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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458055/brain-activation-associated-to-olfactory-conditioned-same-sex-partner-preference-in-male-rats
#1
Genaro A Coria-Avila, Tamara Cibrian-Llanderal, Victor X Díaz-Estrada, Luis I García, Rebeca Toledo-Cárdenas, James G Pfaus, Jorge Manzo
Sexual preferences can be strongly modified by Pavlovian learning. For instance, olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference can occur when a sexually naïve male cohabits with an scented male during repeated periods under the effects of enhanced D2-type activity. Preference is observed days later via social and sexual behaviors. Herein we explored brain activity related to learned same-sex preference (Fos-Immunoreactivity, IR) following exposure to a conditioned odor paired with same-sex preference. During conditioning trials males received either saline or the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) and cohabitated during 24 h with a stimulus male that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus...
February 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457926/the-contribution-of-theory-to-the-design-delivery-and-evaluation-of-interprofessional-curricula-beme-guide-no-49
#2
Sarah Hean, Christopher Green, Elizabeth Anderson, Debra Morris, Carol John, Richard Pitt, Cath O'Halloran
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional curricula have often lacked explicit reference to theory despite calls for a more theoretically informed field that illuminates curricular assumptions and justifies curricular practices. AIM: To review the contributions of theory to the design, delivery, and evaluation of interprofessional curricula. METHODS: Four databases were searched (1988-2015). Studies demonstrating explicit and a high-quality contribution of theory to the design, delivery or evaluation of interprofessional curricula were included...
February 19, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457923/flipping-social-determinants-on-its-head-medical-student-perspectives-on-the-flipped-classroom-and-simulated-patients-to-teach-social-determinants-of-health
#3
N Gostelow, J Barber, F Gishen, A Berlin
BACKGROUND: Inequalities in healthcare are increasing. Engaging medical students to tackle this urgent challenge alongside clinical sciences can be demanding. This study examines medical student perceptions of a flipped approach to health inequalities co-designed by faculty and sixth-year students. INNOVATION: A flipped learning session was piloted for year 4 medical students combining an online lesson followed by a tutorial with a simulated patient. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach collected questionnaire data using 4-point Likert scales and free text answers...
February 19, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457653/how-to-create-shared-symbols
#4
Nicolas Fay, Bradley Walker, Nik Swoboda, Simon Garrod
Human cognition and behavior are dominated by symbol use. This paper examines the social learning strategies that give rise to symbolic communication. Experiment 1 contrasts an individual-level account, based on observational learning and cognitive bias, with an inter-individual account, based on social coordinative learning. Participants played a referential communication game in which they tried to communicate a range of recurring meanings to a partner by drawing, but without using their conventional language...
February 19, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457647/learning-of-hierarchical-serial-patterns-emerges-in-infancy
#5
David J Lewkowicz, Mark A Schmuckler, Diane M J Mangalindan
Recursive, hierarchically organized serial patterns provide the underlying structure in many cognitive and motor domains including speech, language, music, social interaction, and motor action. We investigated whether learning of hierarchical patterns emerges in infancy by habituating 204 infants to different hierarchical serial patterns and then testing for discrimination and generalization of such patterns. Results indicated that 8- to 10-month-old and 12- to 14-month-old infants exhibited sensitivity to the difference between hierarchical and non-hierarchical structure but that 4- to 6-month-old infants did not...
February 19, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457200/network-based-research-on-rural-opioid-use-an-overview-of-methods-and-lessons-learned
#6
REVIEW
April M Young, Abby E Rudolph, Jennifer R Havens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough overview of methods used for recruitment, network data collection, and network data management in a network-based study of rural people who use drugs (PWUD) and to offer methodological recommendations for future research on rural drug use. RECENT FINDINGS: The Social Networks among Appalachian People (SNAP) study recruited a cohort of 503 rural PWUD via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and has retained more than 80% of eligible participants over 7-9 years...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457138/leveraging-the-learning-health-care-model-to-improve-equity-in-the-age-of-genomic-medicine
#7
Katherine D Blizinsky, Vence L Bonham
To fully achieve the goals of a genomics-enabled learning health care system, purposeful efforts to understand and reduce health disparities and improve equity of care are essential. This paper highlights three major challenges facing genomics-enabled learning health care systems, as they pertain to ancestrally diverse populations: inequality in the utility of genomic medicine; lack of access to pharmacogenomics in clinical care; and inadequate incorporation of social and environmental data into the electronic health care record (EHR)...
