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Adventitious root*

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438577/a-bahd-acyltransferase-catalyzing-19-o-acetylation-of-tabersonine-derivatives-in-roots-of-catharanthus-roseus-enables-combinatorial-synthesis-of-monoterpene-indole-alkaloids
#1
Inês Carqueijeiro, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Arnaud Lanoue, Thu-Thuy Dang, Christiana Teijaro, Christian Paetz, Kevin Billet, Angela Mosquera, Audrey Oudin, Sébastien Besseau, Nicolas Papon, Gaëlle Glévarec, Lucia Atehortùa, Marc Clastre, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Bernd Schneider, Benoit St-Pierre, Rodrigo B Andrade, Sarah E O'Connor, Vincent Courdavault
While the characterization of the biosynthetic pathway of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) in leaves of Catharanthus roseus is now reaching completion, only two enzymes from the root counterpart dedicated to tabersonine metabolism have been identified to date, namely tabersonine 19-hydroxylase (T19H) and minovincine 19-O-acetyltransferase (MAT). Albeit the recombinant MAT catalyzes MIA acetylation at low efficiency in vitro, we demonstrated that MAT was inactive when expressed in yeast and in planta, suggesting an alternative function for this enzyme...
February 13, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432208/transcriptome-profiling-reveals-an-iaa-regulated-response-to-adventitious-root-formation-in-lotus-seedling
#2
Cheng Libao, Jiang Runzhi, Yang Jianjun, Xu Xiaoyong, Zeng Haitao, Li Shuyan
Adventitious roots (ARs) of lotus (Nelumbonucifera Gaertn.) play a critical role in water and nutrient uptake. We found that exogenously applied 10-μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) promoted the formation of ARs, while 150-μM IAA significantly inhibited the emergence of ARs. However, little is known about these different responses to various concentrations of IAA at the molecular level. This study, therefore, examined the gene expression profiling in four libraries treated with 10- and 150-μM IAA based on the high-throughout tag sequencing technique...
February 12, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425277/global-analysis-of-an-exponential-model-of-cell-proliferation-for-estimation-of-cell-cycle-duration-in-the-root-apical-meristem-of-angiosperms
#3
Natalia V Zhukovskaya, Elena I Bystrova, Joseph G Dubrovsky, Victor B Ivanov
Background and Aims: Information on cell cycle duration (T) in the root apical meristem (RAM) provides insight into root growth, development and evolution. We have previously proposed a simple method for evaluating T based on the dynamics of root growth (V), the number of cells in the RAM (Nm) and the length of fully elongated cells (l), which we named the rate-of-cell-production (RCP) method. Here, a global analysis was performed to confirm the reliability of this method in a range of angiosperm species and to assess the advantages of this approach...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398848/aeroponics-for-adventitious-rhizogenesis-in-evergreen-haloxeric-tree-tamarix-aphylla-l-karst-influence-of-exogenous-auxins-and-cutting-type
#4
Udit Sharma, Vinod Kataria, N S Shekhawat
Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst., a drought resistant halophyte tree, is an agroforestry species which can be used for reclamation of waterlogged saline and marginal lands. Due to very low seed viability and unsuitable conditions for seed germination, the tree is becoming rare in Indian Thar desert. Present study concerns the evaluation of aeroponics technique for vegetative propagation of T. aphylla. Effect of various exogenous auxins (indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, naphthalene acetic acid) at different concentrations (0...
February 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378021/localized-gene-expression-changes-during-adventitious-root-formation-in-black-walnut-juglans-nigra-l
#5
Micah E Stevens, Keith E Woeste, Paula M Pijut
Cutting propagation plays a large role in the forestry and horticulture industries where superior genotypes need to be clonally multiplied. Integral to this process is the ability of cuttings to form adventitious roots. Recalcitrance to adventitious root development is a serious hurdle for many woody plant propagation systems including black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), an economically valuable species. The inability of black walnut to reliably form adventitious roots limits propagation of superior genotypes...
January 25, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361138/the-wox11-lbd16-pathway-promotes-pluripotency-acquisition-in-callus-cells-during-de-novo-shoot-regeneration-in-arabidopsis-tissue-culture
#6
Jie Liu, Xiaomei Hu, Peng Qin, Kalika Prasad, Yuxin Hu, Lin Xu
De novo shoot regeneration in tissue culture experiences at least two phases. Explants are first cultured on auxin rich callus-inducing medium (CIM) to produce a group of pluripotent cells termed callus; the callus is then transferred to cytokinin rich shoot-inducing medium (SIM) to promote the formation of shoot progenitor cells, from which adventitious shoots may differentiate. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor gene LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN16 (LBD16) is involved in pluripotency acquisition in callus cells...
