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"Chilling requirement"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759789/changes-in-carbohydrate-levels-and-relative-water-content-rwc-to-distinguish-dormancy-phases-in-sweet-cherry
#1
Heiko Kaufmann, Michael Blanke
Perennial trees require chilling, i.e. a period of cold temperature in the winter, for flowering next spring; sweet cherry is particularly prone to lack of chilling. The objective of this study is to identify possible transition points to clearly distinguish dormancy phases by relating carbohydrate and relative water content (RWC) in reproductive buds to concomitant chilling fulfilment. This contribution proposes the use of four transition points between the dormancy phases and their characterization in terms of carbohydrates, water contents in combination with chilling values and may allow upscaling to other dormancy studies in trees; two groups of cherry varieties were defined based on their different initial sorbitol and starch level in the autumn...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629320/transcriptomic-changes-reveal-gene-networks-responding-to-the-overexpression-of-a-blueberry-dwarf-and-delayed-flowering-1-gene-in-transgenic-blueberry-plants
#2
Guo-Qing Song, Xuan Gao
BACKGROUND: Constitutive expression of the CBF/DREB1 for increasing freezing tolerance in woody plants is often associated with other phenotypic changes including dwarf plant and delayed flowering. These phenotypic changes have been observed when Arabidopsis DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1) was overexpressed in A. thaliana plants. To date, the DDF1 orthologues have not been studied in woody plants. The aim of this study is to investigate transcriptomic responses to the overexpression of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) DDF1 (herein, VcDDF1-OX)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549208/identification-of-reference-genes-for-rt-qpcr-analysis-in-peach-genotypes-with-contrasting-chilling-requirements
#3
N Marini, C B Bevilacqua, M V Büttow, M C B Raseira, S Bonow
Selecting and validating reference genes are the first steps in studying gene expression by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The present study aimed to evaluate the stability of five reference genes for the purpose of normalization when studying gene expression in various cultivars of Prunus persica with different chilling requirements. Flower bud tissues of nine peach genotypes from Embrapa's peach breeding program with different chilling requirements were used, and five candidate reference genes based on the RT-qPCR that were useful for studying the relative quantitative gene expression and stability were evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, and bestKeeper software packages...
May 25, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541567/dna-methylation-and-small-interference-rnas-participate-in-the-regulation-of-mads-box-genes-involved-in-dormancy-in-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-l
#4
Karin Rothkegel, Evelyn Sánchez, Christian Montes, Macarena Greve, Sebastián Tapia, Soraya Bravo, Humberto Prieto, Andréa Miyasaka Almeida
Epigenetic modifications can yield information about connections between genotype, phenotype variation and environmental conditions. Bud dormancy release in temperate perennial fruit trees depends on internal and environmental signals such as cold accumulation and photoperiod. Previous investigations have noted the participation of epigenetic mechanisms in the control of this physiological process. We examined whether epigenetic modifications were modulated in MADS-box genes, potential candidates for the regulation of bud dormancy and flowering in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470761/phenological-responses-of-icelandic-subarctic-grasslands-to-short-term-and-long-term-natural-soil-warming
#5
N I W Leblans, B D Sigurdsson, S Vicca, Y Fu, J Penuelas, I A Janssens
The phenology of vegetation, particularly the length of the growing season (LOS; i.e. the period from greenup to senescence), is highly sensitive to climate change, which could imply potent feedbacks to the climate system, e.g. by altering the ecosystem carbon (C) balance. In recent decades, the largest extensions of LOS have been reported at high northern latitudes, but further warming-induced LOS extensions may be constrained by too short photoperiod or unfulfilled chilling requirements. Here, we studied subarctic grasslands, which cover a vast area and contain large C stocks, but for which LOS changes under further warming are highly uncertain...
