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Ramin Asgary, Ronald J Waldman
There is considerable tension between the concept of accountability to beneficiaries and its practice in humanitarian aid. The beneficiaries live in a relationship that is asymmetric; upward or horizontal accountability within the aid system alone-even with the best of intentions-might be short-sighted. Could beneficiaries be effectively involved in programing, priority setting or allocation of resources? Is there space for a rights-based approach in aid delivery and operations? The mind-set, governance and structure of operations in aid agencies may need significant institutional reform to share the process of decision-making, and to transform the current dynamic from connecting resources to brokering better governance, true collaboration and co-operation among all stakeholders...
September 28, 2017: International Health
Maximilian Kreibich, Tim Berger, Julia Morlock, Stoyan Kondov, Johannes Scheumann, Fabian A Kari, Bartosz Rylski, Matthias Siepe, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Martin Czerny
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to report our preliminary results in patients with acute complicated Type B aortic dissection without a suitable landing zone for primary thoracic endovascular aortic repair who were treated with the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique. METHODS: Within a 25-month period, 14 patients with acute complicated Type B aortic dissection underwent surgical repair using the FET technique. The reasons to perform the FET procedure were an ectatic ascending aorta/arch in 6 patients and the lack of an adequate landing zone in 8 patients...
August 2, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Malakh Shrestha, Andreas Martens, Tim Kaufeld, Erik Beckmann, Sebastian Bertele, Heike Krueger, Julia Neuser, Felix Fleissner, Fabio Ius, Firas Abd Alhadi, Jasmin Hanke, Jan D Schmitto, Serghei Cebotari, Matthias Karck, Axel Haverich, Ajay Chavan
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to present our 15-year experience (2001-2015) with the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique. METHODS: A total of 251 patients (82 with aortic aneurysms, 96 with acute aortic dissection type A, 4 with acute type B dissections, 52 with chronic aortic dissection type A, 17 with chronic type B dissection and 67 redo cases) underwent FET implantation with either the custom-made Chavan-Haverich ( n  = 66), the Jotec E-vita ( n  = 31) or the Vascutek Thoraflex hybrid ( n  = 154) prosthesis...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Qian Zhang, Xiaochun Ma, Wenlong Zhang, Zhengjun Wang, Haizhou Zhang, Xiaofeng Zhang, Jian Song, Chengwei Zou
BACKGROUND: Aortic dissection (AD) represents a clinically uncommon aortic pathology which predicts a dismal prognosis if not promptly treated. In acute Debakey type I AD (ADIAD), aortic lesion extends from aortic root to even distal abdominal aorta among which aortic arch and its three main branches still remain a great surgical challenge for repair and reconstruction. Several decades have witnessed the painstaking efforts of cardiovascular surgeons across the globe for optimizing the surgical procedures, from total or hemi-arch replacement, "elephant trunk" technique to branched stent graft...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
D A Rossi, R F Daher, T C Barbé, R S N Lima, A F Costa, L P Ribeiro, P E Teodoro, L L Bhering
Elephant grass is a perennial tropical grass with great potential for energy generation from biomass. The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity among elephant grass accessions based on morpho-agronomic and biomass quality traits and to identify promising genotypes for obtaining hybrids with high energetic biomass production capacity. The experiment was installed at experimental area of the State Agricultural College Antônio Sarlo, in Campos dos Goytacazes. Fifty-two elephant grass genotypes were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replicates...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
V B Silva, R F Daher, M S B Araújo, Y P Souza, S Cassaro, B R S Menezes, L M Gravina, A A C Novo, F D Tardin, A T Amaral Júnior
Genetically improved cultivars of elephant grass need to be adapted to different ecosystems with a faster growth speed and lower seasonality of biomass production over the year. This study aimed to use selection indices using mixed models (REML/BLUP) for selecting families and progenies within full-sib families of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for biomass production. One hundred and twenty full-sib progenies were assessed from 2014 to 2015 in a randomized block design with three replications. During this period, the traits dry matter production, the number of tillers, plant height, stem diameter, and neutral detergent fiber were assessed...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Bruce M Rothschild
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
Jeffrey B Doty, Jean M Malekani, Lem's N Kalemba, William T Stanley, Benjamin P Monroe, Yoshinori U Nakazawa, Matthew R Mauldin, Trésor L Bakambana, Tobit Liyandja Dja Liyandja, Zachary H Braden, Ryan M Wallace, Divin V Malekani, Andrea M McCollum, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Ashley Kondas, A Townsend Peterson, Jorge E Osorio, Tonie E Rocke, Kevin L Karem, Ginny L Emerson, Darin S Carroll
During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax). Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages...
October 3, 2017: Viruses
Tobias Derfuss, Ludwig Kappos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Lancet Neurology
Sara Spotorno, Benjamin W Tatler
We examined the extent to which semantic informativeness, consistency with expectations and perceptual salience contribute to object prioritization in scene viewing and representation. In scene viewing (Experiments 1-2), semantic guidance overshadowed perceptual guidance in determining fixation order, with the greatest prioritization for objects that were diagnostic of the scene's depicted event. Perceptual properties affected selection of consistent objects (regardless of their informativeness) but not of inconsistent objects...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Zwi G Weinberg, Richard Fethiere, Adegbola Adesogan, Lynn Sollenberger
The tensile strength (TS) of four warm-season and three cool-season forage grasses was measured with an Instron Universal machine, along with cell-wall analysis and determination of in vitro organic matter digestibility. The mean TS of the warm-season grasses was significantly higher than that of the cool season grasses (22 vs. 9 kg, respectively, p < .05). The concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were significantly greater in the warm- than in the cool-season grasses (p < ...
