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Differentiated thyroid cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243843/signaling-cascades-in-thyroid-cancer-increasing-the-armory-of-archers-to-hit-bullseye
#1
Faiza Abdul Rashid, Qaisar Mansoor, Hafsa Aziz, Sobia Tabassum, Waleed O Arfat, George E Naoum, Muhammad Ismail, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi
Thyroid cancer is a multifaceted and therapeutically challenging disease and rapidly accumulating experimentally verified findings have considerably improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms which underlie its development. Substantial fraction of information has been added into existing landscape of molecular oncology and we have started to develop a sharper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of thyroid cancer. Wealth of information demystified different intracellular signaling cascades which are frequently deregulated in thyroid cancer...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243502/evidence-based-management-of-incidental-focal-uptake-of-fluorodeoxyglucose-on-pet-ct
#2
Deborah Pencharz, Malavika Nathan, Thomas L Wagner
Focal incidental uptake, with or without CT abnormalities, is a common finding on FDG PET/CT and evidence based management for this type of uptake is lacking. This article reviews the evidence on focal incidental uptake including the incidence of malignancy, differential diagnosis and imaging criteria which can be used to further characterise it. The article focusses on PET rather than CT criteria. The strength of the evidence base is highly variable ranging from systematic reviews and meta-analyses to a virtual absence of evidence...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242723/spect-ct-in-the-treatment-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Sang-Woo Lee
Single-photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT) systems has been applied in a wide range of clinical circumstances, and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is one of the most important indications of SPECT/CT imaging. In the treatment of DTC, SPECT/CT images have been reported to have many advantages over conventional planar whole-body scintigraphy based on its precise localization and characterization of abnormal foci of radioactive iodine (RAI) accumulation, influencing the staging, risk stratification, and clinical management as well as reader confidence...
December 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242405/digitalis-like-compounds-restore-hnis-expression-and-iodide-uptake-capacity-in-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer
#4
Marika H Tesselaar, Thomas Crezee, Imke Schuurmans, Danny Gerrits, James Nagarajah, Otto C Boerman, Ilse van Engen-van Grunsven, Johannes W A Smit, Romana T Netea-Maier, Theo S Plantinga
Purpose: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare malignancy that accounts for 1-2% of all thyroid cancers. ATC is one of the most aggressive human cancers, with rapid growth, tumor invasion and development of distant metastases. The median survival is only 5 months and the 1-year survival is less than 20%. Moreover, as a result of severe dedifferentiation including the loss of human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) expression, radioactive iodide (RAI) therapy is ineffective. Recently, we have demonstrated beneficial effects of autophagy activating digitalis-like compounds (DLCs) on redifferentiation and concomitant restoration of iodide uptake in RAI-refractory papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240540/patient-age-associated-mortality-risk-is-differentiated-by-braf-v600e-status-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#5
Xiaopei Shen, Guangwu Zhu, Rengyun Liu, David Viola, Rossella Elisei, Efisio Puxeddu, Laura Fugazzola, Carla Colombo, Barbara Jarzab, Agnieszka Czarniecka, Alfred K Lam, Caterina Mian, Federica Vianello, Linwah Yip, Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre, Pilar Santisteban, Christine J O'Neill, Mark S Sywak, Roderick Clifton-Bligh, Bela Bendlova, Vlasta Sýkorová, Mingzhao Xing
Purpose For the past 65 years, patient age at diagnosis has been widely used as a major mortality risk factor in the risk stratification of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but whether this is generally applicable, particularly in patients with different BRAF genetic backgrounds, is unclear. The current study was designed to test whether patient age at diagnosis is a major mortality risk factor. Patients and Methods We conducted a comparative study of the relationship between patient age at diagnosis and PTC-specific mortality with respect to BRAF status in 2,638 patients (623 men and 2,015 women) with a median age of 46 years (interquartile range, 35 to 58 years) at diagnosis and a median follow-up time of 58 months (interquartile range, 26 to 107 months)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234677/metabolic-alterations-of-thyroid-cancer-as-potential-therapeutic-targets
#6
REVIEW
Domenico Ciavardelli, Maria Bellomo, Ada Consalvo, Caterina Crescimanno, Veronica Vella
Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most frequent endocrine tumor with a growing incidence worldwide. Besides the improvement of diagnosis, TC increasing incidence is probably due to environmental factors and lifestyle modifications. The actual diagnostic criteria for TC classification are based on fine needle biopsy (FNAB) and histological examination following thyroidectomy. Since in some cases it is not possible to make a proper diagnosis, classical approach needs to be supported by additional biomarkers. Recently, new emphasis has been given to the altered cellular metabolism of proliferating cancer cells which require high amount of glucose for energy production and macromolecules biosynthesis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234625/insight-into-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-gross-pathological-specimen-shrinkage-and-its-influence-on-tnm-staging
#7
Alexis Lacout, Emmanuel Chamorey, Juliette Thariat, Mostafa El Hajjam, Carole Chevenet, Renaud Schiappa, Pierre Yves Marcy
Introduction: This study aimed at comparing thyroid cancer staging when taking into account the differences between the "T" assessment" using ultrasound (US) and histopathological measurements. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included all consecutive differentiated follicular thyroid cancer (DTC) and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) patients who underwent postoperative histopathological staging assessment at a single institution. Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were excluded from the present study...
November 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234622/impact-of-serum-tsh-and-anti-thyroglobulin-antibody-levels-on-lymph-node-fine-needle-aspiration-thyroglobulin-measurements-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-patients
#8
Marta Amaro da Silveira Duval, André Borsatto Zanella, Ana Patrícia Cristo, Carlo Sasso Faccin, Marcia Silva Graudenz, Ana Luiza Maia
Background: Thyroglobulin measurements in the washout of fine needle aspiration (FNA-Tg) are an excellent tool to detect lymph node (LN) metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Nevertheless, how to define the best cutoffs and the influence of potential confounders are still being discussed. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of FNA-Tg measurement to detect DTC metastases and the influence of thyroid status and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb)...
November 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209273/updates-on-the-management-of-advanced-metastatic-and-radioiodine-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Dario Tumino, Francesco Frasca, Kate Newbold
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) accounts for 95% of all thyroid cancers and is generally an indolent tumor, treated effectively with surgery, radioactive iodine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy. However, 5-10% of patients have advanced disease, with aerodigestive tract invasion, distant metastases, or radioiodine refractory disease, with poor prognosis. This review focuses on the approaches for treating advanced DTC, including management of gross extra-thyroidal extension, recurrent loco-regional or distant metastatic disease, the role of external beam radiation therapy and systemic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209067/preoperative-serum-thyroglobulin-predicts-initial-distant-metastasis-in-patients-with-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#10
Hosu Kim, Young Nam Kim, Hye In Kim, So Young Park, Jun-Ho Choe, Jung-Han Kim, Jee Soo Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Tae Hyuk Kim, Sun Wook Kim
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) generally has a favorable prognosis. However, a small percentage of patients suffer from initial distant metastasis (DM). To date, there is no effective predictor for the presence of initial DM. The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level could predict initial DM in DTC. We reviewed an institutional thyroid cancer database from October 1994 to February 2016. To determine the Tg cutoff for predicting initial DM, 4,735 patients who were diagnosed with DTC were included in this study...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207150/inhibition-of-autophagy-enhances-the-targeted-therapeutic-effect-of-sorafenib-in-thyroid-cancer
#11
Heqing Yi, Ting Ye, Minghua Ge, Mengdi Yang, Lijun Zhang, Shui Jin, Xuemei Ye, Bin Long, Linfa Li
The multi-target kinase inhibitor sorafenib has been approved for the treatment of patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer. However, different sensitivities to sorafenib have been observed, and few patients have benefited from sorafenib treatment in the long term. In the event of acquired resistance to sorafenib it is not beneficial to continue treatment in most patients. Autophagy can be induced in a variety of cancer treatments and plays an important role in cancer treatment. The role of autophagy in sorafenib treatment of thyroid cancer has not been fully demonstrated...