January 2018: Learning Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456827/impairment-of-social-behaviors-in-arhgef10-knockout-mice
#8
Dai-Hua Lu, Hsiao-Mei Liao, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Huang-Ju Tu, Houng-Chi Liou, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Wen-Mei Fu
Background: Impaired social interaction is one of the essential features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our previous copy number variation (CNV) study discovered a novel deleted region associated with ASD. One of the genes included in the deleted region is ARHGEF10 . A missense mutation of ARHGEF10 has been reported to be one of the contributing factors in several diseases of the central nervous system. However, the relationship between the loss of ARHGEF10 and the clinical symptoms of ASD is unclear...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456516/the-socio-communicative-development-of-preterm-infants-is-resistant-to-the-negative-effects-of-parity-on-maternal-responsiveness
#9
Ivete F R Caldas, Marilice F Garotti, Victor K M Shiramizu, Antonio Pereira
Humans are born completely dependent on adult care for survival. To get the necessary support, newborns rely on socio-communicative abilities which have both innate and learned components. Maternal responsiveness (MR), as a critical aspect of mother-infant interaction, is a robust predictor of the acquisition of socio-communicative abilities. However, maternal responsiveness (MR) is influenced by parity, since mothers rely on a limited capacity of cognitive control for efficient attachment with their offspring...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455926/unravelling-salutogenic-mechanisms-in-the-workplace-the-role-of-learning
#10
Roald Pijpker, Lenneke Vaandrager, Evert Jan Bakker, Maria Koelen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the moderating and mediating role(s) of learning within the relationship between sense of coherence (SOC) and generalized resistance resources. METHOD: Cross-sectional study (N=481), using a self-administered questionnaire, of employees working in the healthcare sector in the Netherlands in 2017. Four residential healthcare settings and one healthcare-related Facebook group were involved. Multiple linear regression models were used to test for moderating and mediating effects of learning...
February 15, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455864/social-influence-on-positive-youth-development-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#11
Eva H Telzer, Jorien van Hoorn, Christina R Rogers, Kathy T Do
Susceptibility to social influence is associated with a host of negative outcomes during adolescence. However, emerging evidence implicates the role of peers and parents in adolescents' positive and adaptive adjustment. Hence, in this chapter we highlight social influence as an opportunity for promoting social adjustment, which can redirect negative trajectories and help adolescents thrive. We discuss influential models about the processes underlying social influence, with a particular emphasis on internalizing social norms, embedded in social learning and social identity theory...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455860/a-social-interactive-neuroscience-approach-to-understanding-the-developing-brain
#12
Elizabeth Redcay, Katherine Rice Warnell
From birth onward, social interaction is central to our everyday lives. Our ability to seek out social partners, flexibly navigate and learn from social interactions, and develop social relationships is critically important for our social and cognitive development and for our mental and physical health. Despite the importance of our social interactions, the neurodevelopmental bases of such interactions are underexplored, as most research examines social processing in noninteractive contexts. We begin this chapter with evidence from behavioral work and adult neuroimaging studies demonstrating how social-interactive context fundamentally alters cognitive and neural processing...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455445/adaptive-reinventing-implicit-bias-and-the-co-construction-of-social-change
#13
Javeed Sukhera, Alexandra Milne, Pim W Teunissen, Lorelei Lingard, Chris Watling
Emerging research on implicit bias recognition and management within health professions describes individually focused educational interventions without considering workplace influences. Workplace learning theories highlight how individual agency and workplace structures dynamically interact to produce change within individuals and learning environments. Promoting awareness of individual biases shaped by clinical learning environments may therefore represent a unique type of workplace learning. We sought to explore how individuals and the workplace learning environment interact once awareness of implicit biases are triggered within learners...
