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Social learning

Chunli Zhao, Jinting Liu, Pingyuan Gong, Jie Hu, Xiaolin Zhou
BACKGROUND: People often change their opinions or behavior to match the responses of others, a phenomenon known as social conformity. Conforming behavior varies substantially across individuals. However, little is known about the genetic basis underlying individual differences in social conformity. A recent study demonstrated an association between enhanced dopaminergic function and increased conforming behavior. Given the effect of the dopamine receptor 3 gene (DRD3) Ser9Gly polymorphism (rs6280) on dopamine release in the striatum, this study investigated to what extent this polymorphism affects conforming behavior...
October 27, 2016: Neuropsychobiology
Alyne Leite Gomes Nogueira, Denize Bouttelet Munari, Cinira Magali Fortuna, Leidiene Ferreira Santos
Objective: to analyze the aspects that potentialize groups in Primary Health Care according to their coordinators and participants. Method: This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach, conducted with a health promotion group affiliated with a Family Health Unit. The data were collected by means of focus groups with participants and community workers who were submitted to thematic content analysis. Results: the analysis gave rise to three thematic categories: The group is our medicine; Healthy living and learning; and Priceless leadership...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Torsten Oliver Salge, David Antons, Patrick Cichy, J Nils Foege, Julian Hannen, Antje S J Huetten
BACKGROUND: It is now widely established that health care organizations are well advised not only to identify and act upon the concerns of all patient groups but also to encourage and enable them to voice their concerns in the first place. That said, research has begun to reveal that patients differ substantially in their readiness to complain, with many deciding to remain silent even after experiencing severe adverse events. Little research has explored whether patients at the margins (e...
October 25, 2016: Health Care Management Review
Justin Arcaro, Carolyn Summerhurst, Evelyn Vingilis, Michael Wammes, Elizabeth Osuch
This study examined presenting concerns and characteristics of emerging adults (EAs) seeking treatment at an early intervention program for mood and anxiety disorders to better understand presenting concerns when treatment is needed. During an intake assessment conducted by a social worker or clinical psychologist, participants (N = 548; 62% female, 38% male) reported their top three current life concerns, which were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires assessing demographic information, symptomatology, and daily functioning...
October 26, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Anna R Coates, Sandra Del Pino Marchito, Bernardino Vitoy
Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Helen B Miltiades, W Gregory Thatcher
With the ongoing need to determine effective memory interventions for persons with dementia and other memory impairments, the purpose of this study was to create a unique learning opportunity, where persons with early to moderate Alzheimer's engaged in game play activity. Six female participants, diagnosed with early to moderate dementia, were recruited from an adult day care center and participated in a 10-week study. The participants were placed in groups of three and were taught a tile placement game. Results indicate playing the game yielded inconsistent, but some significant, increases and eventual plateauing of knowing when it was their turn...
October 25, 2016: Dementia
Marcus Redley, Merel Pannebakker, Anthony Holland
BACKGROUND: Advances in medical genetics herald the possibility that health and social care services could be more responsive to the needs arising from a person's genotype. This development may be particularly important for those men and women whose learning disability (known internationally as intellectual disability) is linked to a neurodevelopmental condition of genetic origin. METHOD: This possibility is tested through interviews with samples of (i) professional 'opinion former' with nationally recognised clinical and/or academic interests in learning disabilities and genetics; (ii) representatives of syndrome organisations prompting the interests of families where someone has a neurodevelopmental condition, and parent-members of these same organisations...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Judith Bek, Jordan Webb, Emma Gowen, Stefan Vogt, Trevor J Crawford, Matthew S Sullivan, Ellen Poliakoff
Background. Action observation and motor imagery activate neural structures involved in action execution, thereby facilitating movement and learning. Although some benefits of action observation and motor imagery have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD), methods have been based on stroke rehabilitation and may be less suitable for PD. Moreover, previous studies have focused on either observation or imagery, yet combining these enhances effects in healthy participants. The present study explores the feasibility of a PD-specific home-based intervention combining observation, imagery, and imitation of meaningful everyday actions...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Raminta Daniulaityte, Lu Chen, Francois R Lamy, Robert G Carlson, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amit Sheth
BACKGROUND: To harness the full potential of social media for epidemiological surveillance of drug abuse trends, the field needs a greater level of automation in processing and analyzing social media content. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to describe the development of supervised machine-learning techniques for the eDrugTrends platform to automatically classify tweets by type/source of communication (personal, official/media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) expressed in cannabis- and synthetic cannabinoid-related tweets...
October 24, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Glen Nielsen, Erik Mygind, Mads Bølling, Camilla Roed Otte, Mikkel Bo Schneller, Jasper Schipperijn, Niels Ejbye-Ernst, Peter Bentsen
BACKGROUND: Education Outside the Classroom (EOTC) is a teaching method that aims to promote schoolchildren's learning, physical activity (PA), social relations, motivation, and well-being. EOTC activities are characterized by teachers using the local environment in their teaching, and involve innovative teaching methods, child-led approaches to problem-solving, experimentation, cooperation, PA, and play. EOTC has become common practice for many teachers in Scandinavia; however, only case studies have evaluated its impacts...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Martina Christina Marion Schäfer, Dean Sutherland, Laurie McLay, Donna Achmadi, Larah van der Meer, Jeff Sigafoos, Giulio E Lancioni, Mark F O'Reilly, Ralf W Schlosser, Peter B Marschik
The social validity of different communication modalities is a potentially important variable to consider when designing augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions. To assess the social validity of three AAC modes (i.e., manual signing, picture exchange, and an iPad(®)-based speech-generating device), we asked 59 undergraduate students (pre-service teachers) and 43 teachers to watch a video explaining each mode. They were then asked to nominate the mode they perceived to be easiest to learn as well as the most intelligible, effective, and preferred...
