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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444886/detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-non-human-primates
#1
Kim Fechner, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Karen Lampe, Franz-Josef Kaup, Claus-Peter Czerny, Jenny Schäfer
BACKGROUND: Due to a sporadic occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in non-human primates (NHP), the susceptibility of different NHP to MAP should be investigated. METHODS: Fecal and tissue samples (ileum, ileocecal lymph node, bone marrow) of 20 animals (seven species) were analyzed by IS900-based PCRs and sequenced. Samples of MAP PCR positive NHP were further cultivated. RESULTS: MAP DNA was detectable in two animals; the ileum of a cottontop tamarin and the bone marrow of a common marmoset...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393014/temporal-and-demographic-blood-parasite-dynamics-in-two-free-ranging-neotropical-primates
#2
Gideon A Erkenswick, Mrinalini Watsa, Alfonso S Gozalo, Nicole Dmytryk, Patricia G Parker
Parasite-host relationships are influenced by several factors intrinsic to hosts, such as social standing, group membership, sex, and age. However, in wild populations, temporal variation in parasite distributions and concomitant infections can alter these patterns. We used microscropy and molecular methods to screen for naturally occurring haemoparasitic infections in two Neotropical primate host populations, the saddleback (Leontocebus weddelli) and emperor (Saguinus imperator) tamarin, in the lowland tropical rainforests of southeastern Peru...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302086/extracellular-hsp90-and-tgf%C3%AE-regulate-adhesion-migration-and-anchorage-independent-growth-in-a-paired-colon-cancer-cell-line-model
#3
Jo-Anne de la Mare, Tamarin Jurgens, Adrienne L Edkins
BACKGROUND: Tumour metastasis remains the major cause of death in cancer patients and, to date, the mechanism and signalling pathways governing this process are not completely understood. The TGF-β pathway is the most commonly mutated pathway in cancer, however its role in cancer progression is controversial as it can function as both a promoter and a suppressor of metastasis. Although previous studies have suggested a role for the molecular chaperone Hsp90 in regulating the TGF-β pathway, the level at which this occurs as well as the consequences in terms of colon cancer metastasis are unknown...
March 16, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277720/artificial-grammar-learning-in-tamarins-saguinus-oedipus-in-varying-stimulus-contexts
#4
Julie J Neiworth, Justin M London, Michael J Flynn, Deborah D Rupert, Owen Alldritt, Caleb Hyde
The human ability to detect regularities in sound sequences is a fundamental substrate of our language faculty. However, is this an ability exclusive to human language processing, or have we usurped a more general learning mechanism for this purpose, one shared with other species? The current study is an attempt to replicate and extend Hauser, Weiss, and Marcus's (2002) retracted study (2010) of artificial grammar learning in tamarins to determine if tamarins can detect an underlying grammatical structure in a pattern of sounds...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277719/stick-weaving-innovative-behavior-in-tamarins-saguinus-oedipus
#5
Charles T Snowdon, Thomas R Roskos
Some captive cotton-top tamarins spontaneously weave sticks in the mesh of their enclosures so that the stick is lodged between two mesh openings. Sticks are broken from natural branches placed in the enclosures and often modified by biting them in the center before weaving through the mesh. To investigate this further, we systematically surveyed all animals in our colony and found that all successful stick-weaving tamarins were descendants from only 2 of the 16 breeding groups contributing to the colony membership at the time of surveying or were the mates of these descendants, suggesting stick-weaving is a socially learned behavior...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271525/survey-of-malassezia-sp-and-dermatophytes-in-the-cutaneous-microbiome-of-free-ranging-golden-headed-lion-tamarins-leontopithecus-chrysomelas-kuhl-1820
#6
Juan Ja Neves, Marcelo Francelino, Flavia Gl Silva, Luana Cl Baptista, Marina G Bueno, José L Catão-Dias, Camila Molina, Maria Cm Kierulff, Alcides Pissinatti, Selene DA Coutinho
BACKGROUND: Data about the presence of fungi on the cutaneous surface of wild animals are scarce. The aim of this study was to survey dermatophytes and Malassezia sp in the external ear canal and haircoat of Leontopithecus chrysomelas. METHODS: A total of 928 clinical samples were collected from 232 animals: For Malassezia screening 696 samples were studied, 464 of cerumen and 232 of haircoat; another 232 haircoat samples were studied for dermatophyte analysis. RESULTS: A geophilic dermatophyte, Microsporum cookie, was isolated from one young female...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187764/new-potential-plasmodium-brasilianum-hosts-tamarin-and-marmoset-monkeys-family-callitrichidae
#7
Denise A M Alvarenga, Anielle Pina-Costa, Cesare Bianco, Silvia B Moreira, Patricia Brasil, Alcides Pissinatti, Claudio T Daniel-Ribeiro, Cristiana F A Brito
BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHPs) as a source for Plasmodium infections in humans are a challenge for malaria elimination. In Brazil, two species of Plasmodium have been described infecting NHPs, Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium. Both species are infective to man. Plasmodium brasilianum resembles morphologically, genetically and immunologically the human quartan Plasmodium malariae. Plasmodium brasilianum naturally infects species of non-human primates from all New World monkey families from a large geographic area...
