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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470125/prison-health-care-governance-guaranteeing-clinical-independence
#1
Jörg Pont, Stefan Enggist, Heino Stöver, Brie Williams, Robert Greifinger, Hans Wolff
Clinical independence is an essential component of good health care and health care professionalism, particularly in correctional settings (jails, prisons, and other places of detention), where the relationship between patients and caregivers is not based on free choice and where the punitive correctional setting can challenge optimal medical care. Independence for the delivery of health care services is defined by international standards as a critical element for quality health care in correctional settings, yet many correctional facilities do not meet these standards because of a lack of awareness, persisting legal regulations, contradictory terms of employment for health professionals, or current health care governance structures...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463586/evaluation-of-a-complex-intervention-engager-for-prisoners-with-common-mental-health-problems-near-to-and-after-release-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Tim Kirkpatrick, Charlotte Lennox, Rod Taylor, Rob Anderson, Michael Maguire, Mark Haddad, Susan Michie, Christabel Owens, Graham Durcan, Alex Stirzaker, William Henley, Caroline Stevenson, Lauren Carroll, Cath Quinn, Sarah Louise Brand, Tirril Harris, Amy Stewart, Roxanne Todd, Sarah Rybczynska-Bunt, Rebecca Greer, Mark Pearson, Jenny Shaw, Richard Byng
INTRODUCTION: The 'Engager' programme is a 'through-the-gate' intervention designed to support prisoners with common mental health problems as they transition from prison back into the community. The trial will evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Engager intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is a parallel two-group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to either: (a) the Engager intervention plus standard care (intervention group) or (b) standard care alone (control group) across two investigation centres (South West and North West of England)...
February 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463234/tuberculosis-treatment-outcome-and-predictors-in-northern-ethiopian-prisons-a-five-year-retrospective-analysis
#3
Kelemework Adane, Mark Spigt, Geert-Jan Dinant
BACKGROUND: The prison situations are notorious for causing interruptions of tuberculosis (TB) treatment and occurrence of unfavorable outcomes. In Ethiopian prisons, though TB treatment programs exist, treatment outcome results and factors contributing to unsuccessful outcome are not well documented. In this study, we assessed the treatment outcome of TB cases and identified risk factors for unsuccessful outcome in northern Ethiopian prisons. METHODS: A retrospective record review was conducted for all prisoners diagnosed with TB between September 2011 and August 2015...
February 20, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463173/dr-amos-g-babcock-fact-or-fiction
#4
Douglas Smith
The War of 1812-1814 between the United States of America and Great Britain gave rise to several journals relating the sufferings of prisoners of war confined in prison ships and gaols in England. One of these is A journal of a young man of Massachusetts, said to have been written by Dr Amos G Babcock, an American ship's surgeon, and first published in 1816. This article sets out arguments for and against the truth of this assertion.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462832/-pulmonary-medicine-and-its-institutions-during-national-socialism
#5
R Loddenkemper, N Konietzko, V Seehausen
When the National Socialists came to power in 1933, a complete paradigm shift took place in the health policy under the principle "Public interest ahead of self-interest". In the early years there was an intense discussion about whether tuberculosis (TB) is more caused by heredity or by infection. Finally, the arguments of leading TB specialists were accepted that TB is predominantly an infectious disease. In 1939, the year Germany started World War II, TB mortality was at its lowest, with only a few countries having lower rates...