October 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
Jonathan M Hemli, Allan Mattia, Eden Payabyab, Yuriy Dudiy, S Jacob Scheinerman, Derek R Brinster
Arterial cannulation in acute DeBakey type I dissection can be difficult. Moreover, the residual dissected aorta is susceptible to further adverse events in the future. Implanting a stent-graft into the descending aorta during the initial dissection repair ('frozen elephant trunk') has been demonstrated to promote favourable aortic remodelling, mitigating some of these longer-term complications. We describe a technique for cannulation of the ascending aorta in acute dissection that facilitates expeditious antegrade deployment of a frozen elephant trunk...
September 15, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Gregory Murdoch, Alan D Clift, Sarah Mansfield
The accumulated damage from elephant weevil larvae, Orthorhinus cylindrirostris (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces blueberry yield and shortens the productive lifespan of blueberry plants by several years. Selective breeding to develop pest-resistant blueberry cultivars is a possible control option, but the relationship between O. cylindrirostris populations, plant damage, and blueberry yield has not been described. A field survey of 17 blueberry cultivars was conducted on a commercial farm to measure O...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Tamer Ghazy, Sandra Mikulasch, Christian Reeps, Ralf-Thorsten Hoffmann, Kasia Wijatkowska, Abdel-Hannan Diab, Utz Kappert, Klaus Matschke, Norbert Weiss, Adrian Mahlmann
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the early and mid-term clinical results, the device performance, and the mid-term re-intervention rates of patients suffering blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) managed by a multidisciplinary team in a low-volume BTAI centre. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study in a tertiary hospital setting. From December 2005 to March 2016, all patients over 18 years old admitted with BTAI were included in the study...
September 25, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Davide L Vetrano, Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga, Alessandra Marengoni, Graziano Onder, Jürgen M Bauer, Matteo Cesari, Luigi Ferrucci, Laura Fratiglioni
Multimorbidity is a common and burdensome condition that may affect quality of life, increase medical needs and make people live more years of life with disability. Negative outcomes related to multimorbidity occur beyond what we would expect from the summed effect of single conditions, as chronic diseases interact with each other, mutually enhancing their negative effects, and eventually leading to new clinical phenotypes. Moreover, multimorbidity mirrors an accelerated global susceptibility and a loss of resilience, which are both hallmarks of aging...
September 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Elena M Panova, Alexandr V Agafonov
The research on imitation in the animal kingdom has more than a century-long history. A specific kind of imitation, auditory-vocal imitation, is well known in birds, especially among songbirds and parrots, but data for mammals are limited to elephants, marine mammals, and humans. Cetaceans are reported to imitate various signals, including species-specific calls, artificial sounds, and even vocalizations from other species if they share the same habitat. Here we describe the changes in the vocal repertoire of a beluga whale that was housed with a group of bottlenose dolphins...
November 2017: Animal Cognition
Fiona French, Clara Mancini, Helen Sharp
This paper investigates the potential for using technology to support the development of sensory and cognitive enrichment activities for captive elephants. It explores the usefulness of applying conceptual frameworks from interaction design and game design to the problem of developing species-specific smart toys that promote natural behaviours and provide stimulation. We adopted a Research through Design approach, and describe how scientific inquiry supported our design process, while the creation of artefacts guided our investigations into possible future solutions...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Watsapon Wattanasuepsin, Bungonsiri Intra, Akira Také, Yuki Inahashi, Jirayut Euanorasetr, Satoshi Ōmura, Atsuko Matsumoto, Watanalai Panbangred
A non-Streptomyces actinomycete, designated as strain S265T, was isolated from rhizosphere collected under an elephant ear plant (Colocasia esculenta) in Bangkok, Thailand. The taxonomic position of this strain was determined by a polyphasic approach. Strain S265T formed single globose spores on long, branching, aerial hyphae. It produced abundant aerial mycelium with green colour. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, and diagnostic whole-cell sugars were arabinose and galactose. Phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol were detected predominantly as polar lipids, whereas mycolic acids were not found...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Margot Camoin, Arthur Kocher, Piangjai Chalermwong, Sarawut Yangtarra, Nikorn Thongtip, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Marc Desquesnes
Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, is widespread in domestic livestock and wildlife in South East Asia. Surra can affect cattle, buffaloes, horses and also Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Despite the 'threatened to extinction' CITES status of elephant, surra's impact has not been thoroughly assessed yet in this species. This work offers to adapt an antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol, to detect Trypanosoma evansi antibodies in elephant serum. The test was validated with 365 negative-reference samples, which allowed the determination of a 16% positive threshold...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
Elena Stagni, Simona Normando, Barbara de Mori
Space allowance and resource dispersion is recognised as an important factor affecting the welfare of elephants in captivity. In the present pilot study, we investigated distances kept among individuals in an artificially created semi-captive mixed-sex group of African elephants, when individuals were free to disperse. The study involved a herd of six elephants, three females (aged 11 to 16years), and three males (aged 15 to 23years). They were observed through instantaneous scan sampling in order to assess distances between individuals and body orientation in space and through continuous focal animal sampling to assess inter-specific social behaviour and general activity...
September 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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