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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448681/autism-too-eager-to-learn-event-related-potential-findings-of-increased-dependency-on-intentional-learning-in-a-serial-reaction-time-task
#1
Fenny S Zwart, Constance W Th M Vissers, Roemer van der Meij, Roy P C Kessels, Joseph H R Maes
It has been suggested that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased tendency to use explicit (or intentional) learning strategies. This altered learning may play a role in the development of the social communication difficulties characterizing ASD. In the current study, we investigated incidental and intentional sequence learning using a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in an adult ASD population. Response times and event related potentials (ERP) components (N2b and P3) were assessed as indicators of learning and knowledge...
April 27, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448506/the-dynamics-of-behavior-in-modified-dictator-games
#2
Jeannette Brosig-Koch, Thomas Riechmann, Joachim Weimann
We investigate the dynamics of individual pro-social behavior over time. The dynamics are tested by running the same experiment with the same subjects at several points in time. To exclude learning and reputation building, we employ non-strategic decision tasks and a sequential prisoners-dilemma as a control treatment. In the first wave, pro-social concerns explain a high share of individual decisions. Pro-social decisions decrease over time, however. In the final wave, most decisions can be accounted for by assuming pure selfishness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446887/the-impact-of-prenatal-parental-locus-of-control-on-children-s-psychological-outcomes-in-infancy-and-early-childhood-a-prospective-5-year-study
#3
Stephen Nowicki, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Steven Gregory, Genette Ellis, Jean Golding
Locus of control is one of the most widely studied concepts in the history of personality psychology. In spite of its popularity and its associations with numerous relevant outcomes, the ability of locus of control to predict future behaviors involving parenting effectiveness has been under researched. The few parent locus of control children's outcome studies are characterized by cross-sectional methodologies that focus on mothers. The present study uses a prospective methodology to compare data on mothers' and fathers' locus of control with their child's behavior outcomes from a large scale research project, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446872/a-neurocomputational-model-of-goal-directed-navigation-in-insect-inspired-artificial-agents
#4
Dennis Goldschmidt, Poramate Manoonpong, Sakyasingha Dasgupta
Despite their small size, insect brains are able to produce robust and efficient navigation in complex environments. Specifically in social insects, such as ants and bees, these navigational capabilities are guided by orientation directing vectors generated by a process called path integration. During this process, they integrate compass and odometric cues to estimate their current location as a vector, called the home vector for guiding them back home on a straight path. They further acquire and retrieve path integration-based vector memories globally to the nest or based on visual landmarks...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446694/social-learning-and-the-demise-of-costly-cooperation-in-humans
#5
Maxwell N Burton-Chellew, Claire El Mouden, Stuart A West
Humans have a sophisticated ability to learn from others, termed social learning, which has allowed us to spread over the planet, construct complex societies, and travel to the moon. It has been hypothesized that social learning has played a pivotal role in making human societies cooperative, by favouring cooperation even when it is not favoured by genetical selection. However, this hypothesis lacks direct experimental testing, and the opposite prediction has also been made, that social learning disfavours cooperation...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446523/evaluation-of-the-coping-parent-online-universal-programme-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Dawn Adele Owen, Nia Griffith, Judy Hutchings
TRIAL SPONSOR: Bangor University, Brigantia Building, College Road, Bangor, LL57 2AS, UK INTRODUCTION: The COPING parent online universal programme is a web-based parenting intervention for parents of children aged 3-8 years with an interest in positive parenting. The programme focuses on strengthening parent-child relationships and encouraging positive child behaviour. This trial will evaluate whether the intervention is effective in increasing the use of positive parenting strategies outlined in the programme using parent report and blind observation measures...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446258/touchscreen-interventions-and-the-well-being-of-people-with-dementia-and-caregivers-a-systematic-review
#7
Charlie Tyack, Paul M Camic
BACKGROUND: Dementia can have significant detrimental impacts on the well-being of those with the disease and their carers. A range of computer-based interventions, including touchscreen-based interventions have been researched for use with this population in the hope that they might improve psychological well-being. This article reviews touchscreen-based interventions designed to be used by people with dementia (PWD), with a specific focus in assessing their impact on well-being. METHOD: The data bases, PsycInfo, ASSIA, Medline, CINAHL, and Cochrane Reviews were searched for touchscreen-based interventions designed to be used by PWD with reported psychological well-being outcomes...
