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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694916/perception-as-a-route-for-motor-skill-learning-perspectives-from-neuroscience
#1
REVIEW
Ori Ossmy, Roy Mukamel
Learning a motor skill requires physical practice that engages neural networks involved in movement. These networks have also been found to be engaged during perception of sensory signals associated with actions. Nonetheless, despite extensive evidence for the existence of such sensory-evoked neural activity in motor pathways, much less is known about their contribution to learning and actual changes in behavior. Primate studies usually involve an overlearned task while studies in humans have largely focused on characterizing activity of the action observation network (AON) in the context of action understanding, theory of mind, and social interactions...
April 22, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694304/does-the-internet-provide-patients-or-clinicians-with-useful-information-regarding-faecal-incontinence-an-observational-study
#2
C A Leo, J Murphy, J D Hodgkinson, C J Vaizey, Y Maeda
BACKGROUND: The Internet has become an important platform for information communication. This study aim to investigate the utility of social media and search engines to disseminate faecal incontinence information. METHODS: We looked into Social media platforms and search engines. There was not a direct patient recruitment and any available information from patients was already on public domain at the time of search. A quantitative analysis of types and volumes of information regarding faecal incontinence was made...
March 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693440/intraspecific-variation-in-learning-worker-wasps-are-less-able-to-learn-and-remember-individual-conspecific-faces-than-queen-wasps
#3
Elizabeth A Tibbetts, Allison Injaian, Michael J Sheehan, Nicole Desjardins
Research on individual recognition often focuses on species-typical recognition abilities rather than assessing intraspecific variation in recognition. As individual recognition is cognitively costly, the capacity for recognition may vary within species. We test how individual face recognition differs between nest-founding queens (foundresses) and workers in Polistes fuscatus paper wasps. Individual recognition mediates dominance interactions among foundresses. Three previously published experiments have shown that foundresses (1) benefit by advertising their identity with distinctive facial patterns that facilitate recognition, (2) have robust memories of individuals, and (3) rapidly learn to distinguish between face images...
May 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692804/regulation-of-central-nervous-system-myelination-in-higher-brain-functions
#4
REVIEW
Mara Nickel, Chen Gu
The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic support and can profoundly affect neural circuit computation...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692436/publication-rates-of-social-and-administrative-sciences-pharmacy-faculty-in-non-research-intensive-pharmacy-schools
#5
Trenna Weathers, Elizabeth Unni
Objective. To assess the level of publication rates from 2011 through 2015 by Social and Administrative Sciences (SAS) faculty at non-research intensive pharmacy schools. Methods. The Web of Science database was searched using faculty names identified from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty and professional staff roster. Publication rates of SAS faculty were calculated and compared using several demographic subcategories such as public/private school, part of an academic health center, schools with PhD program, funding status, etc...
April 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691975/children-imitate-antisocial-in-group-members
#6
Matti Wilks, James Kirby, Mark Nielsen
Children demonstrate a pervasive in-group bias, preferring their in-group across a range of contexts that encompass measures of liking, imitation, and, in some cases, resource allocation. A growing number of studies have begun to explore whether antisocial in-group behavior reduces the robustness of this bias. However, these studies have focused on transgression evaluations, with only two studies focusing on social learning and none explicitly on imitation. This, therefore, limits the extent to which children's responses to interaction between in-group bias and antisocial behavior can be fully understood...
