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"Chilling requirement"

A-M B Oliver, W E Pomroy, S Ganesh, D M Leathwick
The eggs of some species of the parasitic nematode Nematodirus require a period of chilling before they can hatch; N. filicollis is one such species. This study investigated this requirement for chilling in a New Zealand strain of this species. Eggs of N. filicollis were extracted from lamb's faeces and incubated at 20°C to allow development to the third stage larvae within the egg. These eggs were then placed into tissue culture plates and incubated at: 2.7°C (±0.99), 3.6°C (±0.90), 4.7°C (±0.35), 6...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Hai-bo Wang, Xiao-di Wang, Xiang-bin Shi, Bao-liang Wang, Xiao-cui Zheng, Feng-zhi Liu
High chilling requirement grape (Vitis vinifera-V. labrusca cv. Summer Black) was used to evaluate its dormancy under short sunlight day (SD), long sunlight day (LD) and natural condition (CK). The results indicated that grape bud dormancy could be induced by natural low temperature and short sunlight alone or together. Short sunlight was the main contributor to the dormancy of grape bud, followed by natural low temperature. SD had more effect on dormancy induction under the same temperature when compared with LD...
December 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Adnane El Yaacoubi, Gustavo Malagi, Ahmed Oukabli, Idemir Citadin, Majida Hafidi, Marc Bonhomme, Jean-Michel Legave
Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil...
April 21, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Maximilian Lange, Jörg Schaber, Andreas Marx, Greta Jäckel, Franz-Werner Badeck, Ralf Seppelt, Daniel Doktor
This study investigates whether the assumed increase of winter and spring temperatures is depicted by phenological models in correspondingly earlier bud burst (BB) dates. Some studies assume that rising temperatures lead to an earlier BB, but even later BB has been detected. The phenological model PIM (promoter-inhibitor-model) fitted to the extensive phenological database of the German Weather Service was driven by several climate scenarios. This model accounts for the complicated mechanistic interactions between chilling requirements, temperature and photo-period...
April 8, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Andrea Berruti, Annelies Christiaens, Ellen De Keyser, Marie-Christine Van Labeke, Valentina Scariot
Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sunil Kumar, Lisa G Neven, Hongyu Zhu, Runzhi Zhang
Accurate assessment of insect pest establishment risk is needed by national plant protection organizations to negotiate international trade of horticultural commodities that can potentially carry the pests and result in inadvertent introductions in the importing countries. We used mechanistic and correlative niche models to quantify and map the global patterns of the potential for establishment of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), a major pest of apples, peaches, pears, and other pome and stone fruits, and a quarantine pest in countries where it currently does not occur...
August 2015: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yoshihiro Takemura, Katsuou Kuroki, Yoji Shida, Shungo Araki, Yukari Takeuchi, Keisuke Tanaka, Taichiro Ishige, Shunsuke Yajima, Fumio Tamura
The flower bud transcriptome in the less dormant Taiwanese pear 'Hengshanli' and high-chilling requiring Japanese pear strain TH3 subjected to the same chilling exposure time were analyzed during winter using next-generation sequencing. In buds sampled on January 10th and on February 7th in 2014, 6,978 and 7,096 genes, respectively, were significantly differentially expressed in the TH3 and 'Hengshanli' libraries. A comparative GO analysis revealed that oxidation-reduction process (biological process) and ATP binding (molecular function), were overrepresented during the ecodormancy period (EP) when compared to the endodormancy deepest period (DP), indicating that ATP synthesis was activated during the transition between these dormancy stages...
2015: PloS One
Susanne Jochner, Annette Menzel
Although recent global warming trends in air temperature are not as pronounced as those observed only one decade ago, global mean temperature is still at a very high level. Does plant phenology - which is believed to be a suitable indicator of climate change - respond in a similar way, that is, does it still mirror recent temperature variations? We explored in detail long-term flowering onset dates of snowdrop, cherry, and lime tree and relevant spring temperatures at three sites in Germany (1901-2012) using the Bayesian multiple change-point approach...
June 2015: Ecology and Evolution
Xiaoqiu Chen, Shuai An, David W Inouye, Mark D Schwartz
Rapid temperature increase and its impacts on alpine ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the world's highest and largest plateau, are a matter of global concern. Satellite observations have revealed distinctly different trend changes and contradicting temperature responses of vegetation green-up dates, leading to broad debate about the Plateau's spring phenology and its climatic attribution. Large uncertainties in remote-sensing estimates of phenology significantly limit efforts to predict the impacts of climate change on vegetation growth and carbon balance in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, which are further exacerbated by a lack of detailed ground observation calibration...
