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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925063/negative-serosurvey-of-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-golden-headed-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-chrysomelas-from-niter%C3%A3-i-rj-brazil
#1
Camila Vieira Molina, Felipe da Silva Krawczak, Marina Galvão Bueno, Herbert Sousa Soares, Solange Maria Genari, Alcides Pissinatti, Maria Cecília Martins Kierulff, Tiago Ferreira da Silva, Danilo Gomes de Freitas, Larissa Cristinne Caneli, José Luiz Catão-Dias
New World Nonhuman Primates are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 126 recently captured Leontopithecus chrysomelas, from an exotic and invasive population, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); all were seronegative. The MAT is highly specific and is not species-specific. This is the first report of T. gondii survey in this tamarin in the wild. This result is consistent with prior reports that showed the high susceptibility of the species to infection by T...
December 1, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866159/pairing-animal-cartoon-characters-with-produce-stimulates-selection-among-child-zoo-visitors
#2
Allison Karpyn, Michael Allen, Samantha Marks, Nicole Filion, Debora Humphrey, Ai Ye, Henry May, Meryl P Gardner
In order to address the pervasive trend of underconsumption of fruits and vegetables among children, we examined the hypothesis that children would be more likely to select fruits (apple slices, bananas, and oranges) and vegetables (baby carrots) when paired with animal cartoon image than when available without the character image. Tested in a randomized experiment using counterbalancing, products were arranged on two tables at two separate family fun nights held at a local zoo. Animal character produce parings were manipulated by placing one of two animals (tamarin or iguana) next to two of the four fruit or vegetable selections at each table, and by changing when available without the image...
November 18, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846858/lineage-specific-serology-confirms-brazilian-atlantic-forest-lion-tamarins-leontopithecus-chrysomelas-and-leontopithecus-rosalia-as-reservoir-hosts-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-ii-tcii
#3
Charlotte L Kerr, Tapan Bhattacharyya, Samanta C C Xavier, Juliana H Barros, Valdirene S Lima, Ana M Jansen, Michael A Miles
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans, has a vast reservoir of mammalian hosts in the Americas, and is classified into six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI, with a possible seventh, TcBat. Elucidating enzootic cycles of the different lineages is important for understanding the ecology of this parasite, the emergence of new outbreaks of Chagas disease and for guiding control strategies. Direct lineage identification by genotyping is hampered by limitations of parasite isolation and culture...
November 15, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802443/pelage-variation-and-distribution-of-the-black-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-chrysopygus
#4
Guilherme Siniciato Terra Garbino, Gabriela Cabral Rezende, Claudio Valladares-Padua
The black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of the interior of the state of São Paulo in Brazil. Since the discovery of the species, authors have described variations in the pelage of L. chrysopygus, but the nature of this variation has remained unknown. We examined museum specimens and living animals to see if the pelage of L. chrysopygus varies individually, geographically or ontogenetically. We reviewed all known locality records of the species, and concluded that the pelage of L...
2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771832/preliminary-findings-on-social-and-ecological-correlates-of-a-polyspecific-association-between-a-golden-headed-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-chrysomelas-and-wied-s-marmosets-callithrix-kuhlii
#5
Leonardo de Carvalho Oliveira, Juliana Monteiro de Almeida Rocha, Paula Pedreira Dos Reis, James Dietz
The advantages of living in a group include feeding benefits and/or predation avoidance, while the disadvantages are typically related to competition. One way to avoid competition while maintaining the benefits of living in a group is to form interspecific associations with species with relatively little dietary overlap. Here we report a stable association between a male golden-headed lion tamarin (GHLT), Leontopithecus chrysomelas, and a group of Wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (WBTMs), Callithrix kuhlii...
