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Radiation induced secondary malignancy

Viviane B L Torres, Juliana Vassalo, Ulysses V A Silva, Pedro Caruso, André P Torelly, Eliezer Silva, José M M Teles, Marcos Knibel, Ederlon Rezende, José J S Netto, Claudio Piras, Luciano C P Azevedo, Fernando A Bozza, Nelson Spector, Jorge I F Salluh, Marcio Soares
INTRODUCTION: Cancer patients are at risk for severe complications related to the underlying malignancy or its treatment and, therefore, usually require admission to intensive care units (ICU). Here, we evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes in this subgroup of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Secondary analysis of two prospective cohorts of cancer patients admitted to ICUs. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify variables associated with hospital mortality...
2016: PloS One
Ryuya Yamanaka, Azusa Hayano, Tomohiko Kanayama
By conducting a systemic search of the PubMed database, we performed a comprehensive literature review to characterize secondary gliomas following radiotherapy treatment and to determine the most appropriate treatment strategy. Our analysis included 296 cases of radiation-induced gliomas. The primary lesion was characterized as a hematological malignancy in 104 cases (35.1 %), pituitary adenoma in 35 (11.8 %), craniopharyngioma in 19 (6.4 %), medulloblastoma in 38 (12.8 %), germ cell tumor in 13 (4.3 %), low-grade glioma in 28 (9...
October 5, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Boram Lee, Sung Hwan Ahn, Hyeyoung Kim, Jaeman Son, Jiwon Sung, Youngyih Han, Seung Jae Huh, Jin Sung Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Myonggeun Yoon
This study was designed to estimate radiation-induced secondary cancer risks from high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and external radiotherapy for patients with cervical cancer based on measurements of doses absorbed by various organs. Organ doses from HDR brachytherapy and external radiotherapy were measured using glass rod dosimeters. Doses to out-of-field organs were measured at various loca-tions inside an anthropomorphic phantom. Brachytherapy-associated organ doses were measured using a specialized phantom that enabled applicator insertion, with the pelvis portion of the existing anthropomorphic phantom replaced by this new phantom...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Jeffrey Meyer
Management of primary and secondary tumors of the liver is a complex undertaking involving multi- disciplinary input. Radiation therapy has held a minor role in the treatment of liver tumors, but with technological innovations and the growth of the field of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), this role is evolving. In this review, I discuss the issues of radiation-induced hepatic toxicity, the planning of liver SBRT treatments, clinical results with SBRT, its place amongst other non-surgical ablative treatments, and potential future avenues of investigation...
September 28, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Jordan A Holmes, Bhishamjit S Chera, David J Brenner, Igor Shuryak, Adam K Wilson, Misty Lehman-Davis, David V Fried, Vivek Somasundaram, Jun Lian, Tim Cullip, Lawrence B Marks
PURPOSE: To quantify the risk of radiation-induced second malignancies (SMN) in pediatric patients receiving craniospinal irradiation (CSI) either with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (Conv CSI) or tomotherapy helical intensity modulated radiation therapy (Tomo CSI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A novel predictive model that accounts for short- and long-term carcinogenesis was incorporated into our institutional treatment planning system to quantify the lifetime risk of SMN in incidentally irradiated organs...
July 8, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
Christopher C Gillis, Eun Hae Chang, Khalid Al-Kharazi, Tom Pickles
AIM: To describe the first case of a secondary meningioma in a patient after radiation treatment for thyroid eye disease (TED). Secondarily to identify any additional cases of secondary malignancy resulting from radiotherapy for thyroid eye disease from our institutional experience. BACKGROUND: Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a self-limiting auto-immune disorder causing expansion of orbital soft tissue from deposition of glycosaminoglycans and collagen, leading to significant cosmetic and functional morbidity...
