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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637279/high-dimensional-multivariate-mediation-with-application-to-neuroimaging-data
#1
Oliver Y Chén, Ciprian Crainiceanu, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Brian S Caffo, Tor D Wager, Martin A Lindquist
Mediation analysis is an important tool in the behavioral sciences for investigating the role of intermediate variables that lie in the path between a treatment and an outcome variable. The influence of the intermediate variable on the outcome is often explored using a linear structural equation model (LSEM), with model coefficients interpreted as possible effects. While there has been significant research on the topic, little work has been done when the intermediate variable (mediator) is a high-dimensional vector...
June 15, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635136/knockdown-of-tor-causing-ovarian-diapause-in-a-genetically-stable-brachypterous-strain-of-nilaparvata-lugens
#2
Fangzhou Liu, Kaiyin Li, Wanlun Cai, Jing Zhao, Yulan Zou, Hongxia Hua
Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most damaging pests of rice crops. BPH is a migratory insect with a delayed ovarian development in migrants classified as reproductive diapause. The molecular mechanism of reproductive diapause remains unclear, although we suspect it might be regulated by one or more nutrient signaling pathways. The target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway regulates cell growth in response to nutritional information, which raised a hypothesis that TOR mediates BPH reproductive diapause...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632995/microenvironment-and-tumors-a-nurturing-relationship
#3
Nadja Sandra Katheder, Tor Erik Rusten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631732/skillful-prediction-of-northern-climate-provided-by-the-ocean
#4
Marius Årthun, Tor Eldevik, Ellen Viste, Helge Drange, Tore Furevik, Helen L Johnson, Noel S Keenlyside
It is commonly understood that a potential for skillful climate prediction resides in the ocean. It nevertheless remains unresolved to what extent variable ocean heat is imprinted on the atmosphere to realize its predictive potential over land. Here we assess from observations whether anomalous heat in the Gulf Stream's northern extension provides predictability of northwestern European and Arctic climate. We show that variations in ocean temperature in the high latitude North Atlantic and Nordic Seas are reflected in the climate of northwestern Europe and in winter Arctic sea ice extent...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627046/donor-specific-antibodies-are-associated-with-micro-and-macrovascular-coronary-disease-restrictive-myocardial-damage-and-poor-outcome-in-heart-transplanted-patients
#5
Tor Skibsted Clemmensen, Pernille Koefoed-Nielsen, Lis-Ann Jensen, Steen Hvitfeldt Poulsen, Niels Ramsing Holm, Brian Bridal Løgstrup, Evald Høj Christiansen, Jouke Dijkstra, Kamilla Pernille Bjerre Valen, Hans Eiskjaer
AIMS: We examined the relationship between donor-specific HLA antibody (DSA) presence and graft function, hemodynamics, cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in stable long-term heart-transplanted (HTx) patients. METHODS: Sera from 79 patients (median 7.5 years after HTx) were analyzed for DSA presence. Graft function was evaluated by echocardiography and right heart catheterization. CAV-burden was determined by coronary angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR)...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626069/how-many-deaths-from-colorectal-cancer-can-be-prevented-by-2030-a-scenario-based-quantification-of-risk-factor-modification-screening-and-treatment-in-norway
#6
Katrine Damgaard Skyrud, Tor Age Myklebust, Freddie Bray, Morten Tandberg Eriksen, Thomas de Lange, Inger Kristin Larsen, Bjørn Møller
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality can be reduced through risk factor modification (adherence to lifestyle recommendations), screening, and improved treatment. This study estimated the potential of these three strategies to modify CRC mortality rates in Norway. METHODS: The potential reduction in CRC mortality due to risk factor modification was estimated using the software Prevent, assuming that 50% of the population in Norway-who do not adhere to the various recommendations concerning prevention of smoking, physical activity, body weight, and intake of alcohol, red/processed meat, and fiber-started to follow the recommendations...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625872/decreased-enteritis-resistance-ability-by-dietary-low-or-excess-levels-of-lipids-through-impairing-the-intestinal-physical-and-immune-barriers-function-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#7
Lin Feng, Pei-Jun Ni, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xu Tang, He-Qun Shi, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
The current study explores the hypothesis that low or excess levels of lipids decrease the enteritis resistance ability through impairing the intestinal physical and immune barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp with an average initial weight of 261.41 ± 0.53 g were fed diets containing six graded levels of lipids at 5.9, 21.4, 36.0, 50.2, 66.6 and 80.1 g/kg for 8 weeks. After that, a challenge trial was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila over 2 weeks...
