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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526416/treatment-strategy-for-type-2-diabetes-with-obesity-focus-on-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists
#1
REVIEW
Qiuhe Ji
PURPOSE: The progressive nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) calls for step-wise intensification of therapy for maintaining normal glycemic levels and lowering cardiovascular (CV) risk. Because obesity is a prominent risk factor and comorbidity of T2DM, it further elevates the CV risk in T2DM. Therefore, it is vital to manage weight, obesity, and glycemic parameters for effective T2DM management. Few oral antidiabetic drugs (sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones) and insulin are not suitable for obese patients with T2DM because these drugs cause weight gain...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526186/cardiovascular-protection-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-a-review-of-clinical-trial-results-across-drug-classes
#2
Francesco Paneni, Thomas F Lüscher
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have a significantly higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD)-namely myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. Despite clear advances in the prevention and treatment of CVD, the impact of T2DM on CVD outcome remains high and continues to escalate. Available evidence indicates that the risk of macrovascular complications increases with the severity of hyperglycemia, thus suggesting that the relation between metabolic disturbances and vascular damage is approximately linear...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526181/empa-reg-outcome-the-cardiologist-s-point-of%C3%A2-view
#3
Son V Pham, Robert Chilton
Cardiologists could view empagliflozin as a cardiovascular drug that also has a beneficial effect on reducing hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The effects of empagliflozin in lowering the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in T2DM patients with high cardiovascular risk during the recent Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial may be explained principally in terms of changes to cardiovascular physiology; namely, by the potential ability of empagliflozin to reduce cardiac workload and myocardial oxygen consumption by lowering blood pressure, improving aortic compliance, and improving ventricular arterial coupling...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526024/protective-effect-on-the-coronary-microcirculation-of-patients-with-diabetes-by-clopidogrel-or-ticagrelor-predict-study-rationale-and-design-a-randomized-multicenter-clinical-trial-using-intracoronary-multimodal-physiology
#4
Enrico Cerrato, Alicia Quirós, Mauro Echavarría-Pinto, Hernan Mejia-Renteria, Andres Aldazabal, Nicola Ryan, Nieves Gonzalo, Pilar Jimenez-Quevedo, Luis Nombela-Franco, Pablo Salinas, Iván J Núñez-Gil, José Ramón Rumoroso, Antonio Fernández-Ortiz, Carlos Macaya, Javier Escaned
BACKGROUND: In diabetic patients a predisposed coronary microcirculation along with a higher risk of distal particulate embolization during primary percutaneous intervention (PCI) increases the risk of peri-procedural microcirculatory damage. However, new antiplatelet agents, in particular Ticagrelor, may protect the microcirculation through its adenosine-mediated vasodilatory effects. METHODS: PREDICT is an original, prospective, randomized, multicenter controlled study designed to investigate the protective effect of Ticagrelor on the microcirculation during PCI in patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 or pre-diabetic status...
May 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526014/the-use-of-lipid-lowering-therapy-and-effects-of-antihyperglycaemic-therapy-on-lipids-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-with-or-without-cardiovascular-disease-a-pooled-analysis-of-data-from-eleven-randomized-trials-with-insulin-glargine-100%C3%A2-u-ml
#5
Markolf Hanefeld, Louise Traylor, Ling Gao, Wolfgang Landgraf
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidaemia is a major contributor to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to characterize the extent of lipid-lowering therapy use and its impact on lipid and glycaemic outcomes in people with T2D uncontrolled on oral agents who were enrolled in insulin glargine 100 units/mL (Gla-100) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: A post hoc patient-level pooled analysis of eleven RCTs (≥24 weeks' duration) comparing Gla-100 (±oral antidiabetes drugs [OADs]) with OADs alone in people with T2D was performed...
May 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522450/lower-risk-of-heart-failure-and-death-in-patients-initiated-on-sglt-2-inhibitors-versus-other-glucose-lowering-drugs-the-cvd-real-study
#6
Mikhail Kosiborod, Matthew A Cavender, Alex Z Fu, John P Wilding, Kamlesh Khunti, Reinhard W Holl, Anna Norhammar, Kåre I Birkeland, Marit Jørgensen, Marcus Thuresson, Niki Arya, Johan Bodegård, Niklas Hammar, Peter Fenici
Background -Reduction in cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) was recently reported with the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i) empagliflozin in type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We compared HHF and death in patients newly initiated on any SGLT-2i versus other glucose lowering drugs (oGLDs) in six countries to determine if these benefits are seen in real-world practice, and across SGLT-2i class. Methods -Data were collected via medical claims, primary care/hospital records and national registries from the US, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and the UK...
