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Maroudam Veerasami, K Venkataraman, Chitra Karuppannan, Arun Attur Shanmugam, Mallepaddi Chand Prudhvi, Thomas Holder, Polavarapu Rathnagiri, K Arunmozhivarman, Gopal Dhinakar Raj, Martin Vordermeier, B Mohana Subramanian
Tuberculosis is a significant problem globally for domestic animals as well as captive and free ranging wild life. Rapid point of care (POC) serology kits are well suited for the diagnosis of TB in wild animals. However, wild animals are invariably exposed to environmental non-pathogenic mycobacterium species with the development of cross reacting antibodies. In the present study, POC TB diagnosis kit was developed using a combination of pathogenic Mycobacteria specific recombinant antigens and purified protein derivatives of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Mycobacteria...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Biancamaria Aranguren, Anna Revedin, Nicola Amico, Fabio Cavulli, Gianna Giachi, Stefano Grimaldi, Nicola Macchioni, Fabio Santaniello
Excavations for the construction of thermal pools at Poggetti Vecchi (Grosseto, Tuscany, central Italy) exposed a series of wooden tools in an open-air stratified site referable to late Middle Pleistocene. The wooden artifacts were uncovered, together with stone tools and fossil bones, largely belonging to the straight-tusked elephant Paleoloxodon antiquus The site is radiometrically dated to around 171,000 y B.P., and hence correlated with the early marine isotope stage 6 [Benvenuti M, et al. (2017) Quat Res 88:327-344]...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Iain Douglas-Hamilton, Stephen Blake, Joseph M Northrup, George Wittemyer
Network (graph) theory is a popular analytical framework to characterize the structure and dynamics among discrete objects, particularly effective at identifying critical hubs and patterns of connectivity. The identification of such attributes is a fundamental objective of animal movement research, yet network theory has rarely been applied directly to animal relocation data. We develop an approach that allows the analysis of movement data using network theory by defining occupied pixels as nodes and connection among these pixels as edges...
February 8, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jennifer C Case, Edward L White, Vytas SunSpiral, Rebecca Kramer-Bottiglio
Continuum manipulators offer many advantages compared to their rigid-linked counterparts, such as increased degrees of freedom and workspace volume. Inspired by biological systems, such as elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, many continuum manipulators are made of multiple segments that allow large-scale deformations to be distributed throughout the body. Most continuum manipulators currently control each segment individually. For example, a planar cable-driven system is typically controlled by a pair of cables for each segment, which implies two actuators per segment...
February 2018: Soft Robotics
Guillam E McIvor, Victoria E Lee, Alex Thornton
Social learning is often assumed to help young animals respond appropriately to potential threats in the environment. We brought wild, juvenile jackdaws briefly into captivity to test whether short exposures to conspecific vocalizations are sufficient to promote anti-predator learning. Individuals were presented with one of two models-a stuffed fox representing a genuine threat, or a toy elephant simulating a novel predator. Following an initial baseline presentation, juveniles were trained by pairing models with either adult mobbing calls, indicating danger, or contact calls suggesting no danger...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Konstantin P Lyashchenko, Christian Gortázar, Michele A Miller, W Ray Waters
Using multi-antigen print immunoassay and DPP® VetTB Assay approved in the United States for testing captive cervids and elephants, we analyzed antibody recognition of MPB83 and CFP10/ESAT-6 antigens in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), fallow deer (Dama dama), elk (Cervus elaphus), and cattle (Bos taurus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Serum IgG reactivity to MPB83 was found in the vast majority of tuberculous cattle and cervid species among which white-tailed deer and elk also showed significant CFP10/ESAT-6 recognition rates with added serodiagnostic value...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
A Pinyopummin, S Mahasawangkul, G Nunklang, K Kornkaewrat, S Laopiem, S Koonjaenak, P Wattananit
The dilution effect and effect of restoring seminal plasma (SP) proportion in diluted semen were determined in chilled Asian elephant sperm. Semen was collected from eight males, and samples with ≥30% motile sperm were used in the study. Tris-glucose-egg yolk extender (TE) was used for cooled storage at 4°C for 48 hr. In experiment 1 (n = 18), semen was diluted to 1:1, 1:3, 1:7 and 1:15 with TE (volume per volume). There were no significant changes in sperm viability and sperm with normal acrosome integrity among dilutions, but sperm motility and motility velocities were greater (p < ...
February 6, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
R Hermes, J Saragusty, I Moser, S Holtze, J Nieter, K Sachse, T Voracek, A Bernhard, T Bouts, F Göritz, T B Hildebrandt
Tuberculosis (TB) has been known to affect elephants for thousands of years. It was put into spotlight when few circus elephants were diagnosed carrying Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis. Because of the zoonotic risk and high susceptibility to M. tuberculosis, periodic testing was enacted since, in captive breeding programmes. Presently, trunk wash is the recommended diagnostic procedure for TB. Trunk wash, however, puts the operator at risk, has low sensitivity, and is prone to contamination. Here, bronchoalveolar lavage is described for the first time for TB diagnosis in elephants...
February 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Hasib Hanif, Luc Dubois, Maral Ouzounian, Mark D Peterson, Ismail El-Hamamsy, Francois Dagenais, Ansar Hassan, Michael W A Chu
BACKGROUND: Frozen elephant trunk (FET) surgery offers a new alternative in the management of complex thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparator observational studies evaluating the efficacy of FET compared with conventional aortic arch surgery, primarily focusing on mortality and stroke as well as the secondary outcomes of spinal cord ischemia, major bleeding, and operative time. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for trials and studies comparing the FET technique with conventional surgery in patients with aortic aneurysms or dissections, or both...