October 2015: Global Change Biology
Richard B Primack, Julia Laube, Amanda S Gallinat, Annette Menzel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate change is advancing the leaf-out times of many plant species and mostly extending the growing season in temperate ecosystems. Laboratory experiments using twig cuttings from woody plant species present an affordable, easily replicated approach to investigate the relative importance of factors such as winter chilling, photoperiod, spring warming and frost tolerance on the leafing-out times of plant communities. This Viewpoint article demonstrates how the results of these experiments deepen our understanding beyond what is possible via analyses of remote sensing and field observation data, and can be used to improve climate change forecasts of shifts in phenology, ecosystem processes and ecological interactions...
November 2015: Annals of Botany
Majken Pagter, Uffe Brandt Andersen, Lillie Andersen
Global climate models predict an increase in the mean surface air temperature, with a disproportionate increase during winter. Since temperature is a major driver of phenological events in temperate woody perennials, warming is likely to induce changes in a range of these events. We investigated the impact of slightly elevated temperatures (+0.76 °C in the air, +1.35 °C in the soil) during the non-growing season (October-April) on freezing tolerance, carbohydrate metabolism, dormancy release, spring phenology and reproductive output in two blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) cultivars to understand how winter warming modifies phenological traits in a woody perennial known to have a large chilling requirement and to be sensitive to spring frost...
2015: AoB Plants
Constance A Harrington, Peter J Gould
Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was effective in predicting budburst and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Diogo Denardi Porto, Maryline Bruneau, Pâmela Perini, Rafael Anzanello, Jean-Pierre Renou, Henrique Pessoa dos Santos, Flávio Bello Fialho, Luís Fernando Revers
Apple production depends on the fulfilment of a chilling requirement for bud dormancy release. Insufficient winter chilling results in irregular and suboptimal bud break in the spring, with negative impacts on apple yield. Trees from apple cultivars with contrasting chilling requirements for bud break were used to investigate the expression of the entire set of apple genes in response to chilling accumulation in the field and controlled conditions. Total RNA was analysed on the AryANE v.1.0 oligonucleotide microarray chip representing 57,000 apple genes...
May 2015: Journal of Experimental Botany
Adrian M I Roberts, Christine Tansey, Richard J Smithers, Albert B Phillimore
The rise in spring temperatures over the past half-century has led to advances in the phenology of many nontropical plants and animals. As species and populations differ in their phenological responses to temperature, an increase in temperatures has the potential to alter timing-dependent species interactions. One species-interaction that may be affected is the competition for light in deciduous forests, where early vernal species have a narrow window of opportunity for growth before late spring species cast shade...
March 2, 2015: Global Change Biology
Kenneth D Kimball, Michael L Davis, Douglas M Weihrauch, Georgia L D Murray, Kenneth Rancourt
UNLABELLED:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Most alpine plants in the Northeast United States are perennial and flower early in the growing season, extending their limited growing season. Concurrently, they risk the loss of reproductive efforts to late frosts. Quantifying long-term trends in northeastern alpine flower phenology and late-spring/early-summer frost risk is limited by a dearth of phenology and climate data, except for Mount Washington, New Hampshire (1916 m a...
September 2014: American Journal of Botany
Katherine S Pope, Volker Dose, David Da Silva, Patrick H Brown, Theodore M DeJong
Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking...
June 2015: International Journal of Biometeorology
Sunil Kumar, Lisa G Neven, Wee L Yee
Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R...
June 2014: Journal of Economic Entomology
Robbie Hart, Jan Salick, Sailesh Ranjitkar, Jianchu Xu
Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming...
July 22, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xi Ling Fu, Wei Xiao, Dong Ling Wang, Min Chen, Qiu Ping Tan, Ling Li, Xiu De Chen, Dong Sheng Gao
Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways...
2014: PloS One
W Ishizuka, K Ono, T Hara, S Goto
To avoid winter frost damage, evergreen coniferous species develop cold hardiness with suitable phenology for the local climate regime. Along the elevational gradient, a genetic cline in autumn phenology is often recognised among coniferous populations, but further quantification of evolutionary adaptation related to the local environment and its responsible signals generating the phenological variation are poorly understood. We evaluated the timing of cold hardening among populations of Abies sachalinensis, based on time series freezing tests using trees derived from four seed source populations × three planting sites...
January 2015: Plant Biology
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