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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649470/determinants-of-seasonal-changes-in-availability-of-food-patches-for-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-a-semi-arid-african-savanna
#1
Bruce W Clegg, Timothy G O'Connor
Loss of biodiversity caused by impact of elephants (Loxodonta africana) on African woodlands may require a management response, but any action should be based on an understanding of why elephants choose to utilise trees destructively. Comprehension of elephant feeding behaviour requires consideration of the relative value of the plant groups they may potentially consume. Profitability of available food is partly determined by the time to locate a food patch and, therefore, as a foundation for understanding the influence of food availability on diet selection, key controls on the density of grass, forb, and browse patches were investigated across space and time in a semi-arid African savanna...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649267/evidence-for-a-postreproductive-phase-in-female-false-killer-whales-pseudorca-crassidens
#2
Theoni Photopoulou, Ines M Ferreira, Peter B Best, Toshio Kasuya, Helene Marsh
BACKGROUND: A substantial period of life after reproduction ends, known as postreproductive lifespan (PRLS), is at odds with classical life history theory and its causes and mechanisms have puzzled evolutionary biologists for decades. Prolonged PRLS has been confirmed in only two non-human mammals, both odontocete cetaceans in the family Delphinidae. We investigate the evidence for PRLS in a third species, the false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens, using a quantitative measure of PRLS and morphological evidence from reproductive tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648532/the-stent-is-not-to-blame-lessons-learned-with-a-simplified-us-version-of-the-frozen-elephant-trunk
#3
Ourania Preventza, Joseph S Coselli, Jessica Mayor, Katherine Simpson, Julius Carillo, Matt D Price, Lorraine D Cornwell, Shuab Omer, Kim I de la Cruz, Faisal G Bakaeen, Arin Jobe
BACKGROUND: We analyzed trends, assessed outcomes and lessons learned, and investigated whether using a simplified US version of the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique to treat complex arch pathology poses additional risk. METHODS: From 2010 to 2015, we performed 129 consecutive ET procedures (traditional ET [t-ET], n = 92 [71.3%]; FET, n = 37 [28.7%]) for chronic dissecting (n = 62 [48.1%]) and atherosclerotic aneurysms (n = 67 [51.9%]). A stepwise logistic regression model using preoperative and intraoperative variables was created to analyze the outcomes...
June 22, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629397/optimal-timing-of-renal-replacement-therapy-initiation-in-acute-kidney-injury-the-elephant-felt-by-the-blindmen
#4
Chih-Chung Shiao, Tao-Min Huang, Herbert D Spapen, Patrick M Honore, Vin-Cent Wu
Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a key component in the management of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. Many cohort studies, meta-analyses, and two recent large randomized prospective trials which evaluated the relationship between the timing of RRT initiation and patient outcome remain inconclusive due to substantial differences in study design, patient population, AKI definition, and RRT indication. A cause-specific diagnosis of AKI based on current staging criteria plus a sensitive biomarker (panel) that allows creating a homogeneous study population is definitely needed to assess the impact of early versus late initiation of RRT on patient outcome...
June 20, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628902/recycling-stabilised-solidified-drill-cuttings-for-forage-production-in-acidic-soils
#5
Reginald B Kogbara, Bernard B Dumkhana, Josiah M Ayotamuno, Reuben N Okparanma
Stabilisation/solidification (S/S), which involves fixation and immobilisation of contaminants using cementitious materials, is one method of treating drill cuttings before final fate. This work considers reuse of stabilised/solidified drill cuttings for forage production in acidic soils. It sought to improve the sustainability of S/S technique through supplementation with the phytoremediation potential of plants, eliminate the need for landfill disposal and reduce soil acidity for better plant growth. Drill cuttings with an initial total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of 17,125 mg kg(-1) and low concentrations of metals were treated with 5%, 10%, and 20% cement dosages...
