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S Nematollahi, E Ayubi, A Almasi-Hashiani, K Mansori, Y Moradi, Y Veisani, E Jenabi, B Gholamaliei, S Khazaei
OBJECTIVES: Determination of the true burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among high-risk groups relies heavily on occurrence measures such as prevalence, which are vital for implementation of preventive action plans. Nevertheless, up-to-date data on the prevalence of HCV infection remain scarce in Iran. This study aimed to review the relevant literature systematically and determine the pooled prevalence of HCV infection among high-risk groups in Iran. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review & meta-analysis...
June 20, 2018: Public Health
Catherine A Grodensky, David L Rosen, Colleen M Blue, Anna R Miller, Steve Bradley-Bull, Wizdom A Powell, Marisa E Domino, Carol E Golin, David A Wohl
Prison inmates suffer from a heavy burden of physical and mental health problems and have considerable need for healthcare and coverage