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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089793/eggshell-palaeogenomics-palaeognath-evolutionary-history-revealed-through-ancient-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-dna-from-madagascan-elephant-bird-aepyornis-sp-eggshell
#1
Alicia Grealy, Matthew Phillips, Gifford Miller, M Thomas P Gilbert, Jean-Marie Rouillard, David Lambert, Michael Bunce, James Haile
Palaeognaths, the sister group of all other living birds (neognaths), were once considered to be vicariant relics from the breakup of the Gondwanan supercontinent. However, recent molecular studies instead argue for dispersal of volant ancestors across marine barriers. Resolving this debate hinges upon accurately reconstructing their evolutionary relationships and dating their divergences, which often relies on phylogenetic information from extinct relatives and nuclear genomes. Mitogenomes from the extinct elephant birds of Madagascar have helped inform the palaeognath phylogeny; however, nuclear information has remained unavailable...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088341/evaluation-of-an-in-house-indirect-elisa-for-detection-of-antibody-against-haemorrhagic-septicemia-in-asian-elephants
#2
Pallop Tankaew, Thawatchai Singh-La, Chatchote Titaram, Veerasak Punyapornwittaya, Preeyanat Vongchan, Takuo Sawada, Nattawooti Sthitmatee
Pasteurella multocida causes haemorrhagic septicemia in livestock and wild animals, including elephants. The disease has been reported in Asian elephants in India and Sri Lanka, but to date there have been no reported cases in Thailand. ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays (IHA) have been demonstrated to be able to detect the antibody against the disease in cattle, but no data are available for elephants. The present study reports a novel in-house indirect ELISA for antibody detection of haemorrhagic septicemia in Asian elephants, and evaluates the sensitivity and specificity of the method using a Bayesian approach...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080908/antidog-igg-secondary-antibody-successfully-detects-igg-in-a-variety-of-aquatic-mammals
#3
Katherine Roehl, Mark Jankowski, Erik Hofmeister
Serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. However, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. In recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. However, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe the use of antibody detection assays in marine mammals...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079084/african-elephants-scale-up-elephant-anti-poaching-funds
#4
Thomas N E Gray, Suwanna Gauntlett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074405/big-concerns-with-small-projects-evaluating-the-socio-ecological-impacts-of-small-hydropower-projects-in-india
#5
Suman Jumani, Shishir Rao, Siddarth Machado, Anup Prakash
Although Small Hydropower Projects (SHPs) are encouraged as sources of clean and green energy, there is a paucity of research examining their socio-ecological impacts. We assessed the perceived socio-ecological impacts of 4 SHPs within the Western Ghats in India by conducting semi-structured interviews with local respondents. Primary interview data were sequentially validated with secondary data, and respondent perceptions were subsequently compared against the expected baseline of assured impacts. We evaluated the level of awareness about SHPs, their perceived socio-economic impacts, influence on resource access and impacts on human-elephant interactions...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062548/modified-frozen-elephant-trunk-for-acute-type-a-aortic-dissection-a-comparative-study-with-standard-repair-technique
#6
Peter Matt, Prerana Banerjee, Martin Grapow, Florian Rueter, Ulrich Schurr, Martin Siegemund, Jens Fassl, Oliver Reuthebuch, Friedrich Eckstein
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that antegrade open stent graft implantation in the descending aorta during acute type A aortic dissection surgery is safe and improves patient outcome compared with the standard repair technique. METHODS: Hundred and forty-one consecutive patients underwent surgery for acute type A aortic dissection at our institution from 2010 to 2016. Of those, 104 patients underwent ascending aorta and hemiarch repair under hypothermic circulatory arrest with antegrade cerebral perfusion (standard group)...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062301/evolution-of-specificity-in-cartilaginous-fish-glycoprotein-hormones-and-receptors
#7
Hanna B Buechi, Jamie T Bridgham
Glycoprotein hormones (GpH) interact very specifically with their receptors to mediate hypothalamic - pituitary - peripheral gland endocrine signaling. Vertebrates typically have three functionally distinct GpH endocrine signaling complexes: follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone, and their receptors. Each hormone consists of a common α subunit bound to one of three different β subunits. Individual hormone subunits and receptors are present in genomes of early metazoans, and a subset of hormone subunits and receptors has been recently characterized in sea lamprey...
