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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212841/persistence-extends-reciprocity
#1
Shun Kurokawa
One key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation is conditional cooperation. This allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior or reputation. However, information about the opponent's behavior or reputation is sometimes unavailable, and previous studies have assumed that a player cooperates with some default probability when no information about the opponent's previous behavior or reputation is available. This default probability has been interpreted as the player's "optimism"...
February 14, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212196/prison-nursing-formation-of-a-stable-professional-identity
#2
Khurshid Choudhry, David Armstrong, Alexandru Dregan
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze how working within prison environments can influence the self-identity and professional identity of nurses. BACKGROUND: The prison environment can be a difficult environment for nurses to deliver care within, with nurses having to carry out activities that seem to go against their professional role, while at the same time providing care to prisoners who have greater health needs than the general population. There is a lack of theoretical consideration of how prison nurses carry out their role in the face of such challenges...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210994/factors-related-to-the-quality-of-life-of-older-prisoners
#3
Stefaan De Smet, Liesbeth De Donder, Denis Ryan, Sofie Van Regenmortel, Dorien Brosens, Stijn Vandevelde
PURPOSES: There is evidence of an increasing emphasis on the relevance of the quality of life-paradigm as an outcome measure for clients in geriatric, forensic, as well as correctional care. This paper aims to explore to what extent variables that were categorized according to the main areas of the Good Lives Model ('the self', 'the body' and 'social life') are related to the quality of life domains of older imprisoned offenders. METHODS: Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire administered in individual interviews with 93 older prisoners aged 60 years and over in 16 prisons of the Dutch-speaking region in Belgium...
February 16, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209684/medicine-inside-prisons-participatory-research-and-practising-with-hope-behind-bars
#4
Sarah de Leeuw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208502/separation-of-cyclic-and-starlike-hierarchical-dominance-in-evolutionary-matrix-games
#5
György Szabó, Kinga S Bodó, Keivan Aghababaei Samani
We study antisymmetric components of matrices characterizing pair interactions in multistrategy evolutionary games. Based on the dyadic decomposition of matrices we distinguish cyclic and starlike hierarchical dominance in the appropriate components. In the symmetric matrix games the strengths of these elementary components are determined. The general features and intrinsic symmetries of these interactions are represented by directed graphs. It is found that the variation of a single matrix component modifies simultaneously the strengths of two starlike hierarchical basis games and many other independent rock-paper-scissors type cyclic basis games...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208447/influence-of-trust-in-the-spreading-of-information
#6
Hongrun Wu, Alex Arenas, Sergio Gómez
The understanding and prediction of information diffusion processes on networks is a major challenge in network theory with many implications in social sciences. Many theoretical advances occurred due to stochastic spreading models. Nevertheless, these stochastic models overlooked the influence of rational decisions on the outcome of the process. For instance, different levels of trust in acquaintances do play a role in information spreading, and actors may change their spreading decisions during the information diffusion process accordingly...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205612/dna-analysis-of-a-30-000-year-old-urocitellus-glacialis-from-northeastern-siberia-reveals-phylogenetic-relationships-between-ancient-and-present-day-arctic-ground-squirrels
#7
Marina Faerman, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Elisabetta Boaretto, Gennady G Boeskorov, Nikolai E Dokuchaev, Oleg A Ermakov, Fedor N Golenishchev, Stanislav V Gubin, Eugenia Mintz, Evgeniy Simonov, Vadim L Surin, Sergei V Titov, Oksana G Zanina, Nikolai A Formozov
In contrast to the abundant fossil record of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, from eastern Beringia, only a limited number of fossils is known from its western part. In 1946, unnamed GULAG prisoners discovered a nest with three mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels in the permafrost sediments of the El'ga river, Yakutia, Russia, that were later attributed to a new species, Citellus (Urocitellus) glacialis Vinogr. To verify this assignment and to explore phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels, we performed (14)C dating and ancient DNA analyses of one of the El'ga mummies and four contemporaneous fossils from Duvanny Yar, northeastern Yakutia...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205232/preliminary-study-of-testosterone-and-empathy-in-determining-recidivism-and-antisocial-behavior
#8
Samuel J House, Jacob M Laan, Raymond K Molden, James C Ritchie, Zachary N Stowe
Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205230/forensic-identification-of-bipartite-patella-misdiagnosed-as-patella-fracture
#9
Jingyuan Ma, Fang Shi, Chongya Huang, Shanzhi Gu
Bipartite patella is recognized as a developmental anomaly of ossification. Most of them are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally. Bipartite patella is sometimes misdiagnosed as a patella fracture, because the x-ray images of both these conditions may appear very similar. In this case, the patient complained of left knee pain after x-ray films revealed a fracture-like line in the left patella. The patient was then diagnosed as having a patella fracture. In China, the injury degree is categorized as serious injury, minor injury, and trivial injury...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204909/reincarceration-risk-among-men-with-mental-illnesses-leaving-prison-a-risk-environment-analysis
#10
Stacey L Barrenger, Jeffrey Draine, Beth Angell, Daniel Herman
Reentry interventions for persons with mental illness leaving prison have consisted primarily of linkage to mental health services and have produced mixed results on psychiatric and criminal recidivism. These interventions primarily focus on intra-individual risk factors. However, social and environmental factors may also increase risk of reincarceration by constraining choices and pro-social opportunities for community reintegration upon release from prison. In order to add to the knowledge base on understanding reincarceration risk for men with mental illnesses leaving prison, we examined interpersonal and environmental factors that exposed men to heightened risk for reincarceration...