June 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619862/the-elephant-in-the-courtroom
#6
Kenneth J Weiss, Robert Garfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616198/seed-dispersal-of-diospyros-virginiana-in-the-past-and-the-present-evidence-for-a-generalist-evolutionary-strategy
#7
Mimi Rebein, Charli N Davis, Helena Abad, Taylor Stone, Jillian Del Sol, Natalie Skinner, Matthew D Moran
Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and coyote (Canis latrans), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616175/seasonal-habitat-use-by-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-mole-national-park-of-ghana
#8
George Ashiagbor, Emmanuel Danquah
To avoid unnecessary waste of limited resources and to help prioritize areas for conservation efforts, this study aimed to provide information on habitat use by elephants between the wet and dry seasons in the Mole National Park (MNP) of Ghana. We compiled coordinates of 516 locations of elephants' encounters, 256 for dry season and 260 for wet season. Using nine predictor variables, we modeled the probability of elephant's distribution in MNP. We threshold the models to "suitable" and "nonsuitable" regions of habitat use using the equal training sensitivity and specificity values of 0...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615841/cobboldia-elephantis-cobbold-1866-larval-infestation-in-an-indian-elephant-elephas-maximus
#9
Ananda K Javare Gowda, N K Dharanesha, P Giridhar, S M Byre Gowda
In the present study, post-mortem was conducted on a female elephant aged about 37 years died at Rajeev Gandhi National Park, Hunsur, Mathigoodu Elephant Camp, Karnataka state. The animal suffered with diarrhoea, anorexia, dehydration and was unable to walk for about one week before death and was treated with antibiotics and fluid therapy for three days. The post-mortem examination revealed that, the gastric mucosa was severely congested, hyperaemic and numerous stomach bots attached to the mucosa. The bots were recovered from the gastric mucosa and processed for species identification...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612829/mysteries-of-type-2-diabetes-the-indian-elephant-meets-the-chinese-dragon
#10
E C Rhodes, U P Gujral, K M Narayan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606609/retrograde-type-a-dissection-after-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair-surgical-strategy-and-literature-review
#11
Zhao An, Zhigang Song, Hao Tang, Lin Han, Zhiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the surgical strategy for managing retrograde type A dissection (RTAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) by reporting our experience and literature review. METHODS: From June 2011 to January 2014, nine patients with RTAD received surgical repair in our institution. The mean age of these patients was 49.3±10.7 years. Data on these RTAD patients was retrospectively collected for further analysis. Literature related to RTAD after TEVAR from 2006 to 2014 was reviewed using the following terms: thoracic endovascular aortic repair, retrograde type A dissection, stent induced new entry, and surgical repair...
May 29, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606285/-the-application-of-short-stent-in-root-of-aorta-for-the-treatment-of-stanford-type-a-aortic-dissection
#12
X P Chen, Y P Zhao, Y F Ye, S Chen, G J Zhu, J Hu
Objective: To explore the effect of implanting short stent in root of aorta for the treatment of Stanford type A aortic dissection. Methods: Clinical data of 39 patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection who underwent surgical procedure at the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Luoyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, between January 2013 and December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 31 males and 8 females aged 27 to 75 (49.3±10.3) years. All patients received short stent implanting in aortic root, total arch replacement and stented elephant trunk implantation were performed at the same time...
June 13, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605793/of-elephants-and-epidemiology
#13
Stephen Leeder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605548/early-and-mid-term-aortic-remodelling-after-the-frozen-elephant-trunk-technique-for-retrograde-type-a-acute-aortic-dissection-using-the-new-japanese-j-graft-open-stent-graft
#14
Yoshitaka Yamane, Naomichi Uchida, Shingo Mochizuki, Tomokuni Furukawa, Kazunori Yamada
OBJECTIVES: We previously performed the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique for acute type A aortic dissection to try to improve the long-term prognosis. In this study, we report the mid-term results of the FET technique for treating retrograde type A acute aortic dissection using a new device, the J Graft open stent graft (JOSG). METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2015, 24 patients (mean age: 59.3 ± 13.9 years) underwent total arch replacement with the FET technique using the JOSG for retrograde type A acute aortic dissection...