February 17, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455160/children-and-adolescents-experiences-of-primary-lymphoedema-semistructured-interview-study
#14
Camilla S Hanson, Johanna Newsom, Davinder Singh-Grewal, Nicholas Henschke, Margaret Patterson, Allison Tong
BACKGROUND: Congenital lymphoedema is a lifelong condition that has detrimental physical and psychosocial outcomes for young patients and burdensome treatment responsibilities that may hamper patients' motivation for self-management. There is limited research from the perspective of young people with primary lymphoedema. We aimed to describe the experiences and views of children and adolescents with lymphoedema to inform patient-centred practice. METHODS: Twenty patients (aged 8-21 years) with primary lymphoedema were purposively sampled from two paediatric clinics in Sydney, Australia, to participate in a semistructured interview...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454885/attending-to-identity-cues-reduces-the-own-age-but-not-the-own-race-recognition-advantage
#15
Valentina Proietti, Sarah Laurence, Claire M Matthew, Xiaomei Zhou, Catherine J Mondloch
Adults' ability to recognize individual faces is shaped by experience. Young adults recognize own-age and own-race faces more accurately than other-age and other-race faces. The own-age and own-race biases have been attributed to differential perceptual experience and to differences in how in-group vs. out-group faces are processed, with in-group faces being processed at the individual level and out-group faces being processed at the categorical level. To examine this social categorization hypothesis, young adults studied young and older faces in Experiment 1 and own- and other-race faces in Experiment 2...
February 15, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454327/peer-support-to-improve-diabetes-care-an-implementation-evaluation-of-the-australasian-peers-for-progress-diabetes-program
#16
Zahra Aziz, Michaela A Riddell, Pilvikki Absetz, Margaret Brand, Brian Oldenburg
BACKGROUND: Several studies have now demonstrated the benefits of peer support in promoting diabetes control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of a cluster randomised controlled trial of a group-based, peer support program to improve diabetes self-management and thereby, diabetes control in people with Type 2 Diabetes in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: The intervention program was designed to address four key peer support functions i.e. 1) assistance in daily management, 2) social and emotional support, 3) regular linkage to clinical care, and 4) ongoing and sustained support to assist with the lifelong needs of diabetes self-care management...
February 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454315/prevalence-and-correlates-of-positive-mental-health-in-chinese-adolescents
#17
Cheng Guo, Göran Tomson, Christina Keller, Fredrik Söderqvist
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the prevalence of positive mental health and its correlates are still scarce compared to the studies on mental disorders, although there is growing interest of assessing positive mental health in adolescents. So far, no other study examining the prevalence and determinants of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents has been found. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents...
February 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453857/psychosocial-student-functioning-in-comprehensive-dental-clinic-education-a-qualitative-study
#18
R Moore
INTRODUCTION: The aims were to describe first-year clinical dental students' psychosocial experiences in a known well-functioning comprehensive clinic teaching group (F+Grp) and a known dysfunctional group (Dys-Grp) and, thus, discover and describe phenomena related to psychosocial functioning of students. These groups were compared and contrasted regarding negative stress symptoms, perfectionism and coping with stress. METHODS: Eight female dental students (mean 26 years old), four in each group, were interviewed after the first clinical year about learning and emotional experiences...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453399/association-of-sleep-and-circadian-activity-rhythm-with-emotional-face-processing-among-12-month-old-infants
#19
Wanqi Sun, Shirley Xin Li, Guanghai Wang, Shumei Dong, Yanrui Jiang, Karen Spruyt, Jiefan Ling, Qi Zhu, Tatia Mei-Chun Lee, Fan Jiang
Sleep and circadian rhythmicity both play an important role in human's cognitive functioning, yet the way in which early development of sleep and circadian rhythm affects cognitive processes and social learning in infants remains less understood. We examined the association of sleep and circadian activity rhythm (CAR) with face and emotional information processing in 12-month old infants. Face processing was measured by eye tracking, whereby infants' scanning patterns and pupil dilations were calculated when they were presented with neutral, pleasant and unpleasant faces...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453189/evaluating-the-care4carer-blended-care-intervention-for-partners-of-patients-with-acquired-brain-injury-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Vincent Cm Cox, Vera Pm Schepers, Marjolijn Ketelaar, Caroline M van Heugten, Johanna Ma Visser-Meily
BACKGROUND: Support programs for partners of patients with acquired brain injury are necessary since these partners experience several unfavorable consequences of caregiving, such as a high burden, emotional distress, and poor quality of life. Evidence-based support strategies that can be included in these support programs are psychoeducation, skill building, problem solving, and improving feelings of mastery. A promising approach would seem to be to combine web-based support with face-to-face consultations, creating a blended care intervention...
February 16, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
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