April 27, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446141/a-mobile-application-of-breast-cancer-e-support-program-versus-routine-care-in-the-treatment-of-chinese-women-with-breast-cancer-undergoing-chemotherapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Jiemin Zhu, Lyn Ebert, Xiangyu Liu, Sally Wai-Chi Chan
BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a number of symptoms and report receiving inadequate support from health care professionals. Innovative and easily accessible interventions are lacking. Breast Cancer e-Support is a mobile Application program (App) that provides patients with individually tailored information and a support group of peers and health care professionals. Breast Cancer e-Support aims to promote women's self-efficacy, social support and symptom management, thus improving their quality of life and psychological well-being...
April 26, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444057/determinant-factors-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-regarding-std-aids-and-viral-hepatitis-among-youths-aged-18-to-29-years-in-brazil
#9
Miguel Barbosa Fontes, Rodrigo Campos Crivelaro, Alice Margini Scartezini, David Duarte Lima, Alexandre de Araújo Garcia, Rafael Tsuyoshi Fujioka
The scope of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of Brazilian youths to STDs/HIV&AIDS and Viral Hepatitis. Interviews were conducted with 1,208 youths aged 18 to 29 in 15 states and the Federal District. The regional and national adjusted margin of error of the research was 2.8%. The study was approved by the School of Medicine of Brasilia University with support from PAHO and the Ministry of Health. A scale with 35 questions (knowledge, attitudes and practices) was the main dependent variable. Adjusted linear regression models identified the demographic and social determinant factors that explain scale variations...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443789/teaching-physiotherapy-students-to-be-content-with-a-body-that-refuses-to-hold-still
#10
Helen Macdonald, David A Nicholls
In recent decades, physiotherapists have become concerned with cultural, economic, philosophical, political, and social questions and have been exploring more flexible ways of speaking about and practicing physiotherapy. While recognizing the need to embrace a broader range of perspectives, physiotherapy educators and other medical educators have been at a loss as to how to best achieve this. Drawing on two examples from South Africa and New Zealand, we seek to illustrate possibilities and barriers to teaching social sciences to physiotherapy students, specifically theories of embodiment as an alternative to the biopsychosocial model...
April 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443371/solutions-to-address-diabetes-related-financial-burden-and-cost-related-nonadherence-results-from-a-pilot-study
#11
Minal R Patel, Kenneth Resnicow, Ian Lang, Kathleen Kraus, Michele Heisler
BACKGROUND: Cost-related nonadherence (CRN) to recommended self-management behaviors among adults with chronic conditions such as diabetes is prevalent. Few behavioral interventions to mitigate CRN have been tested and evaluated. AIMS: We developed a financial burden resource tool and examined its acceptability and the preliminary effects on patient-centered outcomes among adults with diabetes or prediabetes seen in a clinical setting. METHOD: We report a pre-post one-group design pilot study...
