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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548461/attending-learning-and-socioeconomic-disadvantage-developmental-cognitive-and-social-neuroscience-of-resilience-and-vulnerability
#1
REVIEW
Kylie Schibli, Kyle Wong, Nina Hedayati, Amedeo D'Angiulli
We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548263/remembering-my-friends-medial-prefrontal-and-hippocampal-contributions-to-the-self-reference-effect-on-face-memories-in-a-social-context
#2
Rie Yamawaki, Kimihiro Nakamura, Toshihiko Aso, Yayoi Shigemune, Hidenao Fukuyama, Takashi Tsukiura
Memories associated with the self are remembered more accurately than those associated with others. The memory enhancement related to the self is known as the self-reference effect (SRE). However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the SRE in a social context modulated by social relationships. In the present fMRI study, we investigated encoding-related activation of face memories encoded with the self-referential process in a social context that was manipulated by imagining a person-to-person relationship...
May 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546783/culture-meets-collective-action-exciting-synergies-and-some-lessons-to-learn-for-the-future
#3
Martijn van Zomeren, Winnifred R Louis
In this introduction to the special issue of Group Processes & Intergroup Relations on "Culture and Collective Action" we emphasize the importance of the special issue topic for the development of the field. Specifically, we highlight the globalization of collective action and the internationalization of the social-psychological study of collective action, both of which point to culture as a missing link for this field. We thus propose that the next step is to move toward a proper cultural psychology of collective action-a social psychology in which culture is an integral part...
May 2017: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations: GPIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545935/social-fear-learning-from-animal-models-to-human-function
#4
REVIEW
Jacek Debiec, Andreas Olsson
Learning about potential threats is critical for survival. Learned fear responses are acquired either through direct experiences or indirectly through social transmission. Social fear learning (SFL), also known as vicarious fear learning, is a paradigm successfully used for studying the transmission of threat information between individuals. Animal and human studies have begun to elucidate the behavioral, neural and molecular mechanisms of SFL. Recent research suggests that social learning mechanisms underlie a wide range of adaptive and maladaptive phenomena, from supporting flexible avoidance in dynamic environments to intergenerational transmission of trauma and anxiety disorders...
May 22, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545629/moral-vindications
#5
Victor Kumar
Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently been unearthing the unconscious processes that give rise to moral intuitions and emotions. According to skeptics like Joshua Greene, what has been found casts doubt on many of our moral beliefs. However, a new approach in moral psychology develops a learning-theoretic framework that has been successfully applied in a number of other domains. This framework suggests that model-based learning shapes intuitions and emotions. Model-based learning explains how moral thought and feeling are attuned to local material and social conditions...
May 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545574/initiating-change-locally-in-bullying-and-aggression-through-the-school-environment-inclusive-trial-update-to-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#6
Chris Bonell, Anne Mathiot, Elizabeth Allen, Leonardo Bevilacqua, Deborah Christie, Diana Elbourne, Adam Fletcher, Richard Grieve, Rosa Legood, Stephen Scott, Emily Warren, Meg Wiggins, Russell M Viner
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest that multi-component interventions are effective in reducing bullying victimisation and perpetration. We are undertaking a phase III randomised trial of the INCLUSIVE multi-component intervention. This trial aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the INCLUSIVE intervention in reducing aggression and bullying victimisation in English secondary schools. This paper updates the original trial protocol published in 2014 (Trials 15:381, 2014) and presents the changes in the process evaluation protocol and the secondary outcome data collection...
May 25, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545524/an-unsupervised-learning-approach-for-tracking-mice-in-an-enclosed-area
#7
Jakob Unger, Mike Mansour, Marcin Kopaczka, Nina Gronloh, Marc Spehr, Dorit Merhof
BACKGROUND: In neuroscience research, mouse models are valuable tools to understand the genetic mechanisms that advance evidence-based discovery. In this context, large-scale studies emphasize the need for automated high-throughput systems providing a reproducible behavioral assessment of mutant mice with only a minimum level of manual intervention. Basic element of such systems is a robust tracking algorithm. However, common tracking algorithms are either limited by too specific model assumptions or have to be trained in an elaborate preprocessing step, which drastically limits their applicability for behavioral analysis...
