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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679303/do-the-sglt-2-inhibitors-offer-more-than-hypoglycemic-activity
#1
REVIEW
Eduardo Flores, Carlos G Santos-Gallego, Nely Diaz-Mejía, Juan Jose Badimon
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic health conditions in the USA; it affects approximately 10% of adults with up to one-quarter being undiagnosed. T2DM is associated with substantial cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. T2DM is a pathological condition characterized by elevated levels of glucose and associated with high CV risk. Traditional hypoglycemic drugs have demonstrated their capability for effective and maintained management of high glucose levels, but they have not significantly impacted on the incidence of CV events...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675798/a-systematic-literature-review-and-network-meta-analysis-comparing-once-weekly-semaglutide-with-other-glp-1-receptor-agonists-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-previously-receiving-1-2-oral-anti-diabetic-drugs
#2
Michal Witkowski, Lars Wilkinson, Neil Webb, Alan Weids, Divina Glah, Hrvoje Vrazic
INTRODUCTION: Once-weekly semaglutide is a new glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue administered at a 1.0 or 0.5 mg dose. As head-to-head trials assessing once-weekly semaglutide as an add-on to 1-2 oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) vs other GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are limited, a network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed. The objective was to assess the relative efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide vs GLP-1 RAs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) inadequately controlled on 1-2 OADs...
April 19, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668697/efficacy-and-safety-of-biosimilar-insulins-compared-to-their-reference-products-a-systematic-review
#3
Carolyn Tieu, Eleanor J Lucas, Mindi DePaola, Lori Rosman, G Caleb Alexander
IMPORTANCE: For nearly a century, no generic form of insulin has been available in the United States. However, the first biosimilar insulin, Basaglar, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2015, and subsequently Admelog and Lusduna in 2017. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the scientific evidence comparing the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of biosimilar and reference insulin products. DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic review using PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Latin America and Caribbean Health Sciences, South Asian Database of Controlled Clinical Trials, and IndiaMED from their inception through January 14, 2018...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665787/valproic-acid-sensitizes-metformin-resistant-human-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells-by-upregulating-h3-acetylation-and-emt-reversal
#4
Muyun Wei, Shaowei Mao, Guoliang Lu, Liang Li, Xiaopeng Lan, Zhongxian Huang, Yougen Chen, Miaoqing Zhao, Yueran Zhao, Qinghua Xia
BACKGROUND: Metformin (Met) is a widely available diabetic drug and shows suppressed effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metabolism and proliferation. Laboratory studies in RCC suggested that metformin has remarkable antitumor activities and seems to be a potential antitumor drug. But the facts that metformin may be not effective in reducing the risk of RCC in cancer clinical trials made it difficult to determine the benefits of metformin in RCC prevention and treatment. The mechanisms underlying the different conclusions between laboratory experiments and clinical analysis remains unclear...
April 17, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664530/-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-smoking-cessation
#5
María Paz Corvalán B, Leonardo Véjar M, Claudia Bambs S, Juana Pavié G, Mónica Zagolin B, Jaime Cerda L
Considering that a high proportion of the Chilean general population smokes, the Chilean Society of Respiratory Diseases in collaboration with the Chilean Societies of Cardiology and, Endocrinology and Diabetes, formed an interdisciplinary group, who issued a set of recommendations for the treatment of the smoker, methodologically advised by experts. These interventions should be prioritized in high-risk groups. Methods The panel elaborated and graded the recommendations following the GRADE methodology. To assess the effect of each intervention, systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials were identified...
November 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664406/racial-differences-in-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-heart-failure-and-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-the-treatment-of-preserved-cardiac-function-heart-failure-trial
#6
Eldrin F Lewis, Brian Claggett, Amil M Shah, Jiankang Liu, Sanjiv J Shah, Inder Anand, Eileen O'Meara, Nancy K Sweitzer, Jean L Rouleau, James C Fang, Akshay S Desai, Tamrat M Retta, Scott D Solomon, John F Heitner, Thomas D Stamos, Robin Boineau, Bertram Pitt, Marc A Pfeffer
BACKGROUND: Black patients have been shown to have different baseline characteristics and outcomes compared with nonblack patients in cohort studies. However, few studies have focused on heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients. We aimed to determine the difference in cardiovascular outcomes in black and nonblack patients with HFpEF and to determine the relative efficacy and safety of spironolactone in black and nonblack patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with HFpEF, randomized to spironolactone versus placebo in the TOPCAT trial (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) in North and South America, were grouped according to self-described black and nonblack race...
March 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663893/sglt-2-inhibition-novel-therapeutics-for-reno-and-cardioprotection-in-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Angus Gill, Stephen P Gray, Karin A Jandeleit-Dahm, Anna M D Watson
BACKGROUND: The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is primarily located within S1 of the renal proximal tubule being responsible for approximately 90% of glucose re-uptake in the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 is an exciting new pharmacological approach for the reduction of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients via inhibition of tubular glucose reabsorption. In addition to lowering glucose, this group of drugs has shown significant cardiovascular and renal protective effects. CONCLUSION: This review aims to outline the current state of preclinical research and clinical trials for different SGLT2 inhibitors and outline some of the proposed mechanisms of action, including possible effects on sympathetic nerve activity, which may contribute to the unexpected beneficial cardiovascular and reno-protective effects of this class of compounds...
