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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907629/cataract-surgery-refractive-outcomes-representative-standards-in-a-national-health-service-setting
#1
Kerr Brogan, Charles J M Diaper, Alan P Rotchford
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To report refractive outcomes from an National Health Service (NHS) cataract surgery service and assess if results meet suggested benchmark standard. METHODS: Details of all patients undergoing cataract surgery in the Southern General and New Victoria hospitals in Glasgow, UK, between November 2006 and December 2016 were prospectively entered into an electronic database. Patients were reviewed 4 weeks postoperatively in the eye clinic and underwent refraction at their local optometrist prior to this appointment...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907335/trial-protocol-the-use-of-mindfulness-based-intervention-for-improving-bracing-compliance-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-patients-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Benjamin Hon Kei Yip, Xue Li, Christine Hiu Yan Leung, Ting Gao, Vincent Chi Ho Chung, Fiona Wai Ping Yu, Tsz Ping Lam, Jack Chun Yiu Cheng, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most prevalent deforming orthopaedic condition; it causes significant disability when spinal curves progress beyond 45deg. Bracing is the primary treatment prescribed for adolescents with an immature skeleton who have spinal curves between 25 and 45deg. New evidence suggests that compliance with bracing significantly decreases the progression of high-risk curves to the threshold for surgery. Nonetheless, bracing is a stressful experience...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907105/implementing-cognitive-remediation-and-social-cognitive-interaction-training-into-standard-psychosis-care
#3
Frances Dark, Meredith Harris, Victoria Gore-Jones, Ellie Newman, Harvey Whiteford
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the planned implementation of group based Cognitive Remediation therapy (CR) and Social Cognitive Interaction Training (SCIT) into routine psychosis care in a mental health service in Australia. METHOD: The study was conducted over 3 years in a mental health service in a metropolitan city in Australia. Participants were 22 program facilitators and 128 patients attending the programs. Implementation outcomes were assessed using administrative data, staff surveys and program audits...
June 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906789/new-and-noteworthy-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-and-treatment
#4
Susan Swindells
People with HIV infection with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are at a 10-fold greater risk of developing active disease. Interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing have approximately 65% to 70% specificity for diagnosing LTBI in HIV-infected patients. LTBI can be successfully treated with isoniazid preventive therapy and early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rapid molecular diagnostics have approximately 88% sensitivity and 98% specificity for identifying active TB. ART should be started early in patients with TB...
June 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906472/food-effect-projections-via-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-predictive-case-studies
#5
Christophe Tistaert, Tycho Heimbach, Binfeng Xia, Neil Parrott, Tanay Samant, Filippos Kesisoglou
Food can alter the absorption of orally administered drugs. Biopharmaceutics physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling offers the possibility to simulate a compound's pharmacokinetics under fasted or fed states. To advance the utility of PBPK modeling, with a view to regulatory impact, we have pooled our experience across four pharmaceutical companies to propose a general multi-step PBPK workflow leveraging pre-existing clinical data for immediate release formulations of BCS I and BCS II compounds...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906307/understanding-compound-interconnected-interacting-and-cascading-risks-a-holistic-framework
#6
Gianluca Pescaroli, David Alexander
In recent years, there has been a gradual increase in research literature on the challenges of interconnected, compound, interacting, and cascading risks. These concepts are becoming ever more central to the resilience debate. They aggregate elements of climate change adaptation, critical infrastructure protection, and societal resilience in the face of complex, high-impact events. However, despite the potential of these concepts to link together diverse disciplines, scholars and practitioners need to avoid treating them in a superficial or ambiguous manner...