October 22, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691975/hepatic-osteodystrophy-in-a-golden-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-rosalia
#6
Eunju Choi, Sara E Childs-Sanford, Noha Abou-Madi, Erin E King, Brian G Caserto, Heather Priest, Erica Behling-Kelly, Andrew D Miller
An 8-yr-old, captive, female golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) with a 6-yr history of hyperbilirubinemia was examined for inappetence and weight loss. Physical examination and blood pressure monitoring under anesthesia revealed hypothermia and hypotension, and blood work revealed hypoglycemia, markedly elevated liver enzymes, including serum alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, and confirmed the hyperbilirubinemia. A complete blood count suggested chronic lymphoid leukemia...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691959/treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-golden-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-rosalia-with-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-mimetic-exenatide
#7
James G Johnson, Jennifer N Langan, Chen Gilor
An 8-yr-old male golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on hyperglycemia and persistent glycosuria. Initial treatment consisted of the oral antihyperglycemic medications glipizide and metformin that resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations; however, marked glycosuria persisted. Insufficient improvement on oral antihyperglycemic therapy and poor feasibility of daily subcutaneous insulin therapy led to an investigation into an alternative therapy with extended-release exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic, at a dosage of 0...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689805/the-organophosphate-paraoxon-and-its-antidote-obidoxime-inhibit-thrombin-activity-and-affect-coagulation-in-vitro
#8
Valery Golderman, Efrat Shavit-Stein, Ilia Tamarin, Yossi Rosman, Shai Shrot, Nurit Rosenberg, Nicola Maggio, Joab Chapman, Arik Eisenkraft
Organophosphates (OPs) are potentially able to affect serine proteases by reacting with their active site. The potential effects of OPs on coagulation factors such as thrombin and on coagulation tests have been only partially characterized and potential interactions with OPs antidotes such as oximes and muscarinic blockers have not been addressed. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interactions between coagulation, thrombin, the OP paraoxon, and its antidotes obidoxime and atropine. The effects of these substances on thrombin activity were measured in a fluorescent substrate and on coagulation by standard tests...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684732/why-do-captive-pied-tamarins-give-birth-during-the-day
#9
Eluned C Price, Catherine Payne, Dominic Wormell
Diurnal primates typically give birth at night, when it is presumed that they are safer at a very vulnerable time, and this is reflected in an overwhelmingly nocturnal pattern of delivery in most species of Callitrichidae. However, over half (51.1%) of 88 births to pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) at Durrell Wildlife Park occurred during the day (0800-1700), almost always in the afternoon. Nearly three quarters of breeding females (17/23) had at least one diurnal birth, including females from all generations in captivity from wild-caught to fifth captive-born generation, and from all six matrilines represented at Durrell...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562397/progesterone-response-element-variation-in-the-oxtr-promoter-region-and-paternal-care-in-new-world-monkeys
#10
Pedro Vargas-Pinilla, Paul Babb, Leandro Nunes, Pâmela Paré, Gabrielle Rosa, Aline Felkl, Dânae Longo, Francisco M Salzano, Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes, Gislene Lopes Gonçalves, Maria Cátira Bortolini
Paternal care is a complex social behavior common in primate species with socially monogamous mating systems and twin births. Evolutionary causes and consequences of such behavior are not well understood, nor are their neuroendocrine and genetic bases. However, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) are associated with parental care in mammalian lineages. Here we investigated the interspecific variation in the number of progesterone response elements (PREs) in the OXTR promoter region of 32 primate species, correlating genetic data with behavior, social systems, and ecological/life-history parameters, while controlling for phylogeny...
August 25, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468035/diagnosis-and-management-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-in-a-pied-tamarin-saguinus-bicolor
#11
Alberto Rodriguez Barbon, Israel Alamilla Ordóñez, Peter Haworth, Gale Glendewar, Andrew Routh, Ann Pocknell
An intact male pied tamarin (Saguinus bicolor) presented with a hunched posture while moving, dysuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria. After diagnostic imaging assessment and prostate biopsy, benign prostatic hyperplasia was diagnosed. Treatments with delmadinone acetate and osaterone caused clinical signs and hematuria to resolve temporarily for a variable period of time. Because of frequent recurrence, elective surgical castration was performed, leading to resolution of the clinical signs.