May 18, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522196/impact-of-glucose-lowering-therapies-on-risk-of-stroke-in-type-2-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
F Bonnet, A J Scheen
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an increased risk of stroke compared with people without diabetes. However, the effects of glucose-lowering drugs on risk of ischaemic stroke in T2D have been less extensively investigated than in coronary heart disease. Some evidence, including the UKPDS, has suggested a reduced risk of stroke with metformin, although the number of studies is limited. Inhibition of the KATP channels increases ischaemic brain lesions in animals. This is in agreement with a recent meta-analysis showing an increased risk of stroke with sulphonylureas vs...
May 15, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522145/wnt-signaling-a-novel-pathway-regulating-blood-pressure-state-of-the-art-review
#8
REVIEW
Maen D Abou Ziki, Arya Mani
Recent antihypertensive trials show conflicting results on blood pressure (BP) targets in patient populations with different metabolic profiles, with lowest benefit from tight BP control observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This paradox could arise from the heterogeneity of study populations and underscores the importance of precision medicine initiatives towards understanding and treating hypertension. Wnt signaling pathways and genetic variations in its signaling peptides have been recently associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes, generating a breakthrough for advancement of precision medicine in the field of hypertension...
May 4, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521870/the-use-of-statins-alone-or-in-combination-with-pioglitazone-and-other-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-related-cardiovascular-risk-an-expert-panel-statement
#9
REVIEW
Vasilios G Athyros, Theodore K Alexandrides, Helen Bilianou, Evangelos Cholongitas, Michael Doumas, Emmanuel S Ganotakis, John Goudevenos, Moses S Elisaf, Georgios Germanidis, Olga Giouleme, Asterios Karagiannis, Charalambos Karvounis, Niki Katsiki, Vasilios Kotsis, Jannis Kountouras, Evangelos Liberopoulos, Christos Pitsavos, Stergios Polyzos, Loukianos S Rallidis, Dimitrios Richter, Apostolos G Tsapas, Alexandros D Tselepis, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Konstantinos Tziomalos, Themistoklis Tzotzas, Themistoklis G Vasiliadis, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Christos Mantzoros
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disease, is characterized by accumulation of fat (>5% of the liver tissue), in the absence of alcohol abuse or other chronic liver diseases. It is closely related to the epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD can cause liver inflammation and progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Nevertheless, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in NAFLD/NASH patients...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515909/metabolic-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-liver-adipose-and-nervous-system-tissues
#10
Xiaolong Lin, Yuan Bo Liu, Huijun Hu
The hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel polypeptide ligand, which is involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, and contributes significantly to lowering body weight and enhancing insulin sensitivity. A large number of pre-clinical and clinical results demonstrate that FGF21 is a potential drug target for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present review, the tissue specific actions and molecular mechanisms of FGF21 are discussed with a focus on the liver, adipose tissue and nervous system, as well as investigating the outcomes of clinical trials of FGF21, with the aim of interpreting and delineating the complexity physiology of FGF21...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514939/antioxidant-properties-of-drugs-used-in-type-2-diabetes-management-could-they-contribute-to-confound-or-conceal-effects-of-antioxidant-therapy
#11
Siu Wai Choi, Cyrus K Ho
OBJECTIVES: This is a narrative review, investigating the antioxidant properties of drugs used in the management of diabetes, and discusses whether these antioxidant effects contribute to, confound, or conceal the effects of antioxidant therapy. METHODS: A systematic search for articles reporting trials, or observational studies on the antioxidant effect of drugs used in the treatment of diabetes in humans or animals was performed using Web of Science, PubMed, and Ovid...
May 17, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511427/role-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-lipid-profile-in-diabetic-dyslipidaemia-single-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#12
Shaylika Chauhan, Hanish Kodali, Jawad Noor, Karuna Ramteke, Vidisha Gawai
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic dyslipidaemia is characterised by hypertriglyceridaemia, low High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), postprandial lipimea, small and dense LDL particles is considered to be a major predisposing factor for various macrovascular complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are fish oil derivative introduced in the market for dyslipidaemia associated with increased triglyceride level. AIM: To study the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on lipid profile in Type II diabetes patients...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508349/the-contemporary-role-of-stents-and-angioplasty-for-the-treatment-of-infrapopliteal-disease-in-critical-limb-ischemia
#13
REVIEW
Tarek A Hammad, Anand Prasad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and increased health care expenses. Revascularization has a central role in the treatment of CLI. Following publication of BASIL (bypass versus angioplasty in severe ischemia of the leg) trial a decade ago, an "endovascular first" approach had gained momentum and the technologies available for endovascular therapy have exponentially increased. Both the development of technology and technique, highlighted in this review, have allowed operators to treat complex infrapopliteal lesions which are central to CLI pathology...