May 25, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545500/strengthening-capacity-to-research-the-social-determinants-of-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-lessons-from-the-intrec-programme
#8
Nicholas Henschke, Anna Mirny, Joke A Haafkens, Heribert Ramroth, Siwi Padmawati, Martin Bangha, Lisa Berkman, Laksono Trisnantoro, Yulia Blomstedt, Heiko Becher, Osman Sankoh, Peter Byass, John Kinsman
BACKGROUND: The INDEPTH Training & Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC) collaboration developed a training programme to strengthen social determinants of health (SDH) research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It was piloted among health- and demographic researchers from 9 countries in Africa and Asia. The programme followed a blended learning approach and was split into three consecutive teaching blocks over a 12-month period: 1) an online course of 7 video lectures and assignments on the theory of SDH research; 2) a 2-week qualitative and quantitative methods workshop; and 3) a 1-week data analysis workshop...
May 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545425/mental-health-training-programmes-for-non-mental-health-trained-professionals-coming-into-contact-with-people-with-mental-ill-health-a-systematic-review-of-effectiveness
#9
Alison Booth, Arabella Scantlebury, Adwoa Hughes-Morley, Natasha Mitchell, Kath Wright, William Scott, Catriona McDaid
BACKGROUND: The police and others in occupations where they come into close contact with people experiencing/with mental ill health, often have to manage difficult and complex situations. Training is needed to equip them to recognise and assist when someone has a mental health issue or learning/intellectual disability. We undertook a systematic review of the effectiveness of training programmes aimed at increasing knowledge, changing behaviour and/or attitudes of the trainees with regard to mental ill health, mental vulnerability, and learning disabilities...
May 25, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544869/restoring-agency-to-the-human-actor
#10
William B Swann, Jolanda Jetten
A cursory read of the social psychological literature suggests that when people find themselves in strong situations, they fail to display agency. The early classic studies of conformity, obedience, and bystander intervention, for example, are renowned for showing that when challenged by strong situational pressures, participants acquiesced-even if it meant abandoning their moral principles or disregarding their own sensory data. Later studies of learned helplessness, ego depletion, and stereotype threat echoed this "power of the situation" theme, demonstrating that exposure to (or the expectation of) a frustrating or unpleasant experience suppressed subsequent efforts to actualize goals and abilities...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544658/the-evolution-of-stories-from-mimesis-to-language-from-fact-to-fiction
#11
REVIEW
Brian Boyd
Why a species as successful as Homo sapiens should spend so much time in fiction, in telling one another stories that neither side believes, at first seems an evolutionary riddle. Because of the advantages of tracking and recombining true information, capacities for event comprehension, memory, imagination, and communication evolved in a range of animal species-yet even chimpanzees cannot communicate beyond the here and now. By Homo erectus, our forebears had reached an increasing dependence on one another, not least in sharing information in mimetic, prelinguistic ways...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542648/robot-education-peers-in-a-situated-primary-school-study-personalisation-promotes-child-learning
#12
Paul Baxter, Emily Ashurst, Robin Read, James Kennedy, Tony Belpaeme
The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542578/illness-experiences-of-diabetes-in-the-context-of-malaria-in-settings-experiencing-double-burden-of-disease-in-southeastern-tanzania
#13
Emmy Metta, Ajay Bailey, Flora Kessy, Eveline Geubbels, Hinke Haisma
BACKGROUND: Tanzania is doubly burdened with both non-communicable and infectious diseases, but information on how Tanzanians experience the co-existence of these conditions is limited. Using Kleinman's eight prompting questions the study synthesizes explanatory models from patients to describe common illness experiences of diabetes in a rural setting where malaria is the predominant health threat. METHODS: We conducted 17 focus group discussions with adult members of the general community, diabetes patients, neighbours and relatives of diabetes patients to gain insight into shared experiences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541285/endogenous-opioids-regulate-social-threat-learning-in-humans
#14
Jan Haaker, Jonathan Yi, Predrag Petrovic, Andreas Olsson
Many fearful expectations are shaped by observation of aversive outcomes to others. Yet, the neurochemistry regulating social learning is unknown. Previous research has shown that during direct (Pavlovian) threat learning, information about personally experienced outcomes is regulated by the release of endogenous opioids, and activity within the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Here we report that blockade of this opioidergic circuit enhances social threat learning through observation in humans involving activity within the amygdala, midline thalamus and the PAG...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541056/visible-spatial-contiguity-of-social-information-and-reward-affects-social-learning-in-brown-capuchins-sapajus-apella-and-children-homo-sapiens