February 2018: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461381/cultural-humility-an-active-concept-to-drive-correctional-nursing-practice
#6
Lorraine Steefel
Correctional nursing practice is focused on a unique patient population: inmates who present with their own ethnicities and have an imposed culture from the prison structure. As such, culture must be considered to provide holistic care. Madeleine Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, which maintains that care is the essence of nursing (without inclusion of culture, there is no care), suggests three nursing actions: to maintain the patient's culture, make accommodations for it, and/or repattern cultural ways that may be unhealthful...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461380/what-does-the-implementation-of-peer-care-training-in-a-u-k-prison-reveal-about-prisoner-engagement-in-peer-caregiving
#7
Warren Stewart
The number of aging and chronically ill prisoners continues to rise within the United Kingdom prison demography; consequentially, many institutions face health and social care crises of immense proportions. The needs of this group are both complex and costly, and in the United Kingdom, this is set to a backdrop of overcrowding, increasing violence, and public spending cuts in line with government austerity targets. In this context, the development of prisoner peer caregiving is proposed as an approach to mitigating the effects of aging, disability, and illness...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461238/effective-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infections-with-direct-acting-antivirals-in-prisons-system
#8
E Vashakidze, T Imnadze, I Mikadze
Hepatitis C is a widespread infectious disorder, accounting for chronic hepatic inflammatory condition - hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma throughout the world. In Georgia, where the incidence of HCV infection in population is highest among eastern European countries, hepatitis C represents one the most actual problems of healthcare system. The aim of the study was to identify the efficacy of antiviral therapy and management of side effects in HCV infected patients. In the patients under observation with type I genotype, the rapid viral response (RVR) was negative in 100%...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459388/uk-news-media-representations-of-smoking-smoking-policies-and-tobacco-bans-in-prisons
#9
Amy Robinson, Helen Sweeting, Kate Hunt
BACKGROUND: Prisoner smoking rates remain high, resulting in secondhand smoke exposures for prison staff and non-smoker prisoners. Several jurisdictions have introduced prison smoking bans with little evidence of resulting disorder. Successful implementation of such bans requires staff support. As news media representations of health and other issues shape public views and as prison smoking bans are being introduced in the UK, we conducted content analysis of UK news media to explore representations of smoking in prisons and smoke-free prisons...
February 19, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458312/reflections-on-researcher-departure-closure-of-prison-relationships-in-ethnographic-research
#10
Laura Abbott, Tricia Scott
BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom has the highest incarceration rate in Western Europe. It is known that women in prison are a vulnerable female population who are at risk of mental ill-health due to disadvantaged and chaotic life experiences. Accurate numbers of pregnant women held in UK prisons are not recorded, yet it is estimated that 6%-7% of the female prison population are at varying stages of pregnancy and around 100 babies are born to incarcerated women each year. There are limited published papers that document the departure of the researcher following closure of fieldwork with women in prison...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457488/referral-patterns-and-implementation-costs-of-the-partners-in-recovery-initiative-in-gippsland-learnings-for-the-national-disability-insurance-scheme
#11
Anton N Isaacs, Kim Dalziel, Keith Sutton, Darryl Maybery
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to provide some learnings for the NDIS from the referral pattern and cost of implementing the Partners in Recovery initiative of Gippsland. METHOD: Information on referral areas made for each consumer was collated from support facilitators. Cost estimates were determined using budget estimates, administrative costs and a literature review and are reported from a government perspective. RESULTS: Sixty-three per cent of all referrals were made to organisations that provided multiple types of services...
February 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455713/age-specific-global-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-hiv-and-tuberculosis-among-incarcerated-people-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Stuart A Kinner, Kathryn Snow, Andrea L Wirtz, Frederick L Altice, Chris Beyrer, Kate Dolan
PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the global prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and tuberculosis in incarcerated adolescents and young adults (AYAs) and older prisoners. METHODS: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting the age-specific prevalence of each infection in prisoners. We grouped age-specific prevalence estimates into three overlapping age categories: AYA prisoners (<25 years), older prisoners (≥25 years), and mixed category (spanning age 25 years)...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455144/evaluation-of-childhood-trauma-with-respect-to-criminal-behavior-dissociative-experiences-adverse-family-experiences-and-psychiatric-backgrounds-among-prison-inmates
#13
Merih Altintas, Mustafa Bilici
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate childhood trauma in relation to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates. METHODS: In total, 200 prison inmates were included in this questionnaire-based study. Data on demographic characteristics, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds were collected via face-to-face interviews, and a psychometric evaluation was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES)...
