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Barbora Pafčo, Dagmar Čížková, Jakub Kreisinger, Hideo Hasegawa, Peter Vallo, Kathryn Shutt, Angelique Todd, Klára J Petrželková, David Modrý
Strongylid nematodes in large terrestrial herbivores such as great apes, equids, elephants, and humans tend to occur in complex communities. However, identification of all species within strongylid communities using traditional methods based on coproscopy or single nematode amplification and sequencing is virtually impossible. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies provide opportunities to generate large amounts of sequence data and enable analyses of samples containing a mixture of DNA from multiple species/genotypes...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bridget Martinez, Jane Khudyakov, Kim Rutherford, Daniel E Crocker, Neil Gemmell, Rudy M Ortiz
The physiological and cellular adaptations to extreme fasting in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, NES) are remarkable and may help to elucidate endocrine mechanisms that regulate lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis in mammals. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of thyroid hormones in the maintenance of a lipid-based metabolism during prolonged fasting in weaned NES pups. To identify additional molecular regulators of fasting, we used a transcriptomics approach to examine changes in global gene expression profiles before and after 6-8 weeks of fasting in weaned NES pups...
April 6, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Andrei Seluanov, Vadim N Gladyshev, Jan Vijg, Vera Gorbunova
Cancer researchers have traditionally used the mouse and the rat as staple model organisms. These animals are very short-lived, reproduce rapidly and are highly prone to cancer. They have been very useful for modelling some human cancer types and testing experimental treatments; however, these cancer-prone species offer little for understanding the mechanisms of cancer resistance. Recent technological advances have expanded bestiary research to non-standard model organisms that possess unique traits of very high value to humans, such as cancer resistance and longevity...
April 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Shanon Peter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Chika Sumiyoshi, Haruo Fujino, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Yuka Yasuda, Hidenaga Yamamori, Michiko Fujimoto, Ryota Hashimoto
Background: Disorganization of semantic memory in patients with schizophrenia has been studied by referring to their category fluency performance. Recently, data-mining techniques such as singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis have been reported to be effective in elucidating the latent semantic memory structure in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate semantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia using a novel method based on data-mining approach...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yosuke Inoue, Hitoshi Matsuda, Atsushi Omura, Yoshimasa Seike, Kyokun Uehara, Hiroaki Sasaki, Junjiro Kobayashi
OBJECTIVES: Arch repair using the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique has been utilized to treat Type A acute aortic dissection. In contrast, the long-term outcomes of the non-FET technique focus on the thrombosed false lumen (FL), and distal aortic reoperation rates remain unclear. The goal of our study was to investigate the efficacy and long-term outcomes of the non-FET technique as the benchmark. METHODS: We reviewed 518 patients with Type A acute aortic dissection in the last 20 years...
March 29, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Hidenori Sako, Hideyuki Tanaka, Masato Morita, Tetsushi Takayama
Frozen elephant technique is an effective procedure used to repair complex thoracic aortic disease involving the aortic arch and the descending aorta, or to treat aortic dissection. However, the technique often requires some creativity to properly place the stent graft and anastomose the graft to the aorta. We recently used the J Graft FROZENIX® (Japan Lifeline Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) in total arch replacement, and devise a technique for distal anastomosis (called "reverse stepwise anastomosis") that was simple and easy and caused minimal bleeding...
April 3, 2018: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Sue Malta, Susan B Williams, Frances A Batchelor
OBJECTIVE: To record Victorian retirement village residents' experiences of dispute management and satisfaction levels related to dispute resolution processes. METHODS: Survey distributed to 6500 retirement village residents. RESULTS: Surveys returned from 1876 residents (29% return rate). Most residents rated life in retirement villages as positive (mean 7.9/10), with an association between life satisfaction and management's ability to resolve disputes (rs = 0...
April 3, 2018: Australasian Journal on Ageing
Ali El-Sayed Ahmad, Petar Risteski, Mahmut Ay, Nestoras Papadopoulos, Anton Moritz, Andreas Zierer
OBJECTIVES:  The optimal hypothermic level during circulatory arrest in aortic arch surgery remains controversial, particularly in frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedures. We describe herein our experience for total arch replacement with FET technique under moderate systemic hypothermic circulatory arrest (≥ 28°C) during selective antegrade cerebral perfusion. METHODS:  Between January 2009 and January 2016, 38 consecutive patients underwent elective total arch replacement for various aortic arch pathologies with FET technique using the E-vita Open hybrid prosthesis (Jotec GmbH, Hechingen, Germany)...
April 1, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Tatsuhiro Sakamoto, Takuya Mochizuki, Yuta Goto, Manabu Hatano, Kazuaki Ishihara
BBr3-assisted chiral phosphoric acid catalysts for enantioselective [2+2] cycloaddition were developed. The reactions of phenyl vinyl sulfide with α-substituted acroleins proceeded, and the corresponding [2+2] cycloadducts were obtained with high enantioselectivity. In particular, the [2+2] cycloadduct obtained from methacrolein was a synthetically useful optically active cyclobutane, which could be transformed to a key intermediate for (+)-frontalin, a pheromone of Asian elephants.