April 25, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691958/brain-based-treatment-a-new-approach-or-a-well-forgotten-old-one
#7
Vanya Matanova, Zlatomira Kostova, Martin Kolev
For a relatively long period of time, mental functioning was mainly associated with personal profile while brain functioning went by the wayside. After the 90s of the 20th century, or the so called "Decade of the Brain", today, contemporary specialists work on the boundary between fundamental science and medicine. This brings neuroscience, neuropsychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy closer to each other. Today, we definitely know that brain structures are being built and altered thanks to experience...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691210/risk-assessment-for-parents-who-suspect-their-child-has-autism-spectrum-disorder-machine-learning-approach
#8
Ayelet Ben-Sasson, Diana L Robins, Elad Yom-Tov
BACKGROUND: Parents are likely to seek Web-based communities to verify their suspicions of autism spectrum disorder markers in their child. Automated tools support human decisions in many domains and could therefore potentially support concerned parents. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of assessing autism spectrum disorder risk in parental concerns from Web-based sources, using automated text analysis tools and minimal standard questioning...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689174/the-comfortable-cafeteria-program-for-promoting-student-participation-and-enjoyment-an-outcome-study
#9
Susan Bazyk, Louise Demirjian, Frances Horvath, Lauri Doxsey
A mixed-methods design was used to explore the outcomes of a 6-wk, occupational therapist-led Comfortable Cafeteria program designed to build cafeteria supervisors' and students' capacity to create a positive mealtime environment so that all students can successfully participate in and enjoy a healthy meal and socialization with peers. Students whose scores were in the low and mid-range at the outset had statistically significant improvements in pretest-posttest visual analog scale ratings of participation and enjoyment...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689053/agent-specific-learning-signals-for-self-other-distinction-during-mentalising
#10
Sam Ereira, Raymond J Dolan, Zeb Kurth-Nelson
Humans have a remarkable ability to simulate the minds of others. How the brain distinguishes between mental states attributed to self and mental states attributed to someone else is unknown. Here, we investigated how fundamental neural learning signals are selectively attributed to different agents. Specifically, we asked whether learning signals are encoded in agent-specific neural patterns or whether a self-other distinction depends on encoding agent identity separately from this learning signal. To examine this, we tasked subjects to learn continuously 2 models of the same environment, such that one was selectively attributed to self and the other was selectively attributed to another agent...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688638/-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-accessibility-and-availability-of-services-in-israel
#11
Asher Ornoy, Dori Rivkin, Lital Barlev
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among children ranges from 8% -12% and is more common in males. Most ADHD children suffer from related disorders such as learning disabilities and behavioral problems. Treatment with stimulants improves the learning and social abilities of most children and the addition of non-pharmaceutical treatments induces further improvement. OBJECTIVES: Our previous study, four years ago, screened 1,129 1st and 2nd grade children in Jerusalem and identified 105 with high risk for ADHD...
April 2018: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688081/perceptions-of-the-transition-from-receiving-the-diagnosis-recessive-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-to-becoming-in-need-of-human-support-and-using-a-wheelchair-an-interview-study
#12
Anna Carin Aho, Sally Hultsjö, Katarina Hjelm
PURPOSE: To describe perceptions of the transition from receiving the diagnosis recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy to becoming in need of human support to manage daily life and using a wheelchair for ambulation, from the affected young adults' and their parents' perspectives. METHOD: A qualitative and descriptive study design was used. Semi-structured interviews were held with 14 young adults diagnosed with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and 19 parents...
April 24, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687188/orienting-to-medicine-scripting-professionalism-hierarchy-and-social-difference-at-the-start-of-medical-school
#13
Sienna R Craig, Rebekah Scott, Kristy Blackwood
Nascent medical students' first view into medical school orients them toward what is considered important in medicine. Based on ethnography conducted over 18 months at a New England medical school, this article explores themes which emerged during a first-year student orientation and examines how these scripts resurface across a four-year curriculum, revealing dynamics of enculturation into an institution and the broader profession. We analyze orientation activities as discursive and embodied fields which serve "practical" purposes of making new social geographies familiar, but which also frame institutional values surrounding "soft" aspects of medicine: professionalism; dynamics of hierarchy and vulnerability; and social difference...
April 23, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686446/multimodal-teaching-analytics-automated-extraction-of-orchestration-graphs-from-wearable-sensor-data
#14
Luis P Prieto, Kshitij Sharma, Łukasz Kidzinski, María Jesús Rodríguez-Triana, Pierre Dillenbourg
The pedagogical modelling of everyday classroom practice is an interesting kind of evidence, both for educational research and teachers' own professional development. This paper explores the usage of wearable sensors and machine learning techniques to automatically extract orchestration graphs (teaching activities and their social plane over time), on a dataset of 12 classroom sessions enacted by two different teachers in different classroom settings. The dataset included mobile eye-tracking as well as audiovisual and accelerometry data from sensors worn by the teacher...