July 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506979/impact-of-ezetimibe-on-the-rate-of-cardiovascular-related-hospitalizations-and-associated-costs-among-patients-with-a-recent-acute-coronary-syndrome-results-from-the-improve-it-trial-improved-reduction-of-outcomes-vytorin-efficacy-international-trial
#14
Yashashwi Pokharel, Khaja Chinnakondepalli, Katherine Vilain, Kaijun Wang, Daniel B Mark, Glenn Davies, Michael A Blazing, Robert P Giugliano, Eugene Braunwald, Christopher P Cannon, David J Cohen, Elizabeth A Magnuson
BACKGROUND: Ezetimibe, when added to simvastatin therapy, reduces cardiovascular events after recent acute coronary syndrome. However, the impact of ezetimibe on cardiovascular-related hospitalizations and associated costs is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used patient-level data from the IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) to examine the impact of simvastatin-ezetimibe versus simvastatin-placebo on cardiovascular-related hospitalizations and related costs (excluding drug costs) over 7 years follow-up...
May 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506519/sodium-glucose-co-transporters-and-their-inhibition-clinical-physiology
#15
REVIEW
Ele Ferrannini
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) is selectively expressed in the human kidney, where it executes reabsorption of filtered glucose with a high capacity; it may be overactive in patients with diabetes, especially in the early, hyperfiltering stage of the disease. As a therapeutic target, SGLT2 has been successfully engaged by orally active, selective agents. Initially developed as antihyperglycemic drugs, SGLT2 inhibitors have deployed a range of in vivo actions. Consequences of their primary effect, i...
May 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501352/effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-on-mortality-and-cardiovascular-events-a-comprehensive-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Matteo Monami, Stefania Zannoni, Laura Pala, Antonio Silverii, Francesco Andreozzi, Giorgio Sesti, Edoardo Mannucci
INTRODUCTION: The publication of the results of LEADER and SUSTAIN-6 trials suggested a possible beneficial effect of the class of GLP-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present meta-analysis is to collect and synthetize all available evidence on the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular events and mortality. METHODS: A Medline search for GLP-1 receptor agonists (exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, or semaglutide) was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials with a duration >11weeks, enrolling patients with type 2 diabetes, and comparing a GLP-1 receptor agonist with placebo or any other non-GLP-1 receptor agonist drug...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499696/fenofibrate-decreases-plasma-ceramide-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-a-novel-marker-of-cvd
#17
M Croyal, Z Kaabia, L León, S Ramin-Mangata, T Baty, F Fall, S Billon-Crossouard, A Aguesse, T Hollstein, D R Sullivan, E Nobecourt, G Lambert, M Krempf
AIM: The benefit of the lipid-lowering drug fenofibrate on cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. Our aim was to find new circulating markers to identify those patients most likely to benefit from fenofibrate prescription. METHODS: Analyses were conducted of plasma samples collected from 102 patients with type 2 diabetes, enrolled in the FIELD trial, before and after fenofibrate treatment (200mg/day). Non-targeted and targeted lipid analyses and apolipoprotein measurements were made using mass spectrometry methods...
May 9, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498022/thyroid-hormone-analogs-for-the-treatment-of-dyslipidemia-past-present-and-future
#18
Alessandro P Delitala, Giuseppe Delitala, Paolo Sioni, Giuseppe Fanciulli
OBJECTIVE: Treatment of dyslipidemia is a major burden for public health. Thyroid hormone regulates lipid metabolism by binding the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), but the use of thyroid hormone to treat dyslipidemia is not indicated due to its deleterious effects on heart, bone, and muscle. Thyroid hormone analogs have been conceived to selectively activate TR in the liver, thus reducing potential side effects. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database to review TR and the action of thyromimetics in vitro and in animal models...
May 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496550/efficacy-and-safety-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-reducing-glycated-hemoglobin-and-weight-in-emirati-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Alaaeldin Bashier, Azza Abdulaziz Khalifa, Fauzia Rashid, Elamin Ibrahim Abdelgadir, Amina Adil Al Qaysi, Razan Ali, Ahmed Eltinay, Jalal Nafach, Fatima Alsayyah, Fatheya Alawadi
BACKGROUND: SGLT2 inhibitors are a new class of drugs that act by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules. Many trials have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, but they have never been examined in Arab or Emirati populations. METHODS: We assessed the efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in reducing HbA1c and weight in our population and specifically in an Emirati cohort. We also assessed the effect on fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, lipid profile, serum creatinine, and side effects...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496330/differential-cardiovascular-profiles-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-critical-evaluation-of-empagliflozin
#20
REVIEW
Vani P Sanon, Shalin Patel, Saurabh Sanon, Ruben Rodriguez, Son V Pham, Robert Chilton
One of the most feared repercussions of type 2 diabetes mellitus is the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The current antidiabetic agents on the market have had difficulty in showing cardiovascular outcome improvement. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial studied the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin in type 2 diabetic patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. The trial results revealed a decrease in the composite primary end points of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke in those taking empagliflozin vs placebo...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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