January 3, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058745/lipid-and-protein-oxidation-levels-in-spermatozoa-and-seminal-plasma-of-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-and-their-relationship-with-semen-parameters
#8
S Satitmanwiwat, K Promthep, K Buranaamnuay, S Mahasawangkul, K Saikhun
Peroxidation damage to spermatozoa and seminal plasma has an important role in sperm quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of lipid and protein oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with varying percentage of progressive motility. Lipid and protein oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) assay and the 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Fresh semen samples were collected from Asian elephants and classified according to the percentage of motile spermatozoa into good (>60%) and poor (≤20%) motility...
January 6, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049867/elephant-s-breast-milk-contains-large-amounts-of-glucosamine
#9
Zenta Takatsu, Muneya Tsuda, Akio Yamada, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Akira Takai, Yasuhiro Takeda, Mitsunori Takase
Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant's breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant's breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043447/immediate-spinal-cord-collateral-blood-flow-during-thoracic-aortic-procedures-the-role-of-epidural-arcades
#10
Fabian A Kari, Karin Wittmann, Babak Saravi, Luisa Puttfarcken, Sonja Krause, Katharina Förster, Sven Maier, Ulrich Göbel, Friedhelm Beyersdorf
The objective of this study was to investigate the functional differences between paraspinal and intraspinal compartments of the spinal collateral network and the importance of circular epidural arcades in thoracic aortic surgery. N = 33 pigs (mean body weight: 34 ± 3kg) were included. A single-inlet-model of spinal collateral flow was created: paraspinal inflow into the collateral network was isolated by cephalad and caudal interruption of inflow into epidural arcades using laminectomies. Animals were assigned to treatment groups (Treatment "open" [patent epidural arcades, n = 10] and Treatment "closed" [closed epidural arcades, n = 10]) and Sham groups (Sham "open" n = 8 and Sham "closed" n = 5)...
July 2016: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040765/classification-and-outcomes-of-extended-arch-repair-for-acute-type-a-aortic-dissection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Holly N Smith, Munir Boodhwani, Maral Ouzounian, Richard Saczkowski, Alexander J Gregory, Eric J Herget, Jehangir J Appoo
OBJECTIVES: Distal extent of repair in patients undergoing surgery for acute Type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is controversial. Emerging hybrid techniques involving open and endovascular surgery have been reported in small numbers by select individual centres. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the outcomes following extended arch repair for ATAAD. A classification system is proposed of the different techniques to facilitate discussion and further investigation...
December 31, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033530/mini-snapshot-multiplex-assays-authenticate-elephant-ivory-and-simultaneously-identify-the-species-origin
#12
Thitika Kitpipit, Kantima Thongjued, Kitichaya Penchart, Kanita Ouithavon, Wilaiwan Chotigeat
Illegal trading of ivory is mainly responsible for the dramatic decline in elephant populations. Thailand is one of the largest laundering hotspots for African ivory, as the domestic Asian elephant ivory can be legally traded. So, to help combat ivory poaching and smuggling, an efficient method is needed to identify the elephant species from its ivory and ivory products. In this study, a mini-SNaPshot(®) multiplex assay was developed and fully validated for the identification of confiscated ivory and low DNA template ivory products...
December 21, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027593/behavior-of-sheep-fed-babassu-cake-orbygnia-speciosa-as-a-substitution-for-elephant-grass-silage
#13
Ernestina Ribeiro Dos Santos Neta, Kaliandra Souza Alves, Rafael Mezzomo, Daiany Íris Gomes, Luis Rennan Sampaio Oliveira, Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho, Janaina Barros Luz, Natália Gomes Lacerda, Venucia de Diniella Dos Santos Bourdon
This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of sheep fed babassu cake as a substitution for elephant grass silage. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Rural University of Amazonia (Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia - UFRA), Brazil, using 45 sheep housed in individual stalls, with unlimited access to feed and distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50% inclusion of babassu cake) and nine replications. All of the treatments contained a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60...