January 18, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354371/high-frequency-plant-regeneration-from-cotyledonary-node-explants-of-cucumis-sativus-l-cultivar-green-long-via-adventitious-shoot-organogenesis-and-assessment-of-genetic-fidelity-by-rapd-pcr-technology
#7
Perumal Venkatachalam, Udayabhanu Jinu, Palanivel Sangeetha, Natesan Geetha, Shivendra Vikram Sahi
Influence of cytokinins, silver nitrate (AgNO3) and auxins on plant regeneration from cucumber was investigated. The cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS medium augmented with various concentrations (0.5-2.5 mg l-1) of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN) for shoot bud induction. BAP at 1.5 mg l-1 was found to be the best concentration for induction of high frequency of multiple shoots (98.4%). Interestingly, maximum percent of multiple shoot regeneration (100%) as well as number of shoot buds (54...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349493/biotic-elicitation-of-ginsenoside-metabolism-of-mutant-adventitious-root-culture-in-panax-ginseng
#8
Kim-Cuong Le, Wan-Taek Im, Kee-Yoeup Paek, So-Young Park
Biotic elicitation is an important biotechnological strategy for triggering the accumulation of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures. These biotic elicitors can be obtained from safe, economically important strains of bacteria found in the rhizosphere and fermented foods. Here, we assayed the effects of filtered cultures of five nitrogen-fixing bacteria and four types of fermentation bacteria on mutant adventitious Panax ginseng root cultures induced in a previous study by colchicine treatment...
January 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315927/the-major-effect-qtl-csarn6-1-encodes-an-aaa-atpase-domain-containing-protein-that-is-associated-with-waterlogging-stress-tolerance-through-promoting-adventitious-root-formation
#9
Xuewen Xu, Jing Ji, Qiang Xu, Xiaohua Qi, Yiqun Weng, Xuehao Chen
In plants, the formation of hypocotyl-derived adventitious roots (AR) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress; however, its genetic basis remains fragmentary. Here, through combined use of bulked segregant analysis-based whole genome sequencing, SNP haplotyping and fine genetic mapping, we identified a candidate gene for a major-effect QTL ARN6.1 that was responsible for waterlogging tolerance due to increased AR formation in the cucumber line Zaoer-N. Through multiple lines of evidence, we show that the CsARN6...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305802/effect-of-water-cadmium-concentration-and-water-level-on-the-growth-performance-of-salix-triandroides-cuttings
#10
Xin Yao, Fengfeng Ma, Youzhi Li, Xiaohui Ding, Dongsheng Zou, Yandong Niu, Hualin Bian, Jiajun Deng
The growth performance of Salix triandroides cuttings at three water cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 20, and 40 mg L-1) and three water levels (- 40 cm, water level 40 cm below the soil surface; 0 cm, water level even with the soil surface; and 40 cm, water level 40 cm above soil surface) was investigated to evaluate its potential in phytoextraction strategies. Compared to cuttings in the - 40 or 0 cm water levels, cuttings in the 40 cm water level showed significantly lower biomass, height, and adventitious root length and significantly fewer leaves and adventitious roots...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284164/current-practices-in-the-management-of-postoperative-arterial-vasospasm-in-microsurgery
#11
Sergey Y Turin, Robert L Walton, Gregory A Dumanian, John B Hijjawi, John A LoGiudice, Mohammed Alghoul
BACKGROUND:  Postoperative microvascular arterial vasospasm is a rare clinical entity. There are no published management algorithms and also the pathophysiology of this phenomenon has not been elucidated. METHODS:  An email survey of American Society for Reconstructive Microsurgery (ASRM) and World Society for Reconstructive Microsurgery (WSRM) members regarding their experiences with postoperative arterial vasospasm was conducted, returning 116 responses. A comprehensive literature search was conducted regarding the current body of knowledge on this entity...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273862/heterorhizy-and-fine-root-architecture-of-rabbiteye-blueberry-vaccinium-virgatum-softwood-cuttings
#12
Takashi Baba, Satoshi Nakaba, Satoshi Noma, Ryo Funada, Takuya Ban
All fine root systems consist of individual fine roots. Individual roots have morphological, anatomical, and functional heterogeneity (heterorhizy). Heterorhizy plays crucial roles in plant ecosystems. However, in many species, the heterorhizy and fine root system architecture based on individual root units are unclear. This study investigated heterorhizy along the root system architecture of Vaccinium virgatum Ait (rabbiteye blueberry) softwood-cuttings (propagated from annual shoots in growing season) using protoxylem groups (PGs), a classification according to the number of protoxylem poles, as an indicator of individual root traits...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249063/the-application-of-plant-in-vitro-cultures-in-cannabinoid-production
#13
REVIEW
Tomasz Wróbel, Mariola Dreger, Karolina Wielgus, Ryszard Słomski
Cannabinoids have considerable interest in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the production of medicines from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in most countries is restricted by law. Large-scale, field cultivation of hemp is difficult to control. Cannabinoid content in plants is variable and depends on multiple factors. Therefore, alternative methods of production have been investigated. The development of micropropagation techniques is a necessary step for genetic modification. Promising results have been obtained for certain narcotic genotypes...