April 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442360/the-oxtr-gene-implicit-learning-and-social-processing-does-empathy-evolve-from-perceptual-skills-for-details
#12
Martin Melchers, Christian Montag, Sebastian Markett, Nawael Niazy, Johanna Groß-Bölting, Jelena Zimmermann, Martin Reuter
Oxytocin is an important messenger in the brain that has been linked to a variety of social functions in pharmacological studies. Besides, functional genetic variations on the oxytocin receptor gene have been repeatedly associated with social processing and functioning. Despite this knowledge, there are very few studies investigating the mechanisms that may explain the link between oxytocin and social functions. In the endeavor to fill this gap in the literature, the current study searches for associations between the prominent rs2268498 polymorphism on the oxytocin receptor gene and participants' ability to perceive and store implicit social information, which is a fundamental function in social information processing...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441677/building-a-global-online-community-of-practice-the-openpediatrics-world-shared-practices-video-series
#13
Traci A Wolbrink, Niranjan Kissoon, Nabila Mirza, Jeffrey P Burns
PROBLEM: Health care professionals are familiar with engaging in local communities of practice (CoPs) within their hospital, region, and/or country, but despite the availability of online technologies that facilitate online global collaboration, the health care sector has yet to fully embrace these tools. APPROACH: In 2013, OPENPediatrics (an online social learning platform) launched the World Shared Practices video (WSP) series to engage and coalesce the global community of critical care clinicians...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441674/the-development-of-an-indigenous-health-curriculum-for-medical-students
#14
Melissa Lewis, Amy Prunuske
Indigenous populations experience dramatic health disparities; yet, few medical schools equip students with the skills to address these inequities. At the University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth campus, a project to develop an Indigenous health curriculum began in September 2013. This project used collaborative and decolonizing methods to gather ideas and opinions from multiple stakeholders, including students, community members, faculty, and administration, to guide the process of adding Indigenous health content to the curriculum to prepare students to work effectively with Indigenous populations...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440999/-epistemic-injustice-during-the-medical-education-process-in-the-hospital-context
#15
Carolina Consejo-Y Chapela, Carlos Alfonso Viesca-Treviño
BACKGROUND: The educational model adopted by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine is constructivist; it is a model based on competence development. It aims to provide learning environments that incorporate real activities (it helps the students to develop social negotiation skills, as part of their integral learning; it encourages them to take a critical and reflexive approach; and it is also a student-centered model). However, many challenges arise when this model is implemented in the context of hospital environments...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440097/exploring-the-role-of-classroom-based-learning-in-professional-identity-formation-of-family-practice-residents-using-the-experiences-trajectories-and-reifications-framework
#16
Luke Y C Chen, Maria M Hubinette
BACKGROUND: Classroom-based learning such as academic half day has undervalued social aspects. We sought to explore its role in the professional identity development of family medicine residents. METHODS: In this case study, residents and faculty from four training sites in the University of British Columbia Department of Family Practice were interviewed. The "experiences, trajectories, and reifications (ETR) framework" was used as a sensitizing tool for modified inductive (thematic) analysis of the transcripts...
April 25, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440095/what-does-the-literature-say-about-using-robots-on-children-with-disabilities
#17
Antonio Miguel Cruz, Adriana María Ríos Rincón, William Ricardo Rodríguez Dueñas, Daniel Alejandro Quiroga Torres, Andrés Felipe Bohórquez-Heredia
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent and type of robots used for the rehabilitation and education of children and young people with CP and ASD and the associated outcomes. METHODS: The scholarly literature was systematically searched and analyzed. Articles were included if they reported the results of robots used or intended to be used for the rehabilitation and education of children and young people with CP and ASD during play and educative and social interaction activities...
April 25, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438725/analyzing-and-predicting-user-participations-in-online-health-communities-a-social-support-perspective
#18
Xi Wang, Kang Zhao, Nick Street
BACKGROUND: Online health communities (OHCs) have become a major source of social support for people with health problems. Members of OHCs interact online with similar peers to seek, receive, and provide different types of social support, such as informational support, emotional support, and companionship. As active participations in an OHC are beneficial to both the OHC and its users, it is important to understand factors related to users' participations and predict user churn for user retention efforts...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438243/factors-which-motivate-the-use-of-social-networks-by-students
#19
Mercedes González Sanmamed, Pablo C Muñoz Carril, Isabel Dans Álvarez de Sotomayor
BACKGROUND: The aim of this research was to identify those factors which motivate the use of social networks by 4th year students in Secondary Education between the ages of 15 and 18. METHOD: 1,144 students from 29 public and private schools took part. The data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling technique. RESULTS: Versatility was confirmed to be the variable which most influences the motivation of students in their use of social networks...
May 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437693/an-assessment-of-the-social-cognitive-predictors-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-behavior-using-the-health-action-process-approach
#20
J L Martinez-Brockman, F M Shebl, N Harari, R Pérez-Escamilla
RATIONALE: In the United States rates of exclusive breastfeeding duration remain exceedingly low. Exclusive breastfeeding is a complex learned behavior that is influenced by social cognitive, interpersonal, and structural factors. Interventions are needed that address factors at multiple levels of the social-ecological model. This study was designed to examine the social cognitive predictors of exclusive breastfeeding behavior in a sample of low-income women attending the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) breastfeeding peer counseling program and enrolled in the Lactation Advice Through Texting Can Help (LATCH) study...
April 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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