April 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663292/the-potential-role-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Hadi Fattah, Volker Vallon
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a difficult disease to treat due to the relative paucity of therapeutic options other than injectable insulin. The latter, however, can induce hypoglycemia, which has been linked to enhanced cardiovascular risk. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral anti-hyperglycemic medications that do not increase the hypoglycemia risk and are US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. SGLT2 inhibitors may also be of benefit in type 1 diabetic patients, in addition to insulin, although they have not yet been approved for this indication...
April 16, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661588/impact-of-metabolic-diseases-drugs-and-dietary-factors-on-prostate-cancer-risk-recurrence-and-survival-a-systematic-review-by-the-european-association-of-urology-section-of-oncological-urology
#9
REVIEW
Riccardo Campi, Sabine D Brookman-May, Jose Daniel Subiela Henríquez, Bülent Akdoğan, Maurizio Brausi, Tobias Klatte, Johan F Langenhuijsen, Estefania Linares-Espinos, Martin Marszalek, Morgan Roupret, Christian G Stief, Alessandro Volpe, Andrea Minervini, Oscar Rodriguez-Faba
CONTEXT: To date, established risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa) are limited to age, race, family history, and certain genetic polymorphisms. Despite great research efforts, available evidence on potentially modifiable risk factors is conflicting. Moreover, most studies on PCa risk factors did not consider the impact of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on PCa diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To provide a detailed overview of the latest evidence on the role of metabolic diseases, drugs, and dietary factors for risk of PCa incidence, recurrence, and survival in men exposed to PSA testing...
April 13, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658914/visualization-and-quantification-of-mesenchymal-cell-adipogenic-differentiation-potential-with-a-lineage-specific-marker
#10
Jennifer Eom, Vaughan Feisst, Louis Ranjard, Kerry Loomes, Tanvi Damani, Victoria Jackson-Patel, Michelle Locke, Hilary Sheppard, Pritika Narayan, P Rod Dunbar
Several dyes are currently available for use in detecting differentiation of mesenchymal cells into adipocytes. Dyes, such as Oil Red O, are cheap, easy to use and widely utilized by laboratories analyzing the adipogenic potential of mesenchymal cells. However, they are not specific to changes in gene transcription. We have developed a gene-specific differentiation assay to analyze when a mesenchymal cell has switched its fate to an adipogenic lineage. Immuno-labelling against fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), a lineage-specific marker of adipogenic differentiation, enabled visualization and quantification of differentiated cells...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658833/gonadopenia-and-aging-in-men
#11
Sandeep Singh Dhindsa, Michael S Irwig, Kathleen Wyne
OBJECTIVE: The decrease in testosterone levels that occurs with aging has become an important clinical issue both due to the growth of the geriatric population and patient interest in testosterone therapy. The decision to assess for testosterone deficiency and the ability to determine whether the benefits exceed the risks require a comprehensive evaluation of the aging patient. This article is part of a series of papers focused on the endocrinology of aging. This review addresses common issues needed for clinical decision making, including how to interpret test results, differential diagnosis, potential impact of testosterone treatment on insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, and options for therapy...
April 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658280/-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials-with-observational-follow-up-investigations-for-evaluating-efficacy-of-antihyperglycaemic-treatment-ii-features-of-and-lessons-from-the-follow-up-investigations
#12
György Jermendy
Although the outcomes of the follow-up investigation period of the randomized clinical studies for evaluating the efficacy of a treatment or an antidiabetic drug may be confounded or potentially biased by several factors, the results are widely accepted by the diabetes community. In line with the theory of metabolic memory or metabolic legacy, early and intensive antihyperglycaemic treatment should be provided for all diabetic patients as this strategy can result in beneficial effects even in the long run. The recent cardiovascular safety trials with new, innovative antidiabetic drugs differ in several aspects from the former efficacy studies...
April 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652246/metformin-in-non-diabetic-hyperglycaemia-the-glint-feasibility-rct
#13
Simon J Griffin, M Angelyn Bethel, Rury R Holman, Kamlesh Khunti, Nicholas Wareham, Gwen Brierley, Melanie Davies, Andrew Dymond, Rose Eichenberger, Philip Evans, Alastair Gray, Colin Greaves, Kyla Harrington, Graham Hitman, Greg Irving, Sarah Lessels, Ann Millward, John R Petrie, Martin Rutter, Mike Sampson, Naveed Sattar, Stephen Sharp
BACKGROUND: The treatment of people with diabetes with metformin can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may reduce the risk of cancer. However, it is unknown whether or not metformin can reduce the risk of these outcomes in people with elevated blood glucose levels below the threshold for diabetes [i.e. non-diabetic hyperglycaemia (NDH)]. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of the Glucose Lowering In Non-diabetic hyperglycaemia Trial (GLINT) and to estimate the key parameters to inform the design of the full trial...
