchier, David M Aanensen, Pablo Kuri-Morales, Cheryl L Tarr, Gordon Dougan, Julian Parkhill, Josefina Campos, Alejandro Cravioto, François-Xavier Weill, Nicholas R Thomson
Latin America has experienced two of the largest cholera epidemics in modern history; one in 1991 and the other in 2010. However, confusion still surrounds the relationships between globally circulating pandemic Vibrio cholerae clones and local bacterial populations. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize cholera across the Americas over a 40-year time span. We found that both epidemics were the result of intercontinental introductions of seventh pandemic El Tor V. cholerae and that at least seven lineages local to the Americas are associated with disease that differs epidemiologically from epidemic cholera...
November 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122989/recent-discoveries-on-the-role-of-tor-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-in-translation-in-plants
#12
Mikhail Schepetilnikov, Lyubov A Ryabova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120488/normal-white-matter-microstructure-in-women-long-term-recovered-from-anorexia-nervosa-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#13
Lasse Bang, Øyvind Rø, Tor Endestad
OBJECTIVES: Studies point to white matter (WM) microstructure alterations in both adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). These include reduced fractional anisotropy in several WM fiber tracts, suggesting reduced WM integrity. The extent to which these alterations are reversible with recovery from AN is unclear. There is a paucity of research investigating the presence of WM microstructure alterations in recovered AN patients, and results are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the presence of WM microstructure alterations in women long-term recovered from AN...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118783/cerebrospinal-fluid-phosphate-in-delirium-after-hip-fracture
#14
Ane-Victoria Idland, Torgeir Bruun Wyller, Randi Støen, Gry Torsæter Dahl, Frede Frihagen, Anne Brækhus, Bjørnar Hassel, Leiv Otto Watne
Aims: Phosphate is essential for neuronal activity. We aimed to investigate whether delirium is associated with altered phosphate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with hip fracture were assessed for delirium before and after acute surgery. Prefracture dementia was diagnosed by an expert panel. Phosphate was measured in CSF obtained immediately before spinal anesthesia (n = 77) and in serum (n = 47). CSF from 23 cognitively healthy elderly patients undergoing spinal anesthesia was also analyzed...
September 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118031/neurohormonal-blockade-and-circulating-cardiovascular-biomarkers-during-anthracycline-therapy-in-breast-cancer-patients-results-from-the-prada-prevention-of-cardiac-dysfunction-during-adjuvant-breast-cancer-therapy-study
#15
Geeta Gulati, Siri L Heck, Helge Røsjø, Anne H Ree, Pavel Hoffmann, Tor-Arne Hagve, Jon Norseth, Berit Gravdehaug, Kjetil Steine, Jürgen Geisler, Torbjørn Omland
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines are associated with cardiotoxic effects. Cardiovascular biomarkers may reflect myocardial injury, dysfunction, inflammation, and fibrosis and may precede and predict the development of left ventricular impairment. The aim of this study was to assess: (1) longitudinal change in circulating cardiovascular biomarkers, (2) the effect of metoprolol succinate and candesartan cilexetil on the biomarker response, and (3) the associations between on-treatment changes in biomarker concentrations and subsequent left ventricular dysfunction in patients with early breast cancer receiving anthracyclines...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116656/all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality-risk-after-surgery-versus-radioiodine-treatment-for-hyperthyroidism
#16
P Giesecke, V Frykman, G Wallin, S Lönn, A Discacciati, O Törring, M Rosenqvist
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term side-effects of different treatments for hyperthyroidism. The few studies previously published on the subject either included only women or focused mainly on cancer outcomes. This register study compared the impact of surgery versus radioiodine on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a cohort of men and women. METHODS: Healthcare registers were used to find hyperthyroid patients over 35 years of age who were treated with radioiodine or surgery between 1976 and 2000...
November 8, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116057/numerical-assessment-of-low-frequency-dosimetry-from-sampled-magnetic-fields
#17
Fabio Freschi, Luca Giaccone, Vincenzo Cirimele, Aldo Canova
Low-frequency dosimetry is commonly assessed by evaluating the electric field in the human body using the scalar potential finite dif- ference method. This method is effective only when the sources of the magnetic field are completely known and the magnetic vector po- tential can be analytically computed. The aim of the paper is to present a rigorous method to characterize the source term when only the magnetic flux density is available at discrete points, e.g. in case of field measurements. The method is based on the solution of the discrete magnetic curl equation...
November 8, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113067/omics-approaches-for-identifying-physiological-adaptations-to-genome-instability-in-aging
#18
REVIEW
Diletta Edifizi, Björn Schumacher
DNA damage causally contributes to aging and age-related diseases. The declining functioning of tissues and organs during aging can lead to the increased risk of succumbing to aging-associated diseases. Congenital syndromes that are caused by heritable mutations in DNA repair pathways lead to cancer susceptibility and accelerated aging, thus underlining the importance of genome maintenance for withstanding aging. High-throughput mass-spectrometry-based approaches have recently contributed to identifying signalling response networks and gaining a more comprehensive understanding of the physiological adaptations occurring upon unrepaired DNA damage...
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111120/abnormal-coronary-flow-velocity-reserve-and-decreased-myocardial-contractile-reserve-are-main-factors-in-relation-to-physical-exercise-capacity-in-cardiac-amyloidosis
#19
Tor Skibsted Clemmensen, Hans Eiskjær, Henning Mølgaard, Anders Hostrup Larsen, Jens Soerensen, Niels Frost Andersen, Lars Poulsen Tolbod, Hendrik J Harms, Steen Hvitfeldt Poulsen
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical importance of echocardiographic coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR), resting and exercise left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS), and myocardial work efficiency (MWE) in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA). METHODS: The study population comprised 69 subjects: group A, 27 patients with CA confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy (CA positive); group B, 42 healthy control subjects. The amyloid phenotype in group A was as follows: patients with wild-type transthyretin-related amyloidosis (n = 10), carriers of the Danish familial transthyretin amyloidosis mutation with cardiac involvement (n = 5), and patients with amyloid light chain amyloidosis with cardiac involvement (n = 12)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108801/mechanisms-of-placebo-analgesia-a-dual-process-model-informed-by-insights-from-cross-species-comparisons
#20
REVIEW
Scott M Schafer, Stephan Geuter, Tor D Wager
Placebo treatments are pharmacologically inert, but are known to alleviate symptoms across a variety of clinical conditions. Associative learning and cognitive expectations both play important roles in placebo responses, however we are just beginning to understand how interactions between these processes lead to powerful effects. Here, we review the psychological principles underlying placebo effects and our current understanding of their brain bases, focusing on studies demonstrating both the importance of cognitive expectations and those that demonstrate expectancy-independent associative learning...
November 3, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
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