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404890/physiological-and-parasitological-implications-of-living-in-a-city-the-case-of-the-white-footed-tamarin-saguinus-leucopus
#12
Iván Darío Soto-Calderón, Yuliet Andrea Acevedo-Garcés, Jóhnatan Álvarez-Cardona, Carolina Hernández-Castro, Gisela María García-Montoya
Among primates, the Neotropical Callitrichid monkeys (tamarins and marmosets) exhibit a particular ability to adapt to disturbed and urbanized environments. However, little is known about physiological and health status in contrasting ecological contexts. An example of adaptation to urban environments is the white-footed tamarin (Saguinus leucopus), an endangered species endemic to the central Andes in North West Colombia. This species was used as a model to contrast physical condition, physiological parameters and the parasite community of wild populations in rural and urban settings...
July 12, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350726/avoiding-hepatic-metastasis-naturally-lessons-from-the-cotton-top-tamarin-saguinus-oedipus
#13
REVIEW
Martin Tobi, Peter Thomas, Daniel Ezekwudo
Much has been written about hepatic metastasis and animal models abound. In terms of the human experience, progress in treating this final common pathway, a terminal event of many human malignancies has been relatively slow. The current thinking is that primary prevention is best served by early detection of cancer and eradication of early stage cancers by screening. Some cancers spread early in their course and the role of screening may be limited. Until relatively recently there has not been a pathfinder model that makes the evasion of this unfortunate event a reality...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292628/formation-of-functional-cenp-b-boxes-at-diverse-locations-in-repeat-units-of-centromeric-dna-in-new-world-monkeys
#14
Kazuto Kugou, Hirohisa Hirai, Hiroshi Masumoto, Akihiko Koga
Centromere protein B, which is involved in centromere formation, binds to centromeric repetitive DNA by recognizing a nucleotide motif called the CENP-B box. Humans have large numbers of CENP-B boxes in the centromeric repetitive DNA of their autosomes and X chromosome. The current understanding is that these CENP-B boxes are located at identical positions in the repeat units of centromeric DNA. Great apes also have CENP-B boxes in locations that are identical to humans. The purpose of the present study was to examine the location of CENP-B box in New World monkeys...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273141/thromboelastography-during-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-surgery-of-severe-hemophilia-a-patient-the-effect-of-heparin-and-protamine-on-factor-viii-activity
#15
Mudi Misgav, Tal Mandelbaum, Yigal Kassif, Haim Berkenstadt, Ilia Tamarin, Gili Kenet
Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) in hemophilia patients is challenging. Thromboelastography (TEG) is useful to assess hemostasis perioperatively. A patient with severe hemophilia A underwent CABG with TEG studied. After factor VIII (FVIII) bolus dose, TEG was normalized. Following 'on-pump' heparinization, protamine administration revealed prolonged TEG-R and TEG-R with heparinase confirming it, whereas the activated clotting time was normal, suggesting low FVIII activity rather than excess of heparin...