April 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650340/longitudinal-evaluation-of-efficacy-safety-and-nutritional-status-during-one-year-treatment-with-the-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-liner
#14
Nina Riedel, Katharina Laubner, Anne Lautenbach, Gerhard Schön, Matthias Schlensak, Rainer Stengel, Thomas Eberl, Frank Dederichs, Jens Aberle, Jochen Seufert
BACKGROUND: The endoscopic duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) represents a novel temporary endoscopic approach for treatment of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes. Recent results from the German DJBL registry confirmed substantial positive metabolic effects of the DJBL in type 2 diabetes. However, the last Food and Drug Administration trial was stopped due to a high occurrence of hepatic abscesses (3.5%). OBJECTIVES: Here, we analyzed time courses of development of co-morbidities, nutritive changes, and occurrence of adverse events during the 1-year treatment phase with the DJBL in the German DJBL registry...
March 9, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650275/metformin-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-opportunities-and-pitfalls
#15
REVIEW
Antonin Levy, Jérôme Doyen
Despite exciting advances of the anticancer armamentarium in the recent years, mortality of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains high and novel treatments are requisite. Therapy intensification is explored with promising, but expensive and potentially toxic new compounds. Repositioning already existing drugs for cancer treatment could save money and improve patient outcomes in specific contexts. Observational data suggest that use of the standard antidiabetic agent metformin decreases lung cancer incidence and mortality...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649541/efficacy-and-safety-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-moderate-renal-function-impairment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Lin Zhang, Mei Zhang, Qingguo Lv, Nanwei Tong
AIMS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and moderate renal function impairment. METHODS: Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Central were searched, and randomized controlled trials comparing SGLT2 inhibitors to placebos and other drugs for T2D were collected. RESULTS: Seven RCTs with a total of 3,307 participants were included, and the overall bias was low...
April 9, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649130/separation-identification-and-antidiabetic-activity-of-catechin-isolated-from-arbutus-unedo-l-plant-roots
#17
Hanae Naceiri Mrabti, Nidal Jaradat, Ismail Fichtali, Wessal Ouedrhiri, Shehdeh Jodeh, Samar Ayesh, Yahia Cherrah, My El Abbes Faouzi
Phytopharmaceuticals play an essential role in medicine, since the need to investigate highly effective and safe drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus disease remains a significant challenge for modern medicine. Arbutus unedo L. root has various therapeutic properties, and has been used widely in the traditional medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The current study aimed to isolate the pharmacologically active compound from A. unedo roots using accelerated solvent extraction technology, to determine its chemical structure using different instrumental analytical methods, and also to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity...
April 12, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623219/management-strategies-for-posttransplant-diabetes-mellitus-after-heart-transplantation-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Matthew G Cehic, Nishant Nundall, Jerry R Greenfield, Peter S Macdonald
Posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a well-recognized complication of heart transplantation and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have yielded wide ranging estimates in the incidence of PTDM due in part to variable definitions applied. In addition, there is a limited published data on the management of PTDM after heart transplantation and a paucity of studies examining the effects of newer classes of hypoglycaemic drug therapies. In this review, we discuss the role of established glucose-lowering therapies and the rationale and emerging clinical evidence that supports the role of incretin-based therapies (glucagon like peptide- (GLP-) 1 agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase- (DPP-) 4 inhibitors) and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in the management of PTDM after heart transplantation...
2018: Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621740/glucose-lowering-treatment-in-cardiovascular-and-peripheral-artery-disease
#19
REVIEW
Rosa Suades, Francesco Cosentino, Lina Badimon
Diabetes-induced hyperglycemia is a causal factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and, specifically, peripheral artery disease (PAD). Metformin is the cornerstone drug therapy for glucose-lowering that exerts beneficial effects beyond glycemic control. New glucose-lowering drugs have recently been shown cardiovascular benefits and their impact on CVD risk is of increasing importance. Current guidelines recommend these novel therapies as second-line options for patients with diabetes and established CVD. Given the prevalence of CVD in this population, a complete understanding of the cardiovascular safety/efficacy of glucose-lowering drugs is needed...
April 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605893/does-real-world-use-of-liraglutide-match-its-use-in-the-leader-cardiovascular-outcome-trial-study-protocol
#20
William Hinton, Michael Feher, Neil Munro, Simon de Lusignan
BACKGROUND: Liraglutide is an injectable therapy to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM), belonging to the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist class of drugs. The Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial established that liraglutide demonstrated glucose-lowering benefits and improved cardiovascular outcomes in those individuals with T2DM at high cardiovascular risk. AIMS: The aim of this study is to report the prevalence and characteristics of people treated with liraglutide compared with the LEADER trial...
March 31, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
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