May 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Michael I Carr, Justine E Roderick, Hugh S Gannon, Michelle A Kelliher, Stephen N Jones
ATM phosphorylation of Mdm2-S394 is required for robust p53 stabilization and activation in DNA-damaged cells. We have now utilized Mdm2(S394A) knockin mice to determine that phosphorylation of Mdm2-S394 regulates p53 activity and the DNA damage response in lymphatic tissues in vivo by modulating Mdm2 stability. Mdm2-S394 phosphorylation delays lymphomagenesis in Eμ-myc transgenic mice, and preventing Mdm2-S394 phosphorylation obviates the need for p53 mutation in Myc-driven tumorigenesis. However, irradiated Mdm2(S394A) mice also have increased hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell functions, and we observed decreased lymphomagenesis in sub-lethally irradiated Mdm2(S394A) mice...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
J-M Cosset, C Chargari, C Demoor, P Giraud, S Helfre, F Mornex, A Mazal
The article deals with the prevention of cancers only directly related to therapeutic radiation which are distinguished from "secondary cancer". The consideration of the risk of radiation-induced cancers after radiation therapy, although it is fortunately rare events, has become indispensable today. With a review of the literature, are detailed the various involved parameters. The age of the irradiated patient is one of the main parameters. The impact of the dose is also discussed based on the model used, and based on clinical data...
September 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
R J Rieker, A Marx, A Agaimy, P Ströbel
Mesenchymal neoplasms of the thymus and mediastinum account for only 2 % of neoplasms of the mediastinum and are therefore very rare. With very few exceptions the histology, immunohistochemistry and (based on current knowledge) molecular biology of mediastinal soft tissue tumors are not different from their counterparts in other organs. Characteristic features are more concerned with clinical epidemiological and therapeutic aspects as well as the multitude of possible differential diagnoses. With the exception of organ-specific tumors, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), virtually all entities encountered in peripheral soft tissues can also arise in the mediastinum...
September 2016: Der Pathologe
Ontida Apinorasethkul, Nishele Lenards, Ashley Hunzeker
The purpose of this case study is to communicate a technique on treating the re-irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of anal canal with proton fields matched with electron fields to spare prostatic urethra. A 76-year old male presented with a secondary radiation-induced malignancy as a result of prostate brachytherapy seeds irradiation 10 years prior. A rectal examination revealed a bulky tumor at the top of the anal canal involving the left superior-most aspect of the anal canal extending superiorly into the rectum...
2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Vazhappilly Cijo George, Vijayabhavanath Vijayakumaran Vijesh, Amararathna Inoka Madumani Dehigaspege, Chelakkot Ayshwarya Lakshmi, Kannan Anbarasu, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen Kumar, Radhakrishnan Ethiraj, Rangasamy Ashok Kumar, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
Skin cancer in humans represents about 30% of all new cancers and by far the most common malignancy in Caucasian population. Exposure to radiations especially ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is the major cause for development of skin cancers along with other chemical or biological factors. The growing incidence rates of skin cancer around the world, demanded the need for new treatment options. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of skin cancer is therefore crucial for developing an effective drug against this prevailing disease...
June 27, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Emel Haciislamoglu, Fatma Colak, Emine Canyilmaz, Ahmet Yasar Zengin, Ahmet Hakan Yilmaz, Adnan Yoney, Zumrut Bahat
The aim of this study was to identify a rational strategy for the selection of multi-beam IMRT in patients with right breast cancer through the comparison of dosimetric parameters of the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) using five different radiotherapy modalities. This was a retrospective study using computed tomography scans from ten patients with early-stage right breast cancer who had been treated previously. Three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), forward-planned IMRT (for-IMRT), inverse-planned IMRT (inv-IMRT), helical tomotherapy (HT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were planned for each patient...
2016: SpringerPlus
D McQuaid, A Dunlop, S Nill, C Franzese, C M Nutting, K J Harrington, K L Newbold, S A Bhide
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate potential advantages and disadvantages of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), multiple fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of dose to the planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk (OARs) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for delivering ipsilateral radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3DCRT, IMRT and VMAT were compared in patients with well-lateralised primary tonsillar cancers who underwent primary radical ipsilateral radiotherapy...