June 9, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600784/the-elephant-in-the-room-the-role-of-microtubules-in-cancer
#15
Luca Cirillo, Monica Gotta, Patrick Meraldi
Microtubules are the backbone of all eukaryotic cells cytoskeleton. Their dynamic behaviour constitutes the basis for many biological processes such as cellular motility, cytoplasmic transport and cell division. Some the most effective chemotherapeutics, such as the taxanes, are microtubule interfering drugs. Moreover, many studies suggest that microtubule dynamics are altered in cancer cell divisions and linked to chromosomal instability, aneuploidy and development of drug resistances. The elephant in the room, however, is that despite all these evidences, the exact role of microtubules in malignancies remains elusive, partially due to the lack of clear genetic alterations linking microtubules to cancer...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594797/-single-centre-experience-with-implantation-of-the-e-vita-open-plus-hybrid-stent-graft
#16
B N Kozlov, D S Panfilov, V V Saushkin, M S Kuznetsov, G G Nasrashvili, A V Andriianova, V M Shipulin
Hybrid technologies appear to have been gaining ground in surgery of the thoracic aorta. The present study was aimed at assessing the immediate clinical outcomes of surgical treatment of diseases of the thoracic aorta by means of the 'E-vita open plus' hybrid stent graft. The 'E-vita open plus' hybrid stent graft was implanted to 18 patients. All operations were carried out in the conditions of moderate hypothermia. The brain was protected by unilateral cerebral perfusion through the brachiocephalic trunk. The duration of artificial circulation averagely amounted to 265...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591766/elective-frozen-elephant-trunk-procedure-using-the-e-vita-open-plus-prosthesis-in-94-patients-a-multicentre-french-registry
#17
Jean-Philippe Verhoye, Reda Belhaj Soulami, Olivier Fouquet, Vito Giovanni Ruggieri, Adrien Kaladji, Jacques Tomasi, Michel Sellin, Fadi Farhat, Amedeo Anselmi
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to evaluate the operative outcomes of the frozen elephant trunk technique using the E-Vita Open Plus ® hybrid prosthesis in chronic aortic arch diseases and report clinical and radiological outcomes at the 1-year follow-up. METHODS: As determined from a prospective multicentre registry, 94 patients underwent frozen elephant trunk procedures using the E-Vita Open Plus hybrid device for the treatment of chronic aortic conditions, including 50% chronic aortic dissections, 40% degenerative aneurysms and 10% miscellaneous indications...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591179/a-systematic-review-of-elephant-impact-across-africa
#18
Robert A R Guldemond, Andrew Purdon, Rudi J van Aarde
Contradictory findings among scientific studies that address a particular issue may impede the conversion of science to management implementation. A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to generate a single outcome may overcome this problem. The contentious topic of the impact that a megaherbivore such as the savanna elephant have for other species and their environment can benefit from such an approach. After some 68 years, 367 peer-reviewed papers covered the topic and 51 of these papers provided sufficient data to be included in a meta-analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590592/decadal-changes-in-habitat-characteristics-influence-population-trajectories-of-southern-elephant-seals
#19
Mark A Hindell, Michael Sumner, Sophie Bestley, Simon Wotherspoon, Robert G Harcourt, Mary-Anne Lea, Rachael Alderman, Clive R McMahon
Understanding divergent biological responses to climate change is important for predicting ecosystem level consequences. We use species habitat models to predict the winter foraging habitats of female southern elephant seals and investigate how changes in environmental variables within these habitats may be related to observed decreases in the Macquarie Island population. There were three main groups of seals that specialised in different ocean realms (the sub-Antarctic, the Ross Sea and the Victoria Land Coast)...
June 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585920/palaeogenomes-of-eurasian-straight-tusked-elephants-challenge-the-current-view-of-elephant-evolution
#20
Matthias Meyer, Eleftheria Palkopoulou, Sina Baleka, Mathias Stiller, Kirsty E H Penkman, Kurt W Alt, Yasuko Ishida, Dietrich Mania, Swapan Mallick, Tom Meijer, Harald Meller, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Sven Ostritz, Nadin Rohland, Karol Schauer, Tim Schüler, Alfred L Roca, David Reich, Beth Shapiro, Michael Hofreiter
The straight-tusked elephants Palaeoloxodon spp. were widespread across Eurasia during the Pleistocene. Phylogenetic reconstructions using morphological traits have grouped them with Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and many paleontologists place Palaeoloxodon within Elephas. Here, we report the recovery of full mitochondrial genomes from four and partial nuclear genomes from two P. antiquus fossils. These fossils were collected at two sites in Germany, Neumark-Nord and Weimar-Ehringsdorf, and likely date to interglacial periods ~120 and ~244 thousand years ago, respectively...
June 6, 2017: ELife
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