December 27, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018514/radiopaque-ruler-guided-frozen-elephant-trunk-technique
#14
Akihiko Ikeda, Taisuke Konishi, Kanji Matsuzaki, Tomoaki Jikuya
Frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique combines open surgery and endovascular repair for extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms. When a FET is inserted into the descending thoracic aorta, it is difficult to confirm its proper positioning. Here we report a radiopaque ruler-guided FET technique. On the basis of preoperative computed tomography, we create a roadmap which shows the relationship between the descending thoracic aorta and vertebrae. During surgery, a radiopaque ruler placed beneath the patient's back provides the accurate target position under fluoroscopy...
2016: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012506/erratum-to-generation-and-validation-of-new-quantitative-real-time-pcr-assays-to-detect-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesviruses-1a-1b-and-4-j-virol-methods-237-2016-138-142
#15
Taylor Pursell, Jie Tan, RongSheng Peng, Paul D Ling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997994/deciding-what-is-possible-and-impossible-following-hippocampal-damage-in-humans
#16
Cornelia McCormick, Clive R Rosenthal, Thomas D Miller, Eleanor A Maguire
There is currently much debate about whether the precise role of the hippocampus in scene processing is predominantly constructive, perceptual, or mnemonic. Here, we developed a novel experimental paradigm designed to control for general perceptual and mnemonic demands, thus enabling us to specifically vary the requirement for constructive processing. We tested the ability of patients with selective bilateral hippocampal damage and matched control participants to detect either semantic (e.g., an elephant with butterflies for ears) or constructive (e...
December 20, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997337/correction-tp53-copy-number-expansion-is-associated-with-the-evolution-of-increased-body-size-and-an-enhanced-dna-damage-response-in-elephants
#17
Michael Sulak, Lindsey Fong, Katelyn Mika, Sravanthi Chigurupati, Lisa Yon, Nigel P Mongan, Richard D Emes, Vincent J Lynch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992095/faecal-occult-blood-testing-screening-for-colorectal-cancer-and-missed-interval-cancers-are-we-ignoring-the-elephant-in-the-room-results-of-a-multicentre-study
#18
A T George, S Aggarwal, S Dharmavaram, A Menon, M Dube, M Vogler, A Field
AIM: Biennial faecal occult testing (FOBT) is used to screen for colorectal cancer throughout the United Kingdom (UK). Interval cancers are tumours that develop in patients between screening rounds who have had a negative FOBT. Through a multicentre study, we compared demographics of patients with interval cancers, FOBT screen detected cancers and cancers that developed in patients who chose not to participate in the screening programme. METHOD: Five hundred and sixteen colorectal cancers were detected in the screening age group (60-74 years) population in three United Kingdom NHS Hospitals over two years...
December 19, 2016: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989673/phylogenomics-and-morphology-of-extinct-paleognaths-reveal-the-origin-and-evolution-of-the-ratites
#19
Takahiro Yonezawa, Takahiro Segawa, Hiroshi Mori, Paula F Campos, Yuichi Hongoh, Hideki Endo, Ayumi Akiyoshi, Naoki Kohno, Shin Nishida, Jiaqi Wu, Haofei Jin, Jun Adachi, Hirohisa Kishino, Ken Kurokawa, Yoshifumi Nogi, Hideyuki Tanabe, Harutaka Mukoyama, Kunio Yoshida, Armand Rasoamiaramanana, Satoshi Yamagishi, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Akira Yoshida, Hiroko Koike, Fumihito Akishinonomiya, Eske Willerslev, Masami Hasegawa
The Palaeognathae comprise the flightless ratites and the volant tinamous, and together with the Neognathae constitute the extant members of class Aves. It is commonly believed that Palaeognathae originated in Gondwana since most of the living species are found in the Southern Hemisphere [1-3]. However, this hypothesis has been questioned because the fossil paleognaths are mostly from the Northern Hemisphere in their earliest time (Paleocene) and possessed many putative ancestral characters [4]. Uncertainties regarding the origin and evolution of Palaeognathae stem from the difficulty in estimating their divergence times [1, 2] and their remarkable morphological convergence...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984350/nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-and-erectile-dysfunction-drugs-is-there-an-elephant-in-the-bedroom
#20
Joshua M Kruger, Howard D Pomeranz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
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