#15
Lara A Wood, Andrew Whiten
Animal social learning is typically studied experimentally by the presentation of artificial foraging tasks. Although productive, results are often variable even for the same species. We present and test the hypothesis that one cause of variation is that spatial distance between rewards and the means of reward release causes conflicts for participants' attentional focus. We investigated whether spatial contiguity between a visible reward and the means of release would affect behavioral responses that evidence social learning, testing 21 brown capuchins (Sapajus apella), a much-studied species with variant evidence for social learning, and one hundred eighty 2- to 4-year-old human children (Homo sapiens), a benchmark species known for a strong social learning disposition...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540367/lived-lives-a-pavee-perspective-an-arts-science-community-intervention-around-suicide-in-an-indigenous-ethnic-minority
#16
Kevin M Malone, Seamus G McGuinness, Eimear Cleary, Janis Jefferies, Christabel Owens, Cecily C Kelleher
Background: Suicide is a significant public health concern, which impacts on health outcomes. Few suicide research studies have been interdisciplinary. We combined a psychobiographical autopsy with a visual arts autopsy, in which families donated stories, images and objects associated with the lived life of a loved one lost to suicide. From this interdisciplinary research platform, a mediated exhibition was created (Lived Lives) with artist, scientist and families, co-curated by communities, facilitating dialogue, response and public action around suicide prevention...
April 13, 2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539948/attitudes-formation-by-small-but-meaningful-personal-information
#17
Jaejoong Kim, Sang Won Lee, Minwook Kwak, Kyueun Lee, Bumseok Jeong
OBJECTIVE: People often evaluate others using fragmentary but meaningful personal information in recent days through social media. It is not clear that whether this process is implicit or explicit and what kind of information is more important in such process.We examined the effects of several meaningful fragmentary information onattitude. METHODS: Thirty three KAIST students were provided four fragmentary information about four virtual people that are meaningful in evaluating people and frequently seen in real life situations, and were asked to imagine that person during four follow-up sessions...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538871/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-interventions-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Larissa Lyra, Luiz Eduardo Rizzo, Camila Sá Sunahara, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Ana Luiza Cabrera Martimbianco, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder. The manifestations of ASDs can have an important impact on learning and social functioning that may persist during adulthood. The aim here was to summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for ASDs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted within the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
March 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538231/informal-peer-assisted-learning-groups-did-not-lead-to-better-performance-of-saudi-dental-students
#19
Maha AbdelSalam, Maha El Tantawi, Asim Al-Ansari, Adel AlAgl, Fahad Al-Harbi
OBJECTIVES: To describe peer-assisted learning (PAL) groups formed by dental undergraduate students in a biomedical course and investigate the association of individual and group characteristics with academic performance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 2015, 92 4th yr. students (males: 43; females: 49) in the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia were invited to form PAL groups to study a unit in a biomedical course. An examination was used to assess their knowledge after two weeks...
May 23, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537945/making-sense-of-effective-partnerships-among-senior-leaders-in-the-national-health-service
#20
Mahima Mitra, Timothy Hoff, Paul Brankin, Sue Dopson
BACKGROUND: Changing health care systems depend on strong organizational leadership that realizes the collaborative potential of both physician and nonphysician leaders. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to seek insight into the everyday health care leader experience by examining 24 physician and nonphysician leaders working in the U.K. National Health Service. We explored (a) how they make sense of and act with respect to specific collaborative tensions in their interactions and (b) which aspects of their everyday leadership contexts heighten the probability for producing and resolving such tensions...
May 22, 2017: Health Care Management Review
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