March 30, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Christian Schiffmann, Stefan Hoby, Christian Wenker, Therese Hård, Robert Scholz, Marcus Clauss, Jean-Michel Hatt
Little attention has been paid to the resting and sleeping behavior of zoo elephants so far. An important concern is when elephants avoid lying down, due to degenerative joint and foot disease, social structure, or stressful environmental changes. Inability or unwillingness to lie down for resting is an important welfare issue, as it may impair sleep. We emphasize the importance of satisfying rest in elephants by reviewing the literature on resting behavior in elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus) as well as the documentation of four cases from European zoos and our own direct observations in a zoo group of four female African elephants during 12 entire days...
March 30, 2018: Zoo Biology
Merel Goedegebuure, Jessica Melbourne-Thomas, Stuart P Corney, Clive R McMahon, Mark A Hindell
Higher trophic-level species are an integral component of any marine ecosystem. Despite their importance, methods for representing these species in end-to-end ecosystem models often have limited representation of life histories, energetics and behaviour. We built an individual-based model coupled with a dynamic energy budget for female southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina to demonstrate a method for detailed representation of marine mammals. We aimed to develop a model which could i) simulate energy use and life histories, as well as breeding traits of southern elephant seals in an emergent manner, ii) project a stable population over time, and iii) have realistic population dynamics and structure based on emergent life history features (such as age at first breeding, lifespan, fecundity and (yearling) survival)...
2018: PloS One
Roberto Di Bartolomeo, Giacomo Murana, Luca Di Marco, Jacopo Alfonsi, Gregorio Gliozzi, Ciro Amodio, Alessandro Leone, Davide Pacini
The elephant trunks, either conventional or frozen represent the major technical improvements in the treatment of complex thoracic aortic disease. In the last decades, these useful techniques progressively evolved along with the introduction of new devices to facilitate the procedure and ameliorate post-operative results. The latest multi-branched hybrid FET prostheses give us the opportunity to greatly facilitate graft implantation and reduce operative times. The following review will provide an overview of the FET technique throughout the current available devices, possible surgical indications and principal surgical steps...
March 28, 2018: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Alessandro Cannavale, Mariangela Santoni, Fabrizio Fanelli, Gerard O'Sullivan
The management of patients with aortic dissection is challenging and its treatment is an area of development and innovation. Conventional surgical techniques are associated with significant risks in terms of mortality and morbidity in such high-risk patients. As a result of cumulative advances in technology, classical surgical techniques have been improved and enhanced by the newer endovascular approaches, leading to novel surgical hybrid procedures. Impressive early results have been seen with frozen elephant techniques, revascularisation of the supra-aortic branches and branched/fenestrated thoracic endovascular aortic repair-alone procedures...
May 2017: Interventional Cardiology
Hui Zhou, Guyan Wang, Lijing Yang, Sheng Shi, Jun Li, Meng Wang, Congya Zhang, Hongyan Li, Xiangyang Qian, Xiaogang Sun, Qian Chang, Cuntao Yu
OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after thoracic aortic surgery and is a significant predictor of morbidity and mortality. Total arch replacement (TAR) combined with frozen elephant trunk (FET) implantation has been reported to produce satisfactory clinical outcomes, whereas several features of the surgical procedure may induce postoperative AKI. The authors aimed to clarify the incidence of and risk factors for postoperative AKI and the association of AKI with short-term outcomes...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Pietro Laricchiuta, Valeria Russo, Alessandro Costagliola, Giuseppe Piegari, Michele Capasso, Pasquale Silvestre, Manuela Martano, Orlando Paciello
A 56 year old nulliparous female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living at the zoological garden of Naples (Italy), with a clinical history of recurrent colic, was found in agonal state and humane euthanasia was elected. At necropsy the uterine body was moderately increased in size and the lumen was reduced due to a poorly demarcated and infiltrative neoplasm. Furthermore, multiple, whitish, firm nodules were present in both lungs. Histological examination of the uterine mass revealed epithelial cells arranged in tubular or solid pattern infiltrating the endometrium and the muscular layer...
March 23, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Rachel Nuwer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2017: Scientific American
Anna U Morgan, Krisda H Chaiyachati, Gary E Weissman, Joshua M Liao
Gender-based discrimination and bias are widespread in professional settings, including academic medicine. Overt manifestations such as sexual harassment have long been identified but attention is only more recently turning towards subtler forms of bias, including inequity in promotion and compensation. Barriers to progress vary across institutions and include lack of awareness, inadequate training, poor informational transparency, and challenging power dynamics. We propose five solutions that the academic medical community can adopt to not only name, but also address, gender-based bias as the proverbial elephant in the room: definitively identify the systemic nature of the problem, prompt those with influence and power to advance a culture of equity, broadly incorporate evidence-based explicit anti-sexist training, increase transparency of information related to professional development and compensation, and use robust research methods to study the drivers and potential solutions of gender inequity within academic medicine...
March 21, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Anne Küntzel, Peter Oertel, Sina Fischer, Andreas Bergmann, Phillip Trefz, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch, Petra Reinhold, Heike Köhler
BACKGROUND: Species of Mycobacteriaceae cause serious zoonotic diseases in mammals, for example tuberculosis in humans, dogs, parrots, and elephants (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and in ruminants and humans (caused by M. bovis and M. caprae). Pulmonary diseases, lymphadenitis, skin diseases, and disseminated diseases can be caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Diagnosis and differentiation among Mycobacterium species are currently done by culture isolation. The established diagnostic protocols comprise several steps that allow species identification...
2018: PloS One
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