June 6, 2016: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257473/gene-changes-may-minimize-masculinizing-and-defeminizing-influences-of-exposure-to-male-cotwins-in-female-callitrichine-primates
#16
Jeffrey A French, Brett Frye, Jon Cavanaugh, Dongren Ren, Aaryn C Mustoe, Lisa Rapaport, Jennifer Mickelberg
BACKGROUND: Sexual differentiation in female mammals can be altered by the proximity of male littermates in utero, a phenomenon known as the intrauterine position effect (IUP). Among simian primates, callitrichines (marmosets and tamarins) are likely candidates for IUP, since they exhibit obligate dizygotic twinning and fetuses share extensive vascularization in utero. In this paper, we determined whether female reproductive parameters are altered by gestating with a male twin and evaluated changes in genes associated with anti-Müllerian and steroid hormones in twinning callitrichine primates...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245408/helicobacter-saguini-a-novel-helicobacter-isolated-from-cotton-top-tamarins-with-ulcerative-colitis-has-proinflammatory-properties-and-induces-typhlocolitis-and-dysplasia-in-gnotobiotic-il-10-mice
#17
Z Shen, A Mannion, M T Whary, S Muthupalani, A Sheh, Y Feng, G Gong, P Vandamme, H R Holcombe, B J Paster, J G Fox
A urease-negative, fusiform, novel bacterium named Helicobacter saguini was isolated from the intestines and feces of cotton-top tamarins (CTTs) with chronic colitis. Helicobacter sp. was detected in 69% of feces or intestinal samples from 116 CTTs. The draft genome sequence, obtained by Illumina MiSeq sequencing, for H. saguini isolate MIT 97-6194-5, consisting of ∼2.9 Mb with a G+C content of 35% and 2,704 genes, was annotated using the NCBI Prokaryotic Genomes Automatic Annotation Pipeline. H. saguini contains homologous genes of known virulence factors found in other enterohepatic helicobacter species (EHS) and H...
August 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236565/bifidobacterium-aerophilum-sp-nov-bifidobacterium-avesanii-sp-nov-and-bifidobacterium-ramosum-sp-nov-three-novel-taxa-from-the-faeces-of-cotton-top-tamarin-saguinus-oedipus-l
#18
Samanta Michelini, Monica Modesto, Gianfranco Filippini, Caterina Spiezio, Camillo Sandri, Bruno Biavati, Annamaria Pisi, Paola Mattarelli
Forty-five microorganisms were isolated on bifidobacteria selective medium from one faecal sample of an adult subject of the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus L.). All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, anaerobic, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive, and asporogenous rod-shaped bacteria. In this study, only eight out of the forty-five strains were characterized more deeply, whereas the others are still currently under investigation. They were grouped by BOX-PCR into three clusters: Cluster I (TRE 17(T), TRE 7, TRE 26, TRE 32, TRE 33, TRE I), Cluster II (TRE C(T)), and Cluster III (TRE M(T))...
May 12, 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26991077/identification-of-igh-gene-rearrangement-and-immunophenotype-in-an-animal-model-of-epstein-barr-virus-associated-lymphomas
#19
Yang Zhang, Xueqin Peng, Yunlian Tang, Xiaoning Gan, Chengkun Wang, Lu Xie, Xiaoli Xie, Runliang Gan, Yimou Wu
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human oncogenic herpesvirus associated with lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Because the susceptible hosts of EB virus are limited to human and cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), there have been no appropriate animal models until the lymphoma model induced by EBV in human peripheral blood lymphocyte (hu-PBL)/SCID chimeric mice was reported. However, it is still controversial whether the EBV-associated lymphoma induced in hu-PBL/SCID mice is a monoclonal tumor. In this study, we transplanted normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hu-PBL) from six donors infected with EBV into SCID mice to construct hu-PBL/SCID chimeric mice...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26981688/occurrence-of-prosthenorchis-elegans-in-free-living-primates-from-the-atlantic-forest-of-southern-bahia-brazil
#20
Lilian S Catenacci, Adriana C Colosio, Leonardo C Oliveira, Kristel M De Vleeschouwer, Alexandre D Munhoz, Sharon L Deem, Jaqueline M S Pinto
Parasite prevalence and abundance are important factors affecting species' conservation. During necropsies on a free-living golden-headed lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ) and two Wied's marmosets ( Callithrix kuhlii ) in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil, we collected a large number of adult intestinal parasites that we identified as Prosthenorchis elegans. This parasite is pathogenic for neotropical primates. Prosthenorchis spp. infestation is influenced by diet with increased risk of exposure from ingesting invertebrate intermediate hosts...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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