October 25, 2016: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
Marina Boykova
Transition from hospital to home is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon for parents of prematurely born infants (<37 weeks of gestation). The absence of a clear conceptualization of this particular transition coupled with the challenges parents have when they return home and higher costs of healthcare service usage postdischarge dictates the need for a better understanding of this phenomenon. A literature review was undertaken using Whittemore and Knafl's theoretical framework for integrative review as a guide...
October 2016: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
Fabrizio Leo, Elena Cocchi, Luca Brayda
Vision loss has severe impacts on physical, social and emotional well-being. The education of blind children poses issues as many scholar disciplines (e.g. geometry, mathematics) are normally taught by heavily relying on vision. Touch-based assistive technologies are potential tools to provide graphical contents to blind users, improving learning possibilities and social inclusion. Raised-lines drawings are still the golden standard, but stimuli cannot be reconfigured or adapted and the blind person constantly requires assistance...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Laura Campbell-Sills, Peter P Roy-Byrne, Michelle G Craske, Alexander Bystritsky, Greer Sullivan, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Many patients with anxiety disorders remain symptomatic after receiving evidence-based treatment, yet research on treatment-resistant anxiety is limited. We evaluated effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on outcomes of patients with medication-resistant anxiety disorders using data from the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) trial. METHODS: Primary care patients who met study entry criteria (including DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or social anxiety disorder) despite ongoing pharmacotherapy of appropriate type, dose, and duration were classified as medication resistant (n = 227)...
October 24, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Zuzana Novak, Mary Aglipay, Nick Barrowman, Keith O Yeates, Miriam H Beauchamp, Jocelyn Gravel, Stephen B Freedman, Isabelle Gagnon, Gerard Gioia, Kathy Boutis, Emma Burns, Andrée-Anne Ledoux, Martin H Osmond, Roger L Zemek
Importance: Persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS) pose long-term challenges and can negatively affect patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). To date, no large comprehensive study has addressed the association between PPCS and HRQoL. Objectives: To determine the association between HRQoL and PPCS at 4 weeks after concussion and assess the degree of impairment of HRQoL in the subsequent 12 weeks. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective, multicenter cohort study (Predicting Persistent Postconcussive Problems in Pediatrics [5P]) from August 14, 2013, to September 30, 2014, children aged 5 to 18 years who presented to the emergency department within 48 hours after head injury and were considered to have an acute concussion were enrolled across 9 pediatric emergency departments within the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada Network...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Erin Hawkins, Susan Gathercole, Duncan Astle, The Calm Team, Joni Holmes
Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity frequently co-occur with language difficulties in both clinical and community samples. We explore the specificity and strength of these associations in a heterogeneous sample of 254 children aged 5 to 15 years identified by education and health professionals as having problems with attention, learning and/or memory. Parents/carers rated pragmatic and structural communication skills and behaviour, and children completed standardised assessments of reading, spelling, vocabulary, and phonological awareness...
October 21, 2016: Brain Sciences
Anarina L Murillo, Muntaser Safan, Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Elizabeth D Capaldi Phillips, Devina Wadhera
Eating behaviors among a large population of children are studied as a dynamic process driven by nonlinear interactions in the sociocultural school environment. The impact of food association learning on diet dynamics, inspired by a pilot study conducted among Arizona children in Pre-Kindergarten to 8th grades, is used to build simple population-level learning models. Qualitatively, mathematical studies are used to highlight the possible ramifications of instruction, learning in nutrition, and health at the community level...
August 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Sarah J Davis, Gillian L Vale, Steven J Schapiro, Susan P Lambeth, Andrew Whiten
A vital prerequisite for cumulative culture, a phenomenon often asserted to be unique to humans, is the ability to modify behaviour and flexibly switch to more productive or efficient alternatives. Here, we first established an inefficient solution to a foraging task in five captive chimpanzee groups (N = 19). Three groups subsequently witnessed a conspecific using an alternative, more efficient, solution. When participants could successfully forage with their established behaviours, most individuals did not switch to this more efficient technique; however, when their foraging method became substantially less efficient, nine chimpanzees with socially-acquired information (four of whom witnessed additional human demonstrations) relinquished their old behaviour in favour of the more efficient one...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tamara Thomsen, Cathleen Kappes, Laura Schwerdt, Johanna Sander, Charlotte Poller
In two experiments, we investigated observational learning in social relationships as one possible pathway to the development of goal adjustment processes. In the first experiment, 56 children (M = 9.29 years) observed their parent as a model; in the second, 50 adults (M = 32.27 years) observed their romantic partner. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: goal engagement (GE), goal disengagement (GD), or control group (CO) and were asked to solve (unsolvable) puzzles. Before trying to solve the puzzles by themselves, subjects observed the instructed model, who was told to continue with the same puzzle (GE) or to switch to the next puzzle (GD)...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Ningyu Zhang, Huajun Chen, Jiaoyan Chen, Xi Chen
With the design and development of smart cities, opportunities as well as challenges arise at the moment. For this purpose, lots of data need to be obtained. Nevertheless, circumstances vary in different cities due to the variant infrastructures and populations, which leads to the data sparsity. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for urban waterlogging disaster analysis, which provides the basis for traffic management agencies to generate proactive traffic operation strategies in order to alleviate congestion...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
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