June 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625543/characterization-of-vibrio-cholerae-o1-strains-that-trace-the-origin-of-haitian-like-genetic-traits
#8
Priyanka Ghosh, Dhirendra Kumar, Goutam Chowdhury, Puneeta Singh, Prosenjit Samanta, Shanta Dutta, T Ramamurthy, N C Sharma, Preety Sinha, Yogendra Prasad, Sumio Shinoda, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Vibrio cholerae O1 is the etiological agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera. The bacterium has recently been causing outbreaks in Haiti with catastrophic effects. Numerous mutations have been reported in V. cholerae O1 strains associated with the Haitian outbreak. These mutations encompass among other the genes encoding virulence factors such as the pilin subunit of the toxin-co-regulated pilus (tcpA), cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB), repeat in toxins (rtxA), and other genes such as the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrase A (gyrA), rstB of RS element along with the alteration in the number of repeat sequences at the promoter region of ctxAB...
June 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625010/treatment-of-tongue-base-masses-in-children-by-transoral-robotic-surgery
#9
Fatma Tulin Kayhan, Ayse Pelin Yigider, Arzu Karaman Koc, Kamil Hakan Kaya, Ibrahim Erdim
The feasibility and effectiveness of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in children with tongue base masses (TBMs) were evaluated. Eight pediatric patients who were treated with TORS for TBMs between January 2010 and January 2016 at a tertiary hospital included in the study. All pathologies were congenital lesions: four were lingual thyroglossal ductus cysts (LTGDCs), one was a minor salivary gland tumor, one was a vallecular cyst, one was a bronchogenic cyst, and one was an ectopic thyroid tissue. TORS was performed successfully in all cases...
June 17, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622885/the-impact-of-prophylactic-external-carotid-artery-ligation-on-postoperative-bleeding-after-transoral-robotic-surgery-tors-for-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
John Gleysteen, Scott Troob, Tyler Light, Daniel Brickman, Daniel Clayburgh, Peter Andersen, Neil Gross
BACKGROUND: Transoral robotic-assisted surgery (TORS) is increasingly utilized in the treatment of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Postoperative bleeding is a significant and potentially fatal complication of TORS. Prophylactic ligation of ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA) branches is a recognized strategy to reduce postoperative bleeding risk. We examined the incidence and sequelae of postoperative oropharyngeal bleeding with and without routine ECA ligation. METHODS: OPSCC patients treated with TORS between 2010 and 2015 with minimum 30days follow up were included...
July 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615017/protocol-for-the-effect-evaluation-of-independent-medical-evaluation-after-six-months-sick-leave-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-independent-medical-evaluation-versus-treatment-as-usual-in-norway
#11
Elisabeth Husabo, Karin Monstad, Tor Helge Holmås, Irene Oyeflaten, Erik L Werner, Silje Maeland
BACKGROUND: It has been discussed whether the relationship between a patient on sick leave and his/her general practitioner (GP) is too close, as this may hinder the GP's objective evaluation of need for sick leave. Independent medical evaluation involves an independent physician consulting the patient. This could lead to new perspectives on sick leave and how to follow-up the patient. METHODS/DESIGN: The current study is a randomized controlled trial in a Norwegian primary care context, involving an effect evaluation, a cost/benefit analysis, and a qualitative evaluation...
June 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610845/hemochromatosis-and-blood-donation
#12
REVIEW
Turid Aarhus Braseth, Tor Hervig, Anne Synnove Rosvik
The voluntary, unpaid, altruistic blood donor is a cornerstone of current transfusion medicine. The complexity of medical and ethical issues related to blood donation and hemochromatosis has led to a large number of studies related to the safety of the hemochromatosis donor and the quality of the blood components produced from these donations. The issue of accepting persons with HC as blood donors is diverting, both in Europe and worldwide and without joint guidelines. A questionnaire-based study was performed and mailed to all 25 blood bank leaders in Norway...
May 18, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610481/efficacy-of-humanized-mesenchymal-stem-cell-cultures-for-bone-tissue-engineering-a-systematic-review-with-a-focus-on-platelet-derivatives
#13
Siddharth Shanbhag, Andreas Stavropoulos, Salwa Suliman, Tor Hervig, Kamal Mustafa
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most commonly used supplement for ex vivo expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for bone tissue engineering applications. However, from a clinical standpoint, it is important to substitute animal-derived products according to current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) guidelines. Humanized alternatives to FBS include three categories of products: human serum (HS), human platelet-derivatives (HPD) - including platelet lysate (PL) or releasate (PR), produced by freeze-/thawing or chemical activation of platelet concentrates, respectively; and chemically-defined media (CDM)...