August 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Mary Lou Affronti, Sarah Woodring, Karen Allen, John Kirkpatrick, Katherine B Peters, James E Herndon, Frances McSherry, Patrick N Healy, Annick Desjardins, James J Vredenburgh, Henry S Friedman
BACKGROUND: In malignant glioma (MG) patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) with concomitant temozolomide, chemoradiation-induced nausea and vomiting (cRINV) degrades quality of life (QoL) and reduces treatment adherence, which thereby potentially compromises cancer control. METHODS: We conducted a 6-week phase II single-arm trial of PAL, a second-generation 5-HT3RA antiemetic, for cRINV prevention in MG patients receiving radiation therapy (RT; 54-60 Gy) and concomitant daily temozolomide (TMZ; 75 mg/m(2)/dX42d)...
October 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
M Wijnen, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M Medici, R P Peeters, A J van der Lely, S J C M M Neggers
Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors...
June 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Marta Pacholczyk, Jan Czernicki, Tomasz Ferenc
Ultraviolet radiation is a physical mutagenic and cancerogenic factor. About 95% of ultraviolet A (UVA) (320-400 nm) and 5% of UVB (280-320 nm) reach the Earth's surface. Melanin is a natural skin protective factor against UV radiation. Skin cancers associated with long-term exposure to UV radiation are: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The high risk of BCC development is related to acute and repeated exposure to UV causing sunburn. Molecular studies of BBC demonstrated disorders in sonic hedgehog (SHH) cell signaling regulation pathway, associated with the suppressor protein patched homolog 1 gene (PTCH1) mutations...
2016: Medycyna Pracy
Sanchita P Ghosh, Rupak Pathak, Parameet Kumar, Shukla Biswas, Sharmistha Bhattacharyya, Vidya P Kumar, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Roopa Biswas
Ionizing radiation causes depletion of hematopoietic cells and enhances the risk of developing secondary hematopoietic malignancies. Vitamin E analog gamma-tocotrienol (GT3), which has anticancer properties, promotes postirradiation hematopoietic cell recovery by enhancing spleen colony-forming capacity, and provides protection against radiation-induced lethality in mice. However, the underlying molecular mechanism involved in GT3-mediated postirradiation survival is not clearly understood. Recent studies have shown that natural dietary products including vitamin E provide a benefit to biological systems by modulating microRNA (miR) expression...
May 2016: Radiation Research
Nicola Alessio, Stefania Capasso, Giovanni Di Bernardo, Salvatore Cappabianca, Fiorina Casale, Anna Calarco, Marilena Cipollaro, Gianfranco Peluso, Umberto Galderisi
Following radiotherapy, bone sarcomas account for a significant percentage of recurring tumors. This risk is further increased in patients with hereditary retinoblastoma that undergo radiotherapy. We analyzed the effect of low and medium dose radiation on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with inactivated RB1 gene to gain insights on the molecular mechanisms that can induce second malignant neoplasm in cancer survivors. MSC cultures contain subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells and committed progenitors that can differentiate into mesodermal derivatives: adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes...
April 28, 2016: Cell Cycle
Jamila Alazhri, Constantine Saclarides, Eli Avisar
The increase in survival after childhood radiation therapy for some blood malignancies has led to an increase in the diagnosis of radiation-induced secondary solid malignancies (SSM). We report a young man presenting with invasive breast cancer 19 years after receiving radiation therapy and bone marrow transplant for acute lymphocytic leukaemia in childhood. This latency period is longer than previously reported. Therefore, survivors of radiation-treated primary cancer should be closely monitored for SSM, including breast cancer, for the rest of their lives...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Peter F Morgenstern, Kalee Shah, Ira J Dunkel, Anne S Reiner, Yasmin Khakoo, Marc K Rosenblum, Philip Gutin
Complications of radiation exposure have gained importance with increasing cancer survivorship. Secondary malignancies have been associated with cranial radiation exposure. We present our experience with intracranial radiation-induced meningioma (RIM) and discuss the implications of its presentation and natural history for patient management. Patients diagnosed with meningioma who had received radiation therapy between 1960 and 2014 were identified. Records were retrospectively reviewed for details of radiation exposure, previous malignancies, meningioma subtypes, multiplicity and pathologic descriptions, treatment and follow-up...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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