February 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187657/on-the-mammals-collected-by-friedrich-sellow-in-brazil-and-uruguay-1814-1831-with-special-reference-to-the-types-and-their-provenance
#8
Guilherme S T Garbino, Marcelo R Nogueira
From 1814 to 1831, the Prussian naturalist Friedrich Sellow collected 263 mammals in Brazil and Uruguay. Upon receiving the specimens, the curator of the Berlin Zoological Museum, Martin Lichtenstein, removed the original labels and replaced with ones containing more generalized locations. As a consequence, several type specimens have now dubious type localities. We examined these types as well as geographically restricted mammals collected by Sellow. In some cases, there are inconsistencies between the specimen label and the collection catalog regarding the collecting locality...
January 17, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030570/an-assessment-of-the-population-of-cotton-top-tamarins-saguinus-oedipus-and-their-habitat-in-colombia
#9
Anne Savage, Len Thomas, Katie L Feilen, Darren Kidney, Luis H Soto, Mackenzie Pearson, Felix S Medina, German Emeris, Rosamira R Guillen
Numerous animals have declining populations due to habitat loss, illegal wildlife trade, and climate change. The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a Critically Endangered primate species, endemic to northwest Colombia, threatened by deforestation and illegal trade. In order to assess the current state of this species, we analyzed changes in the population of cotton-top tamarins and its habitat from 2005 to 2012. We used a tailor-made "lure strip transect" method to survey 43 accessible forest parcels that represent 30% of the species' range...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925063/negative-serosurvey-of-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-golden-headed-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-chrysomelas-from-niter%C3%A3-i-rj-brazil
#10
Camila Vieira Molina, Felipe da Silva Krawczak, Marina Galvão Bueno, Herbert Sousa Soares, Solange Maria Genari, Alcides Pissinatti, Maria Cecília Martins Kierulff, Tiago Ferreira da Silva, Danilo Gomes de Freitas, Larissa Cristinne Caneli, José Luiz Catão-Dias
New World Nonhuman Primates are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 126 recently captured Leontopithecus chrysomelas, from an exotic and invasive population, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); all were seronegative. The MAT is highly specific and is not species-specific. This is the first report of T. gondii survey in this tamarin in the wild. This result is consistent with prior reports that showed the high susceptibility of the species to infection by T...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866159/pairing-animal-cartoon-characters-with-produce-stimulates-selection-among-child-zoo-visitors
#11
Allison Karpyn, Michael Allen, Samantha Marks, Nicole Filion, Debora Humphrey, Ai Ye, Henry May, Meryl P Gardner
In order to address the pervasive trend of underconsumption of fruits and vegetables among children, we examined the hypothesis that children would be more likely to select fruits (apple slices, bananas, and oranges) and vegetables (baby carrots) when paired with animal cartoon image than when available without the character image. Tested in a randomized experiment using counterbalancing, products were arranged on two tables at two separate family fun nights held at a local zoo. Animal character produce parings were manipulated by placing one of two animals (tamarin or iguana) next to two of the four fruit or vegetable selections at each table, and by changing when available without the image...
November 18, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846858/lineage-specific-serology-confirms-brazilian-atlantic-forest-lion-tamarins-leontopithecus-chrysomelas-and-leontopithecus-rosalia-as-reservoir-hosts-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-ii-tcii
#12
Charlotte L Kerr, Tapan Bhattacharyya, Samanta C C Xavier, Juliana H Barros, Valdirene S Lima, Ana M Jansen, Michael A Miles
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans, has a vast reservoir of mammalian hosts in the Americas, and is classified into six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI, with a possible seventh, TcBat. Elucidating enzootic cycles of the different lineages is important for understanding the ecology of this parasite, the emergence of new outbreaks of Chagas disease and for guiding control strategies. Direct lineage identification by genotyping is hampered by limitations of parasite isolation and culture...
November 15, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802443/pelage-variation-and-distribution-of-the-black-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-chrysopygus
#13
Guilherme Siniciato Terra Garbino, Gabriela Cabral Rezende, Claudio Valladares-Padua
The black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of the interior of the state of São Paulo in Brazil. Since the discovery of the species, authors have described variations in the pelage of L. chrysopygus, but the nature of this variation has remained unknown. We examined museum specimens and living animals to see if the pelage of L. chrysopygus varies individually, geographically or ontogenetically. We reviewed all known locality records of the species, and concluded that the pelage of L...