January 2, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451899/cooperation-enhanced-by-the-coevolution-of-teaching-activity-in-evolutionary-prisoner-s-dilemma-games-with-voluntary-participation
#14
Chen Shen, Chen Chu, Yini Geng, Jiahua Jin, Fei Chen, Lei Shi
Voluntary participation, as an additional strategy involved in repeated games, has been proved to be an efficient way to promote the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. Besides, current studies show that the coevolution of teaching activity can promote cooperation. Thus, inspired by aforementioned above, we investigate the effect of coevolution of teaching activity on the evolution of cooperation for prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation: when the focal player successfully enforces its strategy on the opponent, his teaching ability will get an increase...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451424/risk-factors-of-sexual-assault-and-victimization-among-youth-in-custody
#15
Eileen M Ahlin
Research suggests that youth are at higher risk of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than adult inmates. However, compared with adult inmates, very little is known about the risk factors associated with such violence among youth in custody. Without sufficient research on risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody, practitioners and policy makers may be reliant on the adult literature when making decisions about how to address and prevent such violence among juveniles...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450123/epidemiology-and-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-in-prisoners
#16
Jacob M Smith, A Ziggy Uvin, Alexandria Macmadu, Josiah D Rich
Purpose of Review: The review details recent literature reports regarding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and, in particular, Hepatitis B prevalence/incidence in incarcerated populations around the world. Furthermore, the review will summarize the national/international guidelines regarding HBV and look at diagnosis, vaccination, treatment, and linkage to care after release. Recent Findings: HBV affects prisoners at a much higher rate than the general populations. Many who are at increased risk for HBV infection are also at increased risk for incarceration...
September 2017: Current Hepatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449824/reduced-self-control-after-3-months-of-imprisonment-a-pilot-study
#17
Jesse Meijers, Joke M Harte, Gerben Meynen, Pim Cuijpers, Erik J A Scherder
Background: Prison can be characterized as an impoverished environment encouraging a sedentary lifestyle with limited autonomy and social interaction, which may negatively affect self-control and executive function. Here, we aim to study the effects of imprisonment on self-control and executive functions, and we report the change in neuropsychological outcome after 3 months of imprisonment. Materials and Methods: Participants were 37 male inmates in a remand prison in Amsterdam, Netherlands, who completed six tests of a computerized neuropsychological test battery (the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery) in the first week of arrival...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447405/the-representation-of-vulnerable-populations-in-quality-improvement-studies
#18
Asaph Rolnitsky, Maksim Kirtsman, Hanna R Goldberg, Michael Dunn, Chaim M Bell
Purpose: A mapping review to quantify representation of vulnerable populations, who suffer from disparity and often inequitable healthcare, in quality improvement (QI) research. Data sources: Studies published in 2004-2014 inclusive from Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases for English language research with the terms 'quality improvement' or 'quality control' or 'QI' and 'plan-do-study-act' or 'PDSA' in the years 2004-2014 inclusively. Study selection: Published clinical research that was a QI-themed, as identified by its declared search terms, MESH terms, abstract or title...
February 13, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446961/psychopathic-men-deficits-in-general-mental-ability-not-emotion-perception
#19
Sally G Olderbak, Andreas Mokros, Joachim Nitschke, Elmar Habermeyer, Oliver Wilhelm
Psychopathy is characteristically associated with deficits in emotion perception; however, findings surrounding this deficit are actually quite mixed. This is most likely due to limitations of study methodology, including the use of tasks with unknown or poor psychometric properties, underpowered samples, and a lack of control for third variables. We present a study that addressed these limitations. A sample of men (n = 339) ranging across the psychopathy continuum, recruited in and out of the German prison system, completed three psychometrically validated tasks that assessed the ability to perceive facially expressed emotions...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445042/working-dogs-transfer-different-tasks-in-reciprocal-cooperation
#20
Nastassja Gfrerer, Michael Taborsky
Direct reciprocity can establish stable cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is a common assumption of direct reciprocity models that agents exchange like with like, but this is not necessarily true for natural interactions. It is yet unclear whether animals apply direct reciprocity rules when successive altruistic help involves different tasks. Here, we tested whether working dogs transfer help from one to another cooperative task in an iterated prisoner's dilemma paradigm. In our experiment, individual dogs received help to obtain food from a conspecific, which involved a specific task...
February 2018: Biology Letters
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