June 13, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609773/transoral-robotic-surgery-total-laryngectomy-evaluation-of-functional-and-survival-outcomes-in-a-retrospective-case-series-at-a-single-institution
#14
Giri Krishnan, Suren Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Transoral robotic surgery total laryngectomy (TORS-TL) is a minimally invasive endoscopic surgical approach which can theoretically minimise the morbidity of large external incisions and limit dissection of tissue planes so as to reduce the risk of pharyngocutaneous fistulae related to poor tissue healing secondary to radiation soft tissue injury or malnutrition. The purpose of this paper was to report our experience with this uncommon surgical approach. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at a single institution to evaluate the functional and survival outcomes of a series of patients who underwent TORS-TL...
June 14, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608834/multi-dimensional-spectrum-effect-relationship-of-the-impact-of-chinese-herbal-formula-lichong-shengsui-yin-on-ovarian-cancer
#15
Yanhong Wang, Yang Li, Yan Zhang, Guan Feng, Zhixin Yang, Qingxia Guan, Rui Wang, Fengjuan Han
Lichong Shengsui Yin (LCSSY) is an effective and classic compound prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) used for the treatment of ovarian cancer. To investigate its pharmacodynamic basis for treating ovarian cancer, the multi-dimensional spectrum-effect relationship was determined. Four compositions (I to IV) were obtained by extracting LCSSY successively with supercritical CO₂ fluid extraction, 75% ethanol reflux extraction, and the water extraction-ethanol precipitation method. Nine samples for pharmacological evaluation and fingerprint analysis were prepared by changing the content of the four compositions...
June 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605374/laboratory-techniques-used-to-maintain-and-differentiate-biotypes-of-vibrio-cholerae-clinical-and-environmental-isolates
#16
Kyle D Brumfield, Bailey M Carignan, Jordan N Ray, Panagiota E Jumpre, Mike S Son
The aquatic Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the infectious gastrointestinal disease cholera. Due to the global prevalence and severity of this disease, V. cholerae has been extensively studied in both environmental and laboratory settings, requiring proper maintenance and culturing techniques. Classical and El Tor are two main biotypes that compose the V. cholerae O1 serogroup, each displaying unique genotypic and phenotypic characteristics that provide reliable mechanisms for biotype characterization, and require distinct virulence inducing culturing conditions...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602689/empathic-care-and-distress-predictive-brain-markers-and-dissociable-brain-systems
#17
Yoni K Ashar, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Sona Dimidjian, Tor D Wager
Encountering another's suffering can elicit both empathic distress and empathic care-the warm desire to affiliate. It remains unclear whether these two feelings can be accurately and differentially predicted from neural activity and to what extent their neural substrates can be distinguished. We developed fMRI markers predicting moment-by-moment intensity levels of care and distress intensity while participants (n = 66) listened to true biographies describing human suffering. Both markers' predictions correlated strongly with self-report in out-of-sample participants (r = 0...
May 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602658/bidirectional-frontoparietal-oscillatory-systems-support-working-memory
#18
Elizabeth L Johnson, Callum D Dewar, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Tor Endestad, Torstein R Meling, Robert T Knight
The ability to represent and select information in working memory provides the neurobiological infrastructure for human cognition. For 80 years, dominant views of working memory have focused on the key role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) [1-8]. However, more recent work has implicated posterior cortical regions [9-12], suggesting that PFC engagement during working memory is dependent on the degree of executive demand. We provide evidence from neurological patients with discrete PFC damage that challenges the dominant models attributing working memory to PFC-dependent systems...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602144/antipsychotic-treatment-experiences-of-fully-recovered-service-users
#19
Jone Bjornestad, Larry Davidson, Inge Joa, Tor Ketil Larsen, Wenche Ten Velden Hegelstad, Johannes Langeveld, Marius Veseth, Ingrid Melle, Jan Olav Johannessen, Kolbjorn Bronnick
BACKGROUND: There is lack of long-term controlled studies evaluating treatment effects of antipsychotic medication. A complete investigation should include the service user perspective. AIMS: To investigate experiences of clinically recovered service users of antipsychotic medications during and after a first episode of psychosis. METHOD: We used a thematic analytic approach within an interpretative-phenomenological framework. 20 clinically recovered service users were interviewed...
June 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592627/cytokines-are-markers-of-the-clostridium-difficile-induced-inflammatory-response-and-predict-disease-severity
#20
Hua Yu, Kevin Chen, Ying Sun, Mihaela Carter, Kevin W Garey, Tor C Savidge, Sridevi Devaraj, Mary Elizabeth Tessier, Erik C von Rosenvinge, Ciaran P Kelly, Marcela F Pasetti, Hanping Feng
The host immune response affects pathogen virulence in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Thus, cytokine responses to CDI are likely associated with disease initiation and progression. Understanding the molecular drivers of inflammation and biochemical markers of disease severity are important for developing novel therapies and predicting the disease prognosis. In this study, we investigated cytokine production in patients with CDI and evaluated the potential of cytokines to serve as biomarkers for CDI and predictors of disease severity...
June 7, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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