May 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421103/svp-like-mads-box-genes-control-dormancy-and-budbreak-in-apple
#6
Rongmei Wu, Sumathi Tomes, Sakuntala Karunairetnam, Stuart D Tustin, Roger P Hellens, Andrew C Allan, Richard C Macknight, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
The annual growth cycle of trees is the result of seasonal cues. The onset of winter triggers an endodormant state preventing bud growth and, once a chilling requirement is satisfied, these buds enter an ecodormant state and resume growing. MADS-box genes with similarity to Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) [the SVP-like and DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes] have been implicated in regulating flowering and growth-dormancy cycles in perennials. Here, we identified and characterized three DAM-like (MdDAMs) and two SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE-like (MdSVPs) genes from apple (Malus × domestica 'Royal Gala')...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514876/chilling-requirements-for-hatching-of-a-new-zealand-isolate-of-nematodirus-filicollis
#7
A-M B Oliver, W E Pomroy, S Ganesh, D M Leathwick
The eggs of some species of the parasitic nematode Nematodirus require a period of chilling before they can hatch; N. filicollis is one such species. This study investigated this requirement for chilling in a New Zealand strain of this species. Eggs of N. filicollis were extracted from lamb's faeces and incubated at 20°C to allow development to the third stage larvae within the egg. These eggs were then placed into tissue culture plates and incubated at: 2.7°C (±0.99), 3.6°C (±0.90), 4.7°C (±0.35), 6...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112009/-natural-inducing-factors-of-grape-bud-dormancy-and-their-regulation-on-respiratory-metabolism-during-dormancy-induction
#8
Hai-bo Wang, Xiao-di Wang, Xiang-bin Shi, Bao-liang Wang, Xiao-cui Zheng, Feng-zhi Liu
High chilling requirement grape (Vitis vinifera-V. labrusca cv. Summer Black) was used to evaluate its dormancy under short sunlight day (SD), long sunlight day (LD) and natural condition (CK). The results indicated that grape bud dormancy could be induced by natural low temperature and short sunlight alone or together. Short sunlight was the main contributor to the dormancy of grape bud, followed by natural low temperature. SD had more effect on dormancy induction under the same temperature when compared with LD...
December 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103152/differentiated-dynamics-of-bud-dormancy-and-growth-in-temperate-fruit-trees-relating-to-bud-phenology-adaptation-the-case-of-apple-and-almond-trees
#9
Adnane El Yaacoubi, Gustavo Malagi, Ahmed Oukabli, Idemir Citadin, Majida Hafidi, Marc Bonhomme, Jean-Michel Legave
Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil...
November 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059366/simulation-of-forest-tree-species-bud-burst-dates-for-different-climate-scenarios-chilling-requirements-and-photo-period-may-limit-bud-burst-advancement
#10
Maximilian Lange, Jörg Schaber, Andreas Marx, Greta Jäckel, Franz-Werner Badeck, Ralf Seppelt, Daniel Doktor
This study investigates whether the assumed increase of winter and spring temperatures is depicted by phenological models in correspondingly earlier bud burst (BB) dates. Some studies assume that rising temperatures lead to an earlier BB, but even later BB has been detected. The phenological model PIM (promoter-inhibitor-model) fitted to the extensive phenological database of the German Weather Service was driven by several climate scenarios. This model accounts for the complicated mechanistic interactions between chilling requirements, temperature and photo-period...
November 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617623/cold-treatment-breaks-dormancy-but-jeopardizes-flower-quality-in-camellia-japonica-l
#11
Andrea Berruti, Annelies Christiaens, Ellen De Keyser, Marie-Christine Van Labeke, Valentina Scariot
Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26470312/assessing-the-global-risk-of-establishment-of-cydia-pomonella-lepidoptera-tortricidae-using-climex-and-maxent-niche-models
#12
Sunil Kumar, Lisa G Neven, Hongyu Zhu, Runzhi Zhang
Accurate assessment of insect pest establishment risk is needed by national plant protection organizations to negotiate international trade of horticultural commodities that can potentially carry the pests and result in inadvertent introductions in the importing countries. We used mechanistic and correlative niche models to quantify and map the global patterns of the potential for establishment of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), a major pest of apples, peaches, pears, and other pome and stone fruits, and a quarantine pest in countries where it currently does not occur...
August 2015: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26451604/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-less-dormant-taiwanese-pear-and-the-dormant-japanese-pear-during-winter-season
#13
Yoshihiro Takemura, Katsuou Kuroki, Yoji Shida, Shungo Araki, Yukari Takeuchi, Keisuke Tanaka, Taichiro Ishige, Shunsuke Yajima, Fumio Tamura
The flower bud transcriptome in the less dormant Taiwanese pear 'Hengshanli' and high-chilling requiring Japanese pear strain TH3 subjected to the same chilling exposure time were analyzed during winter using next-generation sequencing. In buds sampled on January 10th and on February 7th in 2014, 6,978 and 7,096 genes, respectively, were significantly differentially expressed in the TH3 and 'Hengshanli' libraries. A comparative GO analysis revealed that oxidation-reduction process (biological process) and ATP binding (molecular function), were overrepresented during the ecodormancy period (EP) when compared to the endodormancy deepest period (DP), indicating that ATP synthesis was activated during the transition between these dormancy stages...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26078862/does-flower-phenology-mirror-the-slowdown-of-global-warming
#14
Susanne Jochner, Annette Menzel
Although recent global warming trends in air temperature are not as pronounced as those observed only one decade ago, global mean temperature is still at a very high level. Does plant phenology - which is believed to be a suitable indicator of climate change - respond in a similar way, that is, does it still mirror recent temperature variations? We explored in detail long-term flowering onset dates of snowdrop, cherry, and lime tree and relevant spring temperatures at three sites in Germany (1901-2012) using the Bayesian multiple change-point approach...
