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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822896/giving-what-one-should-explanations-for-the-knowledge-behavior-gap-for-altruistic-giving
#1
REVIEW
Peter R Blake
Several studies have shown that children struggle to give what they believe that they should: the so-called knowledge-behavior gap. Over a dozen recent Dictator Game studies find that, although young children believe that they should give half of a set of resources to a peer, they typically give less and often keep all of the resources for themselves. This article reviews recent evidence for five potential explanations for the gap and how children close it with age: self-regulation, social distance, theory of mind, moral knowledge and social learning...
August 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822851/-why-are-we-not-doing-more-for-them-genocide-prevention-lessons-from-the-kindertransport
#2
J Angel, D P Evans
OBJECTIVES: Genocide remains one of the most widespread forms of preventable mortality and morbidity for children today. Despite the creation of multiple human rights treaties, genocide has not been eliminated and its effects disproportionally impact children. The Kindertransport was a series of rescue efforts that brought thousands of refugee children to the United Kingdom from Nazi Germany between 1938 and 1940. This qualitative study asks what public health professionals can learn from the prevention efforts of the Kindertransport by examining the experiences and reflections of individuals rescued as children...
August 17, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822601/training-in-multiple-breath-washout-testing-for-respiratory-physiotherapists
#3
Katherine O'Neill, J Stuart Elborn, Michael M Tunney, Philip O'Neill, Stephen Rowan, Susan Martin, Judy M Bradley
INTRODUCTION: The development of multiple breath washout (MBW) testing in respiratory disease highlights the need for increased awareness amongst respiratory physiotherapists and a potential opportunity for professional development in the use of an important outcome measure for clinical trials. OBJECTIVES: To rationalise how MBW may be a useful assessment tool for respiratory physiotherapists and to describe a local MBW training and certification programme for physiotherapists...
April 25, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822079/interethnic-interaction-strategic-bargaining-power-and-the-dynamics-of-cultural-norms-a-field-study-in-an-amazonian-population
#4
John Andrew Bunce, Richard McElreath
Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by interethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms...
August 18, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820016/why-we-stay-with-our-social-partners-neural-mechanisms-of-stay-leave-decision-making
#5
Amber Heijne, Filippo Rossi, Alan G Sanfey
How do we decide to keep interacting (e.g., stay) with a social partner or to switch (e.g., leave) to another? This paper investigated the neural mechanisms of stay/leave decision-making. We hypothesized that these decisions fit within a framework of value-based decision-making, and explored four potential mechanisms underlying a hypothesized bias to stay. Twenty-six participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while completing social and nonsocial versions of a stay/leave decision-making task...
August 18, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819355/box-office-forecasting-considering-competitive-environment-and-word-of-mouth-in-social-networks-a-case-study-of-korean-film-market
#6
Taegu Kim, Jungsik Hong, Pilsung Kang
Accurate box office forecasting models are developed by considering competition and word-of-mouth (WOM) effects in addition to screening-related information. Nationality, genre, ratings, and distributors of motion pictures running concurrently with the target motion picture are used to describe the competition, whereas the numbers of informative, positive, and negative mentions posted on social network services (SNS) are used to gauge the atmosphere spread by WOM. Among these candidate variables, only significant variables are selected by genetic algorithm (GA), based on which machine learning algorithms are trained to build forecasting models...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819097/the-non-coding-rna-bc1-regulates-experience-dependent-structural-plasticity-and-learning
#7
Victor Briz, Leonardo Restivo, Emanuela Pasciuto, Konrad Juczewski, Valentina Mercaldo, Adrian C Lo, Pieter Baatsen, Natalia V Gounko, Antonella Borreca, Tiziana Girardi, Rossella Luca, Julie Nys, Rogier B Poorthuis, Huibert D Mansvelder, Gilberto Fisone, Martine Ammassari-Teule, Lutgarde Arckens, Patrik Krieger, Rhiannon Meredith, Claudia Bagni
The brain cytoplasmic (BC1) RNA is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) involved in neuronal translational control. Absence of BC1 is associated with altered glutamatergic transmission and maladaptive behavior. Here, we show that pyramidal neurons in the barrel cortex of BC1 knock out (KO) mice display larger excitatory postsynaptic currents and increased spontaneous activity in vivo. Furthermore, BC1 KO mice have enlarged spine heads and postsynaptic densities and increased synaptic levels of glutamate receptors and PSD-95...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819056/effects-of-sublethal-doses-of-thiacloprid-and-its-formulation-calypso-%C3%A2-on-the-learning-and-memory-performance-of-honey-bees