February 15, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198332/suspended-sentence-for-wrong-blood-type-death
#11
Stephanie Jones-Berry
A nurse who gave the wrong blood type to a patient who later died has been given a suspended prison sentence.
February 15, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194686/implementing-a-prison-medicaid-enrollment-program-for-inmates-with-a-community-inpatient-hospitalization
#12
David L Rosen, Catherine A Grodensky, Anna R Miller, Carol E Golin, Marisa E Domino, Wizdom Powell, David A Wohl
In 2011, North Carolina (NC) created a program to facilitate Medicaid enrollment for state prisoners experiencing community inpatient hospitalization during their incarceration. The program, which has been described as a model for prison systems nationwide, has saved the NC prison system approximately $10 million annually in hospitalization costs and has potential to increase prisoners' access to Medicaid benefits as they return to their communities. This study aims to describe the history of NC's Prison-Based Medicaid Enrollment Assistance Program (PBMEAP), its structure and processes, and program personnel's perspectives on the challenges and facilitators of program implementation...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190670/assessing-the-concordance-between-illicit-drug-laws-on-the-books-and-drug-law-enforcement-comparison-of-three-states-on-the-continuum-from-decriminalised-to-punitive
#13
Vendula Belackova, Alison Ritter, Marian Shanahan, Caitlin E Hughes
BACKGROUND: Variations in drug laws, as well as variations in enforcement practice, exist across jurisdictions. This study explored the feasibility of categorising drug laws "on the books" in terms of their punitiveness, and the extent of their concordance with "laws in practice" in a cross-national comparison. METHODS: "Laws on the books", classified with respect to both cannabis and other drug offences in the Czech Republic, NSW (AU) and Florida (USA) were analysed in order to establish an ordinal relationship between the three states...
February 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185995/study-protocol-community-links-to-establish-alcohol-recovery-clear-for-women-leaving-jail
#14
Jennifer E Johnson, Yael Chatav Schonbrun, Bradley Anderson, Megan Kurth, Christine Timko, Michael Stein
PURPOSE: This article describes the protocol for a randomized effectiveness trial of a method to link alcohol use disordered women who are in pretrial jail detention with post-release 12-step mutual help groups. BACKGROUND: Jails serve 15 times more people per year than do prisons and have very short stays, posing few opportunities for treatment or treatment planning. Alcohol use is associated with poor post-jail psychosocial and health outcomes including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, especially for women...
February 7, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185683/suicidal-behaviours-in-male-and-female-users-of-illicit-drugs-recruited-in-drug-treatment-facilities
#15
Elisabet Arribas-Ibar, Josep Maria Suelves, Albert Sanchez-Niubò, Antònia Domingo-Salvany, M T Brugal
OBJECTIVE: We assessed prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans among illicit drug users and their association with contextual factors, by gender. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. In a sample of 511 illicit drug users recruited during spring 2012 in drug treatment and prevention facilities in Catalonia (Spain), the prevalence of suicidal ideation/plans in the last 12 months was assessed. Poisson regression was used to examine associations between suicidal ideation/plans and various factors (socio-demographic, psychological, illegal drug market activities and marginal income generation activities, which included any reported sex work, stealing, peddling, begging or borrowing on credit from a dealer)...
February 6, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182707/win-stay-lose-learn-promotes-cooperation-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-with-voluntary-participation
#16
Chen Chu, Jinzhuo Liu, Chen Shen, Jiahua Jin, Lei Shi
Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179268/us-cardiologist-is-sentenced-to-prison-for-plot-to-kill-rival-doctor
#17
Owen Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179148/status-of-tuberculosis-services-in-indian-prisons
#18
REVIEW
Banuru Muralidhara Prasad, Bhadri Thapa, Sarabjit Singh Chadha, Anand Das, Entoor Ramachandra Babu, Subrat Mohanty, Sripriya Pandurangan, Jamhoih Tonsing
INTRODUCTION: Prisons are known to be a high risk environment for tuberculosis (TB) due to overcrowding, low levels of nutrition, poor infection control and lack of accessible healthcare services. India has nearly 1400 prisons housing 0.37 million inmates. However, information on, availability of diagnostic and treatment services for TB in the prison settings is limited. This study examined the availability of TB services in prisons of India. Simultaneously, prison inmates were screened for tuberculosis...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178953/human-rights-violations-in-organ-procurement-practice-in-china
#19
Norbert W Paul, Arthur Caplan, Michael E Shapiro, Charl Els, Kirk C Allison, Huige Li
BACKGROUND: Over 90% of the organs transplanted in China before 2010 were procured from prisoners. Although Chinese officials announced in December 2014 that the country would completely cease using organs harvested from prisoners, no regulatory adjustments or changes in China's organ donation laws followed. As a result, the use of prisoner organs remains legal in China if consent is obtained. DISCUSSION: We have collected and analysed available evidence on human rights violations in the organ procurement practice in China...
February 8, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176542/an-exploratory-study-of-the-effects-of-work-environment-variables-on-job-satisfaction-among-chinese-prison-staff
#20
Shanhe Jiang, Eric G Lambert, Jianhong Liu, Jinwu Zhang
Job satisfaction has been linked to many positive outcomes, such as greater work performance, increased organizational commitment, reduced job burnout, decreased absenteeism, and lower turnover intent/turnover. A substantial body of research has examined how work environment variables are linked to job satisfaction among U.S. correctional staff; far less research has examined prison staff in non-Western nations, especially China. Using survey data collected from two prisons in Guangzhou, China, this study investigated the level of job satisfaction among prison staff and how personal characteristics (i...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
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