December 16, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243424/-tissue-culture-of-callus-and-establishment-of-regeneration-system-of-tussilago-farfara-petiole
#14
Ji-Wen Ren, Ying Lei, Xiao-Ling Li
Young petiole of Tussilago farfara was used as the material to investigate the plant growth regulators which could influence in vitro culture and plant regeneration and to establish rapid propagation technique. The ideal sterilization method was that young petiole of T. farfara was sterilized with 75% ethanol for 30 s, and then transferred to saturated bleaching power supernatant for 15 min. The suitable medium for callus induction was MS+6-BA 3.0 mg•L⁻¹+2,4-D 2.0 mg•L⁻¹ with 96.2% induction rate...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242375/control-of-adventitious-root-architecture-in-rice-by-darkness-light-and-gravity
#15
Chen Lin, Margret Sauter
Rice is a semiaquatic plant that is well adapted to partial flooding. Rice stems develop adventitious root (AR) primordia at each node that slowly mature but emerge only when the plant gets flooded leading to the formation of a whole new secondary root system upon flooding. AR growth is induced by ethylene that accumulates in submerged plant tissues due to its lowered diffusion rate in water. Here we report that the architecture of the secondary root system in flooded rice plants is not only controlled by altered gas diffusion but also by gravity and light...
December 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194427/control-of-endogenous-auxin-levels-in-plant-root-development
#16
REVIEW
Damilola Olatunji, Danny Geelen, Inge Verstraeten
In this review, we summarize the different biosynthesis-related pathways that contribute to the regulation of endogenous auxin in plants. We demonstrate that all known genes involved in auxin biosynthesis also have a role in root formation, from the initiation of a root meristem during embryogenesis to the generation of a functional root system with a primary root, secondary lateral root branches and adventitious roots. Furthermore, the versatile adaptation of root development in response to environmental challenges is mediated by both local and distant control of auxin biosynthesis...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186815/characterization-of-the-transcriptome-and-gene-expression-of-tetraploid-black-locust-cuttings-in-response-to-etiolation
#17
(no author information available yet)
Etiolation (a process of growing plants in partial or complete absence of light) promotes adventitious root formation in tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) cuttings. We investigated the mechanism underlying how etiolation treatment promotes adventitious root formation in tetraploid black locust and assessed global transcriptional changes after etiolation treatment. Solexa paired-end sequencing of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from control (non-etiolated, NE) and etiolated (E) samples resulted in 107,564 unigenes...
November 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160805/indole-3-butyric-acid-induces-ectopic-formation-of-metaxylem-in-the-hypocotyl-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-without-conversion-into-indole-3-acetic-acid-and-with-a-positive-interaction-with-ethylene
#18
Laura Fattorini, Federica Della Rovere, Eleonora Andreini, Marilena Ronzan, Giuseppina Falasca, Maria Maddalena Altamura
The role of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and of the auxin-interacting phytohormone ethylene, on the ectopic formation of primary xylem (xylogenesis in planta) is still little known. In particular, auxin/ethylene-target tissue(s), modality of the xylary process (trans-differentiation vs. de novo formation), and the kind of ectopic elements formed (metaxylem vs. protoxylem) are currently unknown. It is also unclear whether IBA may act on the process independently of conversion into IAA...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158642/insights-into-nuclear-dna-content-hydrogen-peroxide-and-antioxidative-enzyme-activities-during-transverse-thin-cell-layer-organogenesis-and-ex-vitro-acclimatization-of-malaxis-wallichii-a-threatened-medicinal-orchid
#19
Biswajit Bose, Suman Kumaria, Hiranjit Choudhury, Pramod Tandon
Malaxis wallichii (Lindl.) Deb, a small, perennial, monopodial, terrestrial orchid, is endemic to tropical Himalayas at an altitude of 1200-2000 m asl. The pseudobulbs are important ingredients of century old drug 'Ashtavarga' and a polyherbal energetic tonic 'Chyavanprash'. An efficient genetically stable in vitro propagation protocol using transverse thin cell layer culture system was established for M. wallichii. In the present report, meta-topolin alone proved to be three times more beneficial compared to other routinely used cytokinins in inducing highest number of shoot buds, plant height and growth of regenerated shoots...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138909/improvement-of-biosynthesis-and-accumulation-of-bioactive-compounds-by-elicitation-in-adventitious-root-cultures-of-polygonum-multiflorum
#20
Thanh-Tam Ho, Jong-Du Lee, Cheol-Seung Jeong, Kee-Yoeup Paek, So-Young Park
We examined the effects of abiotic (methyl jasmonate [MeJA] and salicylic acid [SA]) and biotic (yeast extract and chitosan) elicitors for improvement of bioactive compounds production on adventitious root cultures in Polygonum multiflorum. The application of yeast extract resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher dry root biomass (9.98 g/L) and relative growth rate versus the control. Cultures treated with abiotic elicitors showed higher percentage of dry weight than the other samples. Low concentrations of all elicitors (50 μM MeJA and SA, and 50 mg/L yeast extract) improved secondary metabolite production except for chitosan, whose performance was worse than that of the control...
November 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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