2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771832/preliminary-findings-on-social-and-ecological-correlates-of-a-polyspecific-association-between-a-golden-headed-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-chrysomelas-and-wied-s-marmosets-callithrix-kuhlii
#14
Leonardo de Carvalho Oliveira, Juliana Monteiro de Almeida Rocha, Paula Pedreira Dos Reis, James Dietz
The advantages of living in a group include feeding benefits and/or predation avoidance, while the disadvantages are typically related to competition. One way to avoid competition while maintaining the benefits of living in a group is to form interspecific associations with species with relatively little dietary overlap. Here we report a stable association between a male golden-headed lion tamarin (GHLT), Leontopithecus chrysomelas, and a group of Wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (WBTMs), Callithrix kuhlii...
January 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691975/hepatic-osteodystrophy-in-a-golden-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-rosalia
#15
Eunju Choi, Sara E Childs-Sanford, Noha Abou-Madi, Erin E King, Brian G Caserto, Heather Priest, Erica Behling-Kelly, Andrew D Miller
An 8-yr-old, captive, female golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) with a 6-yr history of hyperbilirubinemia was examined for inappetence and weight loss. Physical examination and blood pressure monitoring under anesthesia revealed hypothermia and hypotension, and blood work revealed hypoglycemia, markedly elevated liver enzymes, including serum alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, and confirmed the hyperbilirubinemia. A complete blood count suggested chronic lymphoid leukemia...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691959/treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-golden-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-rosalia-with-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-mimetic-exenatide
#16
James G Johnson, Jennifer N Langan, Chen Gilor
An 8-yr-old male golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on hyperglycemia and persistent glycosuria. Initial treatment consisted of the oral antihyperglycemic medications glipizide and metformin that resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations; however, marked glycosuria persisted. Insufficient improvement on oral antihyperglycemic therapy and poor feasibility of daily subcutaneous insulin therapy led to an investigation into an alternative therapy with extended-release exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic, at a dosage of 0...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689805/the-organophosphate-paraoxon-and-its-antidote-obidoxime-inhibit-thrombin-activity-and-affect-coagulation-in-vitro
#17
Valery Golderman, Efrat Shavit-Stein, Ilia Tamarin, Yossi Rosman, Shai Shrot, Nurit Rosenberg, Nicola Maggio, Joab Chapman, Arik Eisenkraft
Organophosphates (OPs) are potentially able to affect serine proteases by reacting with their active site. The potential effects of OPs on coagulation factors such as thrombin and on coagulation tests have been only partially characterized and potential interactions with OPs antidotes such as oximes and muscarinic blockers have not been addressed. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interactions between coagulation, thrombin, the OP paraoxon, and its antidotes obidoxime and atropine. The effects of these substances on thrombin activity were measured in a fluorescent substrate and on coagulation by standard tests...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684732/why-do-captive-pied-tamarins-give-birth-during-the-day
#18
Eluned C Price, Catherine Payne, Dominic Wormell
Diurnal primates typically give birth at night, when it is presumed that they are safer at a very vulnerable time, and this is reflected in an overwhelmingly nocturnal pattern of delivery in most species of Callitrichidae. However, over half (51.1%) of 88 births to pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) at Durrell Wildlife Park occurred during the day (0800-1700), almost always in the afternoon. Nearly three quarters of breeding females (17/23) had at least one diurnal birth, including females from all generations in captivity from wild-caught to fifth captive-born generation, and from all six matrilines represented at Durrell...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562397/progesterone-response-element-variation-in-the-oxtr-promoter-region-and-paternal-care-in-new-world-monkeys
#19
Pedro Vargas-Pinilla, Paul Babb, Leandro Nunes, Pâmela Paré, Gabrielle Rosa, Aline Felkl, Dânae Longo, Francisco M Salzano, Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes, Gislene Lopes Gonçalves, Maria Cátira Bortolini
Paternal care is a complex social behavior common in primate species with socially monogamous mating systems and twin births. Evolutionary causes and consequences of such behavior are not well understood, nor are their neuroendocrine and genetic bases. However, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) are associated with parental care in mammalian lineages. Here we investigated the interspecific variation in the number of progesterone response elements (PREs) in the OXTR promoter region of 32 primate species, correlating genetic data with behavior, social systems, and ecological/life-history parameters, while controlling for phylogeny...
August 25, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468035/diagnosis-and-management-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-in-a-pied-tamarin-saguinus-bicolor
#20
Alberto Rodriguez Barbon, Israel Alamilla Ordóñez, Peter Haworth, Gale Glendewar, Andrew Routh, Ann Pocknell
An intact male pied tamarin (Saguinus bicolor) presented with a hunched posture while moving, dysuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria. After diagnostic imaging assessment and prostate biopsy, benign prostatic hyperplasia was diagnosed. Treatments with delmadinone acetate and osaterone caused clinical signs and hematuria to resolve temporarily for a variable period of time. Because of frequent recurrence, elective surgical castration was performed, leading to resolution of the clinical signs.
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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