November 28, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206325/growing-incidence-of-thyroid-carcinoma-in-recent-years-factors-underlying-overdiagnosis
#12
REVIEW
Alvaro Sanabria, Luiz P Kowalski, Jatin P Shah, Iain J Nixon, Peter Angelos, Michelle D Williams, Alessandra Rinaldo, Alfio Ferlito
There is an increasing incidence of well-differentiated thyroid cancer worldwide. Much of the increase is secondary to increased detection of small, low-risk tumors, with questionable clinical significance. This review addresses the factors that contribute to the increasing incidence and considers environmental, and patient-based and clinician-led influences. Articles addressing the causes of the increased incidence were critically reviewed. A complex interplay of environmental, medical, and social pressures has resulted in increased awareness of the thyroid disease risk, increased screening of thyroid cancers, and increased diagnosis of thyroid cancers...
December 5, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202445/balancing-the-benefits-and-harms-of-thyroid-cancer-surveillance-in-survivors-of-childhood-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-recommendations-from-the-international-late-effects-of-childhood-cancer-guideline-harmonization-group-in-collaboration-with-the-pancaresurfup
#13
REVIEW
S C Clement, L C M Kremer, F A Verburg, J H Simmons, M Goldfarb, R P Peeters, E K Alexander, E Bardi, E Brignardello, L S Constine, C A Dinauer, V M Drozd, F Felicetti, E Frey, A Heinzel, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, S A Huang, T P Links, K Lorenz, R L Mulder, S J Neggers, E J M Nieveen van Dijkum, K C Oeffinger, R R van Rijn, S A Rivkees, C M Ronckers, A B Schneider, R Skinner, J D Wasserman, T Wynn, M M Hudson, P C Nathan, H M van Santen
Radiation exposure to the thyroid gland during treatment of childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer (CAYAC) may cause differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Surveillance recommendations for DTC vary considerably, causing uncertainty about optimum screening practices. The International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group, in collaboration with the PanCareSurFup Consortium, developed consensus recommendations for thyroid cancer surveillance in CAYAC survivors. These recommendations were developed by an international multidisciplinary panel that included 33 experts in relevant medical specialties who used a consistent and transparent process...
November 14, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201490/18f-fdg-pet-guided-external-beam-radiotherapy-in-iodine-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-a-pilot-study
#14
Eleonora Farina, Fabio Monari, Paolo Castellucci, Fabrizio Romani, Andrea Repaci, Arianna Farina, Giuseppe Zanirato Rambaldi, Giovanni Frezza, Renzo Mazzarotto, Silvia Cammelli, Luca Tagliaferri, Rosa Autorino, Francesco Deodato, Gabriella Macchia, Savino Cilla, Vincenzo Valentini, Stefano Fanti, Alessio G Morganti
Introduction: To evaluate the clinical response rate after a postoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT guided external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in Iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. Material and Methods: Patients with thyroid cancer locally recurrent after total thyroidectomy plus metabolic radiotherapy and treated with radical EBRT were included. Inclusion criteria were detectable thyroglobulin (Tg), negative postmetabolic radiotherapy whole body scintigraphy, and no surgical indications...