June 15, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905907/-68-ga-psma-11-pet-ct-in-prostate-cancer-patients-with-biochemical-recurrence-after-radical-prostatectomy-and-psa-0-5-ng-ml-efficacy-and-impact-on-treatment-strategy
#7
Andrea Farolfi, Francesco Ceci, Paolo Castellucci, Tiziano Graziani, Giambattista Siepe, Alessandro Lambertini, Riccardo Schiavina, Filippo Lodi, Alessio G Morganti, Stefano Fanti
PURPOSE: The primary aim of this retrospective, single-centre analysis was to assess the performance of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in prostate cancer (PCa) patients in early PSA failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). The secondary aim was to assess the potential impact of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT on treatment strategy. METHODS: 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT is performed in our institution within an investigational new drug (IND) trial in PCa patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR)...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905497/synchronous-epstein-barr-virus-associated-skull-base-and-adrenal-smooth-muscle-tumors-in-an-8-year-old-girl-with-recent-epstein-barr-virus-infection
#8
Desmond A Brown, Nicholas L Deep, Colin L Driscoll, Michael J Link, Mark E Jentoft, David J Daniels
Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth-muscle tumors are rare tumors seen in immunocompromised patients. Most cases occur in the context of AIDS and organ transplantation, and very rarely in the setting of congenital immunodeficiency, with only 5 case reports of the latter published so far in the literature. The authors report the case of a previously healthy 8-year-old girl with headaches and precocious puberty who was found to have a large skull base lesion. There was a synchronous left adrenal lesion. She underwent resection of the skull base lesion and a left adrenalectomy...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905158/antiepileptic-effect-of-olanzapine-in-epilepsy-patients-with-atypical-depressive-comorbidity
#9
Xiangmiao Qiu, Bianca Zingano, Shixu He, Xi Zhu, Anjiao Peng, Jianan Duan, Peter Wolf, Lei Chen
Depression is relatively common among patients with epilepsy, but often with predominant atypical symptoms. Some antiepileptic drugs show positive psychotropic effects, but these are not always sufficient to stabilize mood in epilepsy patients. Antidepressants are recommended to treat atypical depression but are not always effective and present a certain risk of seizure provocation. Thus, new treatment options are welcome. Here, we describe three cases of refractory epilepsy with atypical depression in which olanzapine, contrary to its earlier reported proconvulsant effect, showed excellent antidepressant action and resulted in seizure control...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905125/treatment-of-amblyopia-as-a-function-of-age
#10
Jonathan M Holmes, Dennis M Levi
Although historically, treatment of amblyopia has been recommended prior to closure of a critical window in visual development, the existence and duration of that critical window is currently unclear. Moreover, there is clear evidence, both from animal and human studies of deprivation amblyopia, that there are different critical windows for different visual functions and that monocular and binocular deprivation have different neural and behavioral consequences. In view of the spectrum of critical windows for different visual functions and for different types of amblyopia, combined with individual variability in these windows, treatment of amblyopia has been increasingly offered to older children and adults...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905121/animal-models-of-amblyopia
#11
Donald Mitchell, Frank Sengpiel
Unquestionably, the last six decades of research on various animal models have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the many complex characteristics of amblyopia as well as provided promising new avenues for treatment. While animal models in general have served an important purpose, there nonetheless remain questions regarding the efficacy of particular models considering the differences across animal species, especially when the goal is to provide the foundations for human interventions...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903635/a-new-chest-compression-technique-in-infants
#12
Emilio Rodriguez-Ruiz, Victoria Guerra Martín, Cristian Abelairas-Gómez, Fátima Sampedro Vidal, Candela Gómez González, Roberto Barcala-Furelos, Antonio Rodríguez-Nuñez
OBJECTIVE: To compare the quality of chest compressions performed according to the classical technique (MT) versus a new technique (NM) (compression with 2thumbs with closed fists) in an infant manikin. DESIGN: A controlled, randomized cross-over study was carried out in professionals assisting pediatric patients. SETTING: A University Hospital with a Pediatric ICU in the north of Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Residents and nurses in Pediatrics who had completed a basic and an advanced pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation course...
June 11, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902941/accessibility-information-in-new-delhi-for-easenaccess-android-based-app-for-persons-with-disability-an-observational-study
#13
Yashovardhan Agarwal
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization and the World Bank's "World Report on Disability" reported that over 1 billion people have various kinds of disability worldwide while Indian Census 2011 reported about 26 million in India. The United Nations Convention states, "The Rights of Persons with Disabilities (PwD) include accessibility to Information, Transportation, Environment, Communication Technology and Services". OBJECTIVE: This article takes forward the reason of making the "EasenAccess" (EnA) Android-based app to empower PwD with wheelchair-accessibility information, communication sentences and sending SOS signals with location...
