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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908477/recreational-use-in-dispersed-public-lands-measured-using-social-media-data-and-on-site-counts
#1
David M Fisher, Spencer A Wood, Eric M White, Dale J Blahna, Sarah Lange, Alex Weinberg, Michael Tomco, Emilia Lia
Outdoor recreation is one of many important benefits provided by public lands. Data on recreational use are critical for informing management of recreation resources, however, managers often lack actionable information on visitor use for large protected areas that lack controlled access points. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for social media data (e.g., geotagged images shared on Flickr and trip reports shared on a hiking forum) to provide land managers with useful measures of recreational use to dispersed areas, and to provide lessons learned from comparing several more traditional counting methods...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906958/fast-social-like-learning-of-complex-behaviors-based-on-motor-motifs
#2
Carlos Calvo Tapia, Ivan Y Tyukin, Valeri A Makarov
Social learning is widely observed in many species. Less experienced agents copy successful behaviors exhibited by more experienced individuals. Nevertheless, the dynamical mechanisms behind this process remain largely unknown. Here we assume that a complex behavior can be decomposed into a sequence of n motor motifs. Then a neural network capable of activating motor motifs in a given sequence can drive an agent. To account for (n-1)! possible sequences of motifs in a neural network, we employ the winnerless competition approach...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906771/academic-stress-and-active-learning-of-nursing-students-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Nicola Magnavita, Carlo Chiorri
BACKGROUND: The active role of nursing students is particularly important in the delivery of health care, since playing an active role at the bedside and the use of active and collaborative engagement of students in the nursing activities has been associated with improved student learning. This is consistent with Karasek's learning hypothesis, but it has never been tested on nursing students. This study aimed at investigating whether nursing students in high control conditions reported lower levels of work impairment than students in the conditions with low control, compared them with a group of healthcare workers (HCWs), and tested the moderating role of social support at work...
June 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906585/medical-concept-normalization-in-social-media-posts-with-recurrent-neural-networks
#4
Elena Tutubalina, Zulfat Miftahutdinov, Sergey Nikolenko, Valentin Malykh
Text mining of scientific libraries and social media has already proven itself as a reliable tool for drug repurposing and hypothesis generation. The task of mapping a disease mention to a concept in a controlled vocabulary, typically to the standard thesaurus in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), is known as medical concept normalization. This task is challenging due to the differences in the use of medical terminology between health care professionals and social media texts coming from the lay public...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906478/does-nicotine-impact-tramadol-abuse-insights-from-neurochemical-and-neurobehavioral-changes-in-mice
#5
Shimaa M Azmy, Mai A Abd El Fattah, Sahar S Abd El-Rahman, Somia A Nada, Omar M E Abdel Salam, Mohammed F El-Yamany, Noha N Nassar
Nicotine and tramadol concomitant drug dependence pose increasing social, economic as well as public threats. Accordingly, the present study investigated neurochemical, neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes in the brain subsequent to the interaction of nicotine and tramadol. To this end, tramadol (20 mg/kg, i.p) and nicotine (0.25 mg/kg, i.p) were administrated to male albino mice once daily for 30 days. Consequent to microglial activation, nicotine exacerbated oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by tramadol as manifest by the step-up in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide subsequent to the enhanced levels of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases; paralleled by decreased non-protein sulfhydryls...
June 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906456/reward-circuitry-activation-reflects-social-preferences-in-the-face-of-cognitive-effort
#6
Holly Sullivan-Toole, Ekaterina Dobryakova, Samantha DePasque, Elizabeth Tricomi
Research at the intersection of social neuroscience and cognitive effort is an interesting new area for exploration. There is great potential to broaden our understanding of how social context and cognitive effort processes, currently addressed in disparate literatures, interact with one another. In this paper, we briefly review the literature on cognitive effort, focusing on effort-linked valuation and the gap in the literature regarding cognitive effort in the social domain. Next, we present a study designed to explore valuation processes linked to cognitive effort within the social context of an inequality manipulation...
June 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904703/the-data-on-health-locus-of-control-and-its-relationship-with-quality-of-life-in-hiv-positive-patients
#7
Zahra Mostafavian, Zahra Abbasi Shaye, Arezou Faraj Pour, Golkoo Hosseini
Locus of control is a concept defined based on social learning theory, and focuses on individuals' beliefs regarding factors that influence their health status. Health Locus of Control (HLC) and its relationship with Quality of Life (QOL) in HIV positive patients in local population were studied. This was a cross-sectional study on 80 HIV-positive patients. Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scale and Medical Outcome Study Short-Form Health Survey (MOS-SF-36) used to measure patients' HLC and QOL, respectively...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904606/starting-the-conversation-community-perspectives-on-preterm-birth-and-kangaroo-mother-care-in-southern-malawi
#8
Megan Lydon, Monica Longwe, Dyson Likomwa, Victoria Lwesha, Lydia Chimtembo, Pamela Donohue, Tanya Guenther, Bina Valsangar
Background: Despite introduction of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in Malawi over a decade ago, preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Although KMC is initiated in the health care facility, robust community follow-up is critical for survival and optimal development of preterm and low birth weight infants post-discharge. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into community and health worker understanding, attitudes, beliefs and practices around preterm and low birth weight babies and KMC in Malawi...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904548/learning-from-history-to-increase-positive-public-reception-and-social-value-alignment-of-evidence-based-science-communication
#9
Jason A Tetro
For effective science communication, three general objectives should be taken into consideration: 1) accurate conveyance of the scientific evidence; 2) warm public reception of the communicator; and 3) alignment of the information with social values. An examination of both successful and failed science communication efforts over the course of history can reveal strategies to better meet these objectives. This article looks back at influential moments of science communication over the past two millennia in the context of the objectives and, using lessons learned from these events as a guide, introduces a five-element approach to improve the potential for attaining the objectives...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904038/-that-guy-is-he-really-sick-at-all-an-analysis-of-how-veterans-with-ptsd-experience-nature-based-therapy
#10
Dorthe Varning Poulsen, Ulrika K Stigsdotter, Annette Sofie Davidsen
Serving in the military leads to mental diseases, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for a percentage of soldiers globally. The number of veterans with PTSD is increasing and, although medication and psychological treatments are offered, treatment results could be improved. Historically, different forms of nature-based therapy have been used for this target group. However, in spite of anecdotally good results, studies measuring the effect of this form of therapy are still lacking. The aim of this study is to explore how veterans with PTSD manage their everyday lives during and after a ten-week nature-based intervention in a therapy garden...
June 14, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903784/designing-prep-and-early-hiv-treatment-interventions-for-implementation-among-female-sex-workers-in-south-africa-developing-and-learning-from-a-formative-research-process
#11
Robyn Eakle, Nyaradzo Mutanha, Judie Mbogua, Maria Sibanyoni, Adam Bourne, Gabriela Gomez, Francois Venter, Helen Rees
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to design relevant, tailored oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and early antiretroviral (ART) interventions for female sex workers (FSWs) in South Africa. This paper examines the methods, process and outcomes of employing an inductive approach to formative research exploring intervention feasibility and acceptability. SETTING: Research was conducted in several sex work-related settings including five sites in and around clinics and stakeholder offices...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903694/what-people-like-analysis-of-social-media-strategies-used-by-food-industry-brands-lifestyle-brands-and-health-promotion-organizations-on-facebook-and-instagram
#12
Karen Michelle Klassen, Emily S Borleis, Linda Brennan, Mike Reid, Tracy A McCaffrey, Megan Sc Lim
BACKGROUND: Health campaigns have struggled to gain traction with young adults using social media, even though more than 80% of young adults are using social media at least once per day. Many food industry and lifestyle brands have been successful in achieving high levels of user engagement and promoting their messages; therefore, there may be lessons to be learned by examining the successful strategies commercial brands employ. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify and quantify social media strategies used by the food industry and lifestyle brands, and health promotion organizations across the social networking sites Facebook and Instagram...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903036/migrants-access-to-healthcare-services-within-the-european-union-a-content-analysis-of-policy-documents-in-ireland-portugal-and-spain
#13
REVIEW
Céline Ledoux, Eva Pilot, Esperanza Diaz, Thomas Krafft
BACKGROUND: The current migration flow into Europe is leading to a growing ethnically diverse population in many European countries. Now more than ever, those populations have different healthcare needs, languages, traditions, and previous level of care. This higher level of diversity is likely to increase health inequalities that might challenge healthcare systems if not addressed. In this context, this study aims at reviewing the policy framework for migrants' access to healthcare in Spain, Portugal and Ireland, countries with a long history of immigration, to identify lessons to be learned for policies on migrants' health...
June 15, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902994/social-risk-factors-for-speech-scholastic-and-coordination-disorders-a-nationwide-register-based-study
#14
Bianca Arrhenius, David Gyllenberg, Roshan Chudal, Venla Lehti, Minna Sucksdorff, Ona Sourander, Juha-Pekka Virtanen, Jutta Torsti, Andre Sourander
BACKGROUND: Broadly defined learning and coordination disorders (LCDs) are common in the population and have previously been associated with familial social risk factors and male sex. However, comprehensive nationwide studies of these risk factors in LCD subgroups are lacking. Our objective was to assess different LCDs in relation to sex and maternal education, marital status and socioeconomic status based on occupation. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide register-based study...
June 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902278/understanding-levels-of-best-practice-an-empirical-validation
#15
Huy P Phan, Bing H Ngu, Hui-Wen Wang, Jen-Hwa Shih, Sheng-Ying Shi, Ruey-Yih Lin
Recent research has explored the nature of the theoretical concept of optimal best practice, which emphasizes the importance of personal resolve, inner strength, and the maximization of a person's development, whether it is mental, cognitive, social, or physical. In the context of academia, the study of optimal functioning places emphasis on a student's effort expenditure, positive outlook, and determination to strive for educational success and enriched subjective well-being. One major inquiry closely associated with optimal functioning is the process of optimization...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901659/dialogues-on-the-threshold-dialogical-learning-for-humanism-and-justice
#16
Arno K Kumagai, Lisa Richardson, Sarah Khan, Ayelet Kuper
Given the constant pressures of overflowing clinics, hospital wards, and emergency departments; shortened duty hours; and increased accreditation requirements, over-burdened clinician teachers ask, "how does one teach for humanism and justice?" How does one step away-even momentarily-and focus teaching on the individual in front of us, the person who requires our attention and care? This approach must not only involve content (the patient's perspective of illness, social context, and life story) but it also must be tightly linked with the ways in which these lessons in living are learned and taught...
June 12, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901658/blockchain-technology-a-data-framework-to-improve-validity-trust-and-accountability-of-information-exchange-in-health-professions-education
#17
Eric Funk, Jeff Riddell, Felix Ankel, Daniel Cabrera
Health professions educators face multiple challenges, among them the need to adapt educational methods to new technologies. In the last decades multiple new digital platforms have appeared in the learning arena, including massive open online courses and social media-based education. The major critique of these novel methods is the lack of the ability to ascertain the origin, validity, and accountability of the knowledge that is created, shared, and acquired. Recently, a novel technology based on secured data storage and transmission, called blockchain, has emerged as a way to generate networks where validity, trust, and accountability can be created...
June 12, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900800/challenges-of-developing-a-district-child-welfare-plan-in-south-africa-lessons-from-a-community-engaged-hiv-aids-research-project
#18
Jennifer Beard, Anne Skalicky, Busisiwe Nkosi, Tom Zhuwau, Mandisa Cakwe, Jonathon Simon, Mary Bachman DeSilva
The Amajuba Child Health and Wellbeing Research Project measured the impact of orphaning due to HIV/AIDS on South African households between 2004 and 2007. Community engagement was a central component of the project and extended through 2010. We describe researcher engagement with the community to recruit participants, build local buy-in, stimulate interest in study findings, and promote integration of government social welfare services for families and children affected by HIV/AIDS. This narrative documents the experience of researchers, drawing also on project reports, public documents, and published articles, with the objective of documenting lessons learned in this collaboration between researchers from two universities and a community in South Africa during a period that spanned seven years...
June 1, 2018: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899296/human-demonstration-does-not-facilitate-the-performance-of-horses-equus-caballus-in-a-spatial-problem-solving-task
#19
Joan-Bryce Burla, Janina Siegwart, Christian Nawroth
Horses’ ability to adapt to new environments and to acquire new information plays an important role in handling and training. Social learning in particular would be very adaptive for horses as it enables them to flexibly adjust to new environments. In the context of horse handling, social learning from humans has been rarely investigated but could help to facilitate management practices. We assessed the impact of human demonstration on the spatial problem-solving abilities of horses during a detour task...
June 13, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898811/critical-reflection-a-general-practice-support-group-experience
#20
Sophia Samuel, Heather Thompson
The problem of medical practitioner burnout and loss of morale remains an ongoing challenge in the Australian health workforce. Collegiate recommendations are individualistic or personalised, or worse, punitive. Critical reflection in supervision is a long-accepted and key aspect of social work theory and practice. The use of critical reflection within a general practitioner support group is examined and key learnings from our findings over 3years are discussed. All participants reported the group enhanced individual and team workplace satisfaction, and wellbeing...
June 14, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
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