April 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685863/a-mobile-gaming-intervention-to-increase-adherence-to-antiretroviral-treatment-for-youth-living-with-hiv-development-guided-by-the-information-motivation-and-behavioral-skills-model
#15
Laura Whiteley, Larry Brown, Michelle Lally, Nicholas Heck, Jacob J van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Highly active combination antiretroviral treatment has been shown to markedly improve the health of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment leads to decreased morbidity and mortality and decreases the number of hospitalizations. However, these clinical achievements can only occur when young persons with HIV are adherent to care. Unfortunately, adolescents and young adults have poorer rates of adherence to antiretroviral medications and poorer rates of retention in care than older adults...
April 23, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685768/accelerated-long-term-forgetting-and-behavioural-difficulties-in-children-with-epilepsy
#16
Michael B Gascoigne, Mary Lou Smith, Belinda Barton, Richard Webster, Deepak Gill, Suncica Lah
Patients with epilepsy have been shown to exhibit a range of memory deficits, including the rapid forgetting of newly-learned material over long, but not short, delays (termed accelerated long-term forgetting; ALF). Behavioural problems, such as mood disorders and social difficulties, are also overrepresented among children with epilepsy, when compared to patients with other chronic diseases and the general population. We investigated whether ALF was associated with behavioural or psychosocial deficits in children with epilepsy...
March 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685725/how-do-we-talk-about-doctors-and-drugs-sentiment-analysis-in-forums-expressing-opinions-for-medical-domain
#17
Salud María Jiménez-Zafra, M Teresa Martín-Valdivia, M Dolores Molina-González, L Alfonso Ureña-López
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study is to examine how people express their opinion in medical forums. We analyze the language used in order to determine the best way to tackle sentiment analysis in this domain. METHODS: We have applied supervised learning and lexicon-based sentiment analysis approaches over two different corpora extracted from social web. Specifically, we have focused on two aspects: drugs and doctors. We have selected two forums and we have collected corpora for each one: (i) DOS, a Spanish corpus of drug reviews and (ii) COPOS, a Spanish corpus of patients' opinions about physicians...
April 20, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684224/mismatch-negativity-and-cortical-thickness-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#18
Sungkean Kim, Hyeonjin Jeon, Kuk-In Jang, Yong-Wook Kim, Chang-Hwan Im, Seung-Hwan Lee
Introduction: Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a measure of automatic neurophysiological brain processes for detecting unexpected sensory stimuli. This study investigated MMN reduction in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and examined whether cortical thickness is associated with MMN, for exploratory purposes. Methods: Electroencephalograms were recorded in 38 patients with schizophrenia, 37 patients with bipolar disorder, and 32 healthy controls (HCs) performing a passive auditory oddball paradigm...
April 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684128/understanding-australian-policies-on-public-health-using-social-and-political-science-theories-reflections-from-an-academy-of-the-social-sciences-in-australia-workshop
#19
Fran Baum, Adam Graycar, Toni Delany-Crowe, Evelyne de Leeuw, Carol Bacchi, Jennie Popay, Lionel Orchard, Hal Colebatch, Sharon Friel, Colin MacDougall, Elizabeth Harris, Angela Lawless, Dennis McDermott, Matthew Fisher, Patrick Harris, Clare Phillips, Jane Fitzgerald
There is strong, and growing, evidence documenting health inequities across the world. However, most governments do not prioritize policies to encourage action on the social determinants of health and health equity. Furthermore, despite evidence concerning the benefits of joined-up, intersectoral policy to promote health and health equity, it is rare for such policy approaches to be applied systematically. To examine the usefulness of political and social science theory in understanding the reasons for this disjuncture between evidence and practice, researchers and public servants gathered in Adelaide for an Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia (ASSA) Workshop...
April 19, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683794/the-mount-sinai-international-enhancement-of-social-work-leadership-program-the-past-and-the-future
#20
Elisa Gordon, Karen Green, Louisa Whitwam, Irwin Epstein, Susan Bernstein
Developed in 1988, the Mount Sinai International Enhancement of Social Work Leadership Program brings 4-6 social workers from several countries each year to the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, where they meet with leaders from the hospital, community based organizations and graduate schools of social work, to enhance their leadership ability, strengthen management and research skills, and build upon global social work relationships. This article reviews the results of a survey conducted in 2016 to assess whether the visiting scholars met established learning objectives of the Program...
July 2018: Social Work in Health Care
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