June 14, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902575/a-data-driven-framework-of-typical-treatment-process-extraction-and-evaluation
#14
Jingfeng Chen, Leilei Sun, Chonghui Guo, Wei Wei, Yanming Xie
BACKGROUND: A clinical pathway (CP) defines a standardized care process for a well-defined patient group that aims to improve patient outcomes and promote patient safety. However, the construction of a new pathway from scratch is a time-consuming task for medical staff because it involves many factors, including objects, multidisciplinary collaboration, sequential design, and outcome measurements. Recently, the rapid development of hospital information systems has allowed the storage of large volumes of electronic medical records (EMRs), and this information constitutes an abundant data resource for building CPs using data-mining methods...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902387/role-of-ivabradine-and-heart-rate-lowering-in-chronic-heart-failure-guideline-update
#15
Sheryl L Chow, Robert Lee Page, Christophe Depre
This review summarizes the current management of heart failure (HF) in patients with reduced ejection fraction and the potential role of heart rate lowering agents in select populations, as recommended in the updated guidelines. Areas covered: PubMed was searched for studies that evaluated the role of heart rate lowering or ivabradine in HF management. Expert commentary: Targeting heart rate may offer benefit when added to renin-angiotensin aldosterone antagonists, and beta-blockers. Ivabradine is a heart rate lowering agent that acts on the funny current (If ) in the sinoatrial node, thereby reducing heart rate without directly affecting cardiac contraction and relaxation...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901847/performance-characteristics-of-the-turbidimetric-acl-top-cts-300-coagulation-analyzer-in-dogs-and-cats
#16
Leslie C Sharkey, Kim J Little, Kevin D Williams, Jeffrey M Todd, Rae Richardson, Angela D Gwynn, Aaron Rendahl
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the technical performance of the turbidimetric ACL-TOP CTS 300 coagulation analyzer (IL) in dogs and cats and to create reference intervals for standard and novel parameters. DESIGN: Coagulation testing results from dogs and cats generated by the IL were prospectively compared with another mechanical clot detection system. Precision was documented and reference intervals were created for prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and Clauss fibrinogen and D-dimer values, as well as for the quantitative clot curve parameters (high and low amplitude, delta, and first and second derivative curves)...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901716/nursing-home-residents-legal-access-to-onsite-professional-psychosocial-care-federal-and-state-regulations-do-not-meet-minimum-professional-social-work-standards
#17
Mercedes Bern-Klug, Elizabeth Byram, Nadia Sabbagh Steinberg, Herminia Gamez Garcia, Kyle C Burke
Background and Objective: The federal government holds nursing homes (NHs) responsible for assessing and addressing resident psychosocial needs. The staff person most responsible for psychosocial care planning is the social worker. However, the federal government requires only NHs with 120+ beds to employ one full-time social worker, and that person need not hold a social work degree. We compare/contrast state laws against federal laws and professional standards in terms of the minimum qualifications of NH social workers to determine in which states NH residents are legally entitled to receive services from a professional social work staff member...
June 13, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901541/the-magic-number-are-improved-outcomes-observed-at-trauma-centers-with-undertriage-rates-below-5-percent
#18
Shreya Jammula, Eric H Bradburn, Brian W Gross, Alan D Cook, Michael J Reihart, Frederick B Rogers
BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACSCOT) advises trauma centers maintain <5% undertriage rate (UTR), but provides limited rationale for this figure. We sought to determine whether patients managed at Level I/II trauma centers with a UTR<5% had improved outcomes compared to centers with >5% UTR. We hypothesized that similar overall adjusted outcomes would be observed at trauma centers in Pennsylvania regardless of their compliance with ACSCOT undertriage recommendation...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901504/vertebral-augmentation-is-superior-to-nonoperative-care-at-reducing-lower-back-pain-for-symptomatic-osteoporotic-compression-fractures-a-meta-analysis
#19
Sina Pourtaheri, William Luo, Christina Cui, Steven Garfin
STUDY DESIGN: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: This study's goal was to (i) assess the clinical outcomes with and without vertebral augmentation (VA) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) with versus without correlating signs and symptoms; and (ii) acute (symptoms <3 mo duration) and subacute VCFs (3-6 mo duration) versus chronic VCFs (>6 mo). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previously, a randomized controlled trial in the New England Journal of Medicine concluded that vertebroplasty for osteoporotic VCFs provided no clinical benefit over sham surgery...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901487/a-core-set-of-outcome-measures-for-adults-with-neurologic-conditions-undergoing-rehabilitation-a-clinical-practice-guideline
#20
Jennifer L Moore, Kirsten Potter, Kathleen Blankshain, Sandra L Kaplan, Linda C OʼDwyer, Jane E Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Use of outcome measures (OMs) in adult neurologic physical therapy is essential for monitoring changes in a patient's status over time, quantifying observations and patient-reported function, enhancing communication, and increasing the efficiency of patient care. OMs also provide a mechanism to compare patient and organizational outcomes, examine intervention effectiveness, and generate new knowledge. This clinical practice guideline (CPG) examined the literature related to OMs of balance, gait, transfers, and patient-stated goals to identify a core set of OMs for use across adults with neurologic conditions and practice settings...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
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