2017: Journal of Thyroid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201169/p63-inhibits-cd44-cd24-cell-proliferation-and-chemoresistance-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-cells
#15
Jing-Jing Guo, Hong-Shun Xu, Gang Wu, Zhen-Yu Ma
Thyroid cancer typically has a good prognosis; however, the risks of recurrence and chemoresistance associated with thyroid cancer remain a cause for concern. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) comprises 80% of all cases of thyroid carcinoma. A previous study reported that cluster of differentiation (CD) 44+/CD24- PTC cells may contribute to PTC recurrence and chemoresistance; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, CD44+/CD24- cells were isolated from the TPC-1 PTC cell line and biological function assays revealed that CD44+/CD24- cells were significantly more proliferative and chemoresistant compared with CD44-/CD24- cells...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199726/role-and-relevance-of-braf-mutations-in-risk-stratifying-patients-of-papillary-thyroid-cancers-along-with-a-review-of-literature
#16
A Krishnamurthy, V Ramshankar, K Murherkar, S Vidyarani, G C Raghunandhan, A Das, P B Desai, K Albert
INTRODUCTION: Molecular markers are increasingly being explored as a potential diagnostic and prognostic tool in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancers and B-type Raf kinase (BRAF) V600E mutation has received a wide attention in this regard. Many clinical studies have demonstrated an association of BRAF V600E mutation with aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics and high tumor recurrence and mortality in patients with papillary thyroid cancers. Papillary thyroid cancers has been abbreviated and PTCs...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199400/disease-specific-mortality-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-patients-in-korea-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#17
Min Ji Jeon, Won Gu Kim, Tae Hyuk Kim, Hee Kyung Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Hyon Seung Yi, Eun Sook Kim, Hosu Kim, Young Nam Kim, Eun Heui Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Ho Cheol Kang, Jae Hoon Chung, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding disease-specific mortality of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients and its risk factors in Korea. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a large multi-center cohort of thyroid cancer from six Korean hospitals and included 8,058 DTC patients who underwent initial surgery between 1996 and 2005. RESULTS: Mean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.2±12.3 years; 87% were females. Most patients had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; 97%) and underwent total thyroidectomy (85%)...
November 22, 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197967/effects-of-nutraceuticals-on-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-cells
#18
Lorenzo Allegri, Francesca Rosignolo, Catia Mio, Sebastiano Filetti, Federica Baldan, Giuseppe Damante
PURPOSE: The anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive thyroid cancer with a high mortality rate. Since nutraceuticals may exert beneficial effects on tumor biology, here, effects of four of these compounds [resveratrol, genistein, curcumin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)] on ATC cell lines were investigated. METHODS: Two ATC-derived cell lines were used: SW1736 and 8505C. Cell viability and in vitro aggressiveness was tested by MTT and soft agar assays...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195126/stimulation-of-interferon-stimulated-gene-20-by-thyroid-hormone-enhances-angiogenesis-in-liver-cancer
#19
Syuan-Ling Lin, Sheng-Ming Wu, I-Hsiao Chung, Yang-Hsiang Lin, Ching-Ying Chen, Hsiang-Cheng Chi, Tzu-Kang Lin, Chau-Ting Yeh, Kwang-Huei Lin
Thyroid hormone, 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), mediates several physiological processes, including embryonic development, cellular differentiation and cell proliferation, via binding to its nuclear thyroid receptors (TR). Previous microarray and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-ChIP analyses have revealed that interferon-stimulated gene 20 kDa (ISG20), an exoribonuclease involved in the antiviral function of interferon, is up-regulated by T3 in HepG2-TR cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of ISG20 action in tumor progression remain unknown to date...
November 28, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192093/8th-edition-of-ajcc-tnm-staging-system-of-thyroid-cancer-what-to-expect
#20
Livia Lamartina, Giorgio Grani, Emanuela Arvat, Alice Nervo, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Roberta Rossi, Efisio Puxeddu, Silvia Morelli, Massimo Torlontano, Michela Massa, Rocco Bellantone, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Teresa Montesano, Loredana Pagano, Lorenzo Daniele, Laura Fugazzola, G Ceresini, Rocco Bruno, Ruth Rossetto, Salvatore Tumino, Marco Centanni, Domenico Meringolo, Maria Grazia Castagna, Domenico Salvatore, Antonio Nicolucci, Giuseppe Lucisano, Sebastiano Filetti, Cosimo Durante
The 8th edition of AJCC/TNM staging system for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has recently been published. The aim of this study was to compare AJCC/TNM staging 7th and 8th edition in terms of tumor stage distribution in a multicenter, consecutive and prospective cohort of newly diagnosed DTC collected in a web-based observational database. Additional information concerning the extent of minimal extrathyroidal extension was collected. A cohort of 1765 DTC patients (76% females, median age 48 years, 94% papillary histotype) was analyzed...
November 30, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
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