June 2015: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25906987/temperature-and-snowfall-trigger-alpine-vegetation-green-up-on-the-world-s-roof
#15
Xiaoqiu Chen, Shuai An, David W Inouye, Mark D Schwartz
Rapid temperature increase and its impacts on alpine ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the world's highest and largest plateau, are a matter of global concern. Satellite observations have revealed distinctly different trend changes and contradicting temperature responses of vegetation green-up dates, leading to broad debate about the Plateau's spring phenology and its climatic attribution. Large uncertainties in remote-sensing estimates of phenology significantly limit efforts to predict the impacts of climate change on vegetation growth and carbon balance in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, which are further exacerbated by a lack of detailed ground observation calibration...
October 2015: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25851135/from-observations-to-experiments-in-phenology-research-investigating-climate-change-impacts-on-trees-and-shrubs-using-dormant-twigs
#16
Richard B Primack, Julia Laube, Amanda S Gallinat, Annette Menzel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate change is advancing the leaf-out times of many plant species and mostly extending the growing season in temperate ecosystems. Laboratory experiments using twig cuttings from woody plant species present an affordable, easily replicated approach to investigate the relative importance of factors such as winter chilling, photoperiod, spring warming and frost tolerance on the leafing-out times of plant communities. This Viewpoint article demonstrates how the results of these experiments deepen our understanding beyond what is possible via analyses of remote sensing and field observation data, and can be used to improve climate change forecasts of shifts in phenology, ecosystem processes and ecological interactions...
November 2015: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25802249/winter-warming-delays-dormancy-release-advances-budburst-alters-carbohydrate-metabolism-and-reduces-yield-in-a-temperate-shrub
#17
Majken Pagter, Uffe Brandt Andersen, Lillie Andersen
Global climate models predict an increase in the mean surface air temperature, with a disproportionate increase during winter. Since temperature is a major driver of phenological events in temperate woody perennials, warming is likely to induce changes in a range of these events. We investigated the impact of slightly elevated temperatures (+0.76 °C in the air, +1.35 °C in the soil) during the non-growing season (October-April) on freezing tolerance, carbohydrate metabolism, dormancy release, spring phenology and reproductive output in two blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) cultivars to understand how winter warming modifies phenological traits in a woody perennial known to have a large chilling requirement and to be sensitive to spring frost...
2015: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25784922/tradeoffs-between-chilling-and-forcing-in-satisfying-dormancy-requirements-for-pacific-northwest-tree-species
#18
Constance A Harrington, Peter J Gould
Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was effective in predicting budburst and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25750421/transcription-profiling-of-the-chilling-requirement-for-bud-break-in-apples-a-putative-role-for-flc-like-genes
#19
Diogo Denardi Porto, Maryline Bruneau, Pâmela Perini, Rafael Anzanello, Jean-Pierre Renou, Henrique Pessoa dos Santos, Flávio Bello Fialho, Luís Fernando Revers
Apple production depends on the fulfilment of a chilling requirement for bud dormancy release. Insufficient winter chilling results in irregular and suboptimal bud break in the spring, with negative impacts on apple yield. Trees from apple cultivars with contrasting chilling requirements for bud break were used to investigate the expression of the entire set of apple genes in response to chilling accumulation in the field and controlled conditions. Total RNA was analysed on the AryANE v.1.0 oligonucleotide microarray chip representing 57,000 apple genes...
May 2015: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25731862/predicting-a-change-in-the-order-of-spring-phenology-in-temperate-forests
#20
Adrian M I Roberts, Christine Tansey, Richard J Smithers, Albert B Phillimore
The rise in spring temperatures over the past half-century has led to advances in the phenology of many nontropical plants and animals. As species and populations differ in their phenological responses to temperature, an increase in temperatures has the potential to alter timing-dependent species interactions. One species-interaction that may be affected is the competition for light in deciduous forests, where early vernal species have a narrow window of opportunity for growth before late spring species cast shade...
March 2, 2015: Global Change Biology
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