#8
Léa Tison, Sophie Holtz, Amy Adeoye, Önder Kalkan, Nina S Irmisch, Randolf Menzel
Learning and memory play a central role in behavior and communication of foraging bees. We already showed that chronic uptake of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid affects the behavior of honey bees in the field. Foraging behavior, homing success, navigation performance, and social communication were impaired. Thiacloprid collected at a feeding site at low doses accumulates in foragers over time. Here we applied a laboratory standard procedure, the proboscis extension response (PER) conditioning, in order to assess which processes, acquisition, memory consolidation and/or memory retrieval were compromised after bees were fed either with thiacloprid or the formulation of thiacloprid named Calypso(®) at 3 different sublethal doses...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818500/cryptic-sexual-dimorphism-in-spatial-memory-and-hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-in-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#9
Marissa A Rice, Lauren E Hobbs, Kelly J Wallace, Alexander G Ophir
Sex differences are well documented and are conventionally associated with intense sex-specific selection. For example, spatial memory is frequently better in males, presumably due to males' tendency to navigate large spaces to find mates. Alternatively, monogamy (in which sex-specific selection is relatively relaxed) should diminish or eliminate differences in spatial ability and the mechanisms associated with this behavior. Nevertheless, phenotypic differences between monogamous males and females persist, sometimes cryptically...
August 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818249/health-literacy-cancer-prevention-strategies-for-early-adults
#10
Robert A Simmons, Susan C Cosgrove, Martha C Romney, James D Plumb, Rickie O Brawer, Evelyn T Gonzalez, Linda G Fleisher, Bradley S Moore
Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818162/impact-of-a-social-media-group-page-on-undergraduate-medical-physiology-learning
#11
Tania Ahmed Shakoori, Usman Mahboob, Janet Strivens, Ian Willis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of associating classroom learning of medical physiology with a Facebook group page in an all-women medical college of a conservative small city in Pakistan. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative interpretivist study using semi-structured interviews. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Women Medical College Abbottabad, Pakistan, from March to December 2014. METHODOLOGY: Aclosed Facebook study group was established at a local medical college in Pakistan...
July 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818075/perspectives-of-basic-wheelchair-users-on-improving-their-access-to-wheelchair-services-in-kenya-and-philippines-a-qualitative-study
#12
Emma Williams, Elizabeth Hurwitz, Immaculate Obaga, Brenda Onguti, Adovich Rivera, Tyrone Reden L Sy, R Lee Kirby, Jamie Noon, Deepti Tanuku, Anthony Gichangi, Eva Bazant
BACKGROUND: The United Nations has called for countries to improve access to mobility devices when needed. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced settings. Yet little is known about the extent to which appropriate wheelchairs are available and provided according to international guidelines. This study's purpose was to describe wheelchair users' experiences receiving services and acquiring wheelchair skills in urban and peri-urban areas of Kenya and the Philippines...
August 17, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817785/diving-into-the-world-of-alcohol-teratogenesis-a-review-of-zebrafish-models-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#13
Yohaan Fernandes, Desirè M Buckley, Johann K Eberhart
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) refer to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic alcohol exposure. Along with other reviews in this edition, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish; have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart and craniofacial skeleton...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817476/gamification-of-nursing-education-with-digital-badges
#14
Meagan White, Teresa Shellenbarger
Digital badges (DBs) serve as an innovative approach to gamifying nursing education by engaging socially connected, technologically savvy nursing students in learning. Because assessment and credentialing mechanisms are housed and managed online, DBs are designed as visible indicators of accomplishment and skill. This article describes important considerations for faculty when incorporating game-based pedagogies such as DB into nursing education and identifies potential pitfalls with DB use that faculty should consider...
August 16, 2017: Nurse Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817359/developing-the-storyline-for-an-advance-care-planning-video-for-surgery-patients-patient-centered-outcomes-research-engagement-from-stakeholder-summit-to-state-fair
#15
Rebecca A Aslakson, Anne L R Schuster, Thomas J Lynch, Matthew J Weiss, Lydia Gregg, Judith Miller, Sarina R Isenberg, Norah L Crossnohere, Alison M Conca-Cheng, Angelo E Volandes, Thomas J Smith, John F P Bridges
BACKGROUND: Patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) methods and social learning theory (SLT) require intensive interaction between researchers and stakeholders. Advance care planning (ACP) is valuable before major surgery, but a systematic review found no extant perioperative ACP tools. Consequently, PCOR methods and SLT can inform the development of an ACP educational video for patients and families preparing for major surgery. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to develop and test acceptability of an ACP video storyline...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816524/from-the-abstract-to-the-concrete-implementation-of-an-innovative-tool-in-home-care
#16
Anu Kajamaa, Klaus-Peter Schulz
Background The implementation of innovations in practice is a critical factor for change and development processes in health and home care. We therefore analyze how an innovative tool - a mobility agreement to maintain physical mobility of home care clients - was implemented in Finnish home care. Methods Our study involves ethnographic research of 13 home care visits, two years after the mobility agreement was implemented. We analyze the emergence of contradictions, the motives of the actors and the use of artifacts supporting or inhibiting the implementation...
January 1, 2017: Health Services Management Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816513/iterative-design-and-testing-for-the-development-of-a-game-based-chlamydia-awareness-intervention-a-pilot-study
#17
Rui Jiang, James McKanna, Samantha Calabrese, Magy Seif El-Nasr
OBJECTIVES: Herein we describe a methodology for developing a game-based intervention to raise awareness of Chlamydia and other sexually transmitted infections among youth in Boston's underserved communities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We engaged in three design-based experiments. These utilized mixed methods, including playtesting and assessment methods, to examine the overall effectiveness of the game. In this case, effectiveness is defined as (1) engaging the target group, (2) increasing knowledge about Chlamydia, and (3) changing attitudes toward Chlamydia testing...
August 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815792/understanding-implications-of-consumer-behavior-for-wildlife-farming-and-sustainable-wildlife-trade
#18
A Nuno, J M Blumenthal, T J Austin, J Bothwell, G Ebanks-Petrie, B J Godley, A C Broderick
Unsustainable wildlife trade affects biodiversity and the livelihoods of communities dependent upon those resources. Wildlife farming has often been proposed to promote sustainable trade but characterizing markets and understanding consumer behaviour remain neglected, but essential, steps with important implications for its design and evaluation. We used sea turtle trade in the Cayman Islands as a case study - where turtle meat for consumption has been produced for almost 50 years, to explore consumer preferences towards wild-sourced (illegal) and farmed (legal) products and potential conservation implications...
August 16, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815750/title-learning-theories-and-tools-for-the-assessment-of-core-nursing-competencies-in-simulation-a-theoretical-review
#19
REVIEW
Patrick Lavoie, Cécile Michaud, Marilou Bélisle, Louise Boyer, Émilie Gosselin, Myrian Grondin, Caroline Larue, Stéphan Lavoie, Jacinthe Pepin
AIM: To identify the theories used to explain learning in simulation and to examine how these theories guided the assessment of learning outcomes related to core competencies in undergraduate nursing students. BACKGROUND: Nurse educators face the challenge of making explicit the outcomes of competency-based education, especially when competencies are conceptualized as holistic and context-dependent. DESIGN: Theoretical review. DATA SOURCES: Research papers (N=182) published between 1999 - 2015 describing simulation in nursing education...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814546/mglu7-potentiation-rescues-cognitive-social-and-respiratory-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#20
Rocco G Gogliotti, Rebecca K Senter, Nicole M Fisher, Jeffrey Adams, Rocio Zamorano, Adam G Walker, Anna L Blobaum, Darren W Engers, Corey R Hopkin, J Scott Daniels, Carrie K Jones, Craig W Lindsley, Zixiu Xiang, P Jeffrey Conn, Colleen M Niswender
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The cognitive impairments seen in mouse models of RTT correlate with deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7) is the predominant mGlu receptor expressed presynaptically at SC-CA1 synapses in adult mice, and its activation on GABAergic interneurons is necessary for induction of LTP. We demonstrate that pathogenic mutations in MECP2 reduce mGlu7 protein expression in brain tissue from RTT patients and in MECP2-deficient mouse models...
August 16, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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