December 26, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Jennifer R Honda, Xiyuan Bai, Edward D Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Martino Ruggieri, Andrea D Praticò, Rosario Caltabiano, Agata Polizzi
The earliest examples of neurofibromatosis (in this case type 1, NF1) can be traced in the Ebers Papyrus (Ancient Egypt, 1.500 B.C.), in a Hellenistic statuette (Smyrna, 323 B.C.), in the coinage of the Parthians kings (247 B.C.) and in some 13th century monks' drawings. These earlier examples are somewhat less well defined as compared to the most recent better defined reports credited as having NF1 including an Inca child mummy (1480-1650 AD), Ulisse Aldrovandi's homuncio ("Monstrorum Historia", 1592 A.D.) with mosaic NF1 or the illustrations seen in the 18th century "Buffon's Histoire Naturelle" and "Cruveilhier's Anatomie Pathologique du Corps Human"...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Binjie Jin, Huijie Song, Ruiqi Jiang, Jizhou Song, Qian Zhao, Tao Xie
The need to support the two most basic functions [three-dimensional (3D)-shaped support and actuation] independently for a typical robot demands that at least two components should be used in its construction. Therefore, component assembly is unavoidable despite the ultimate dream of creating assembly-free robots. We devise a strategy that uses a programmable crystalline shape memory polymer with thermo- and photo-reversible bonds to create a single-component robot. The global 3D-shaped structural support is fabricated via a plasticity-based origami technique enabled by the thermo-reversible bonds...
January 2018: Science Advances
Keito Suzuki, Akira Sezai, Satoshi Unosawa, Masashi Tanaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Louis Hunninck, Iris H Ringstad, Craig R Jackson, Roel May, Frode Fossøy, Kenneth Uiseb, Werner Killian, Rupert Palme, Eivin Røskaft
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cox067.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cox067.].
2018: Conservation Physiology
Puntita Siengdee, Sarisa Klinhom, Chatchote Thitaram, Korakot Nganvongpanit
Background: Primary cultures from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) allow scientists to obtain representative cells that have conserved most of their original characteristics, function, physiology and biochemistry. This technique has thus gained significant importance as a foundation for further cellular, cell biology and molecular research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe conditions for the successful establishment of primary adult fibroblasts from Asian elephant carcasses...
2018: PeerJ
Sirinart Chaichanathong, Kasuyoshi Taya, Gen Watanabe, Kentaro Nagaoka, Worawidh Wajjwalku, Apichaya Sudsukh, Nikorn Thongtip
Immunolocalization of inhibin-α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits in the testes of Asian elephant was determined. Testicular sections were immunostained with polyclonal antisera against inhibin subunit-α and inhibin/activin βA and βB using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Positive immunostaining against inhibin-α subunit was strongly present in Sertoli cells, and positive immunostaining for the inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits was observed in both Sertoli and Leydig cells. These results indicated that while Sertoli cells are the predominant source of inhibin and activin secretions in the testes of adult male Asian elephant, Leydig cells are a source of activin but not inhibin...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Boris N Kozlov, Dmitri S Panfilov, Igor V Ponomarenko, Andrey G Miroshnichenko, Aleksandra A Nenakhova, Alexander I Maksimov, Vladimir M Shipulin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to access the extended occlusion of the intercostal arteries by a stent graft in the development of postoperative spinal cord injury during aortic arch surgery using the frozen elephant trunk technique. METHODS: A total of 37 consecutive patients underwent total aortic arch surgery using the frozen elephant trunk technique between March 2012 and July 2017. The mean age of the patients was 54.7 ± 10.5 years. Type A and Type B aortic dissections were the indications for surgery...
January 17, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Sony Bhaskar Mehta, Hariharan Krishnamoorthy, Biju Pillai
Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with giant hydronephrosis is relatively rare in adults as compared to children. Most of the UPJO reported or seen in daily practice have a distinct hydronephrosis with a narrow ureteropelvic junction and a collapsed ureter distally. We present images a case of an adult female with Left UPJO, which on MRI mimicked an 'elephant head'.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
Reeta Sharma, Benoit Goossens, Rasmus Heller, Rita Rasteiro, Nurzhafarina Othman, Michael W Bruford, Lounès Chikhi
The origin of the elephant on the island of Borneo remains elusive. Research has suggested two alternative hypotheses: the Bornean elephant stems either from a recent introduction in the 17th century or from an ancient colonization several hundreds of thousands years ago. Lack of elephant fossils has been interpreted as evidence for a very recent introduction, whereas mtDNA divergence from other Asian elephants has been argued to favor an ancient colonization. We investigated the demographic history of Bornean elephants using full-likelihood and approximate Bayesian computation analyses...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sabin J Bozso, Abigail White, Jeevan Nagendran, Michael C Moon, Michael W A Chu
Novel endovascular techniques hope to offer patients aortic arch repair with reduced morbidity compared to conventional arch surgery; however, current endovascular strategies remain challenged by the proximal seal zone, higher stroke rates, long-term durability and select anatomy. Hybrid arch repair offers patients a less invasive alternative that can treat more distal aorta than conventional arch repair yet still be performed via standard sternotomy. Areas covered: This review will discuss the current evidence and future development of hybrid aortic arch and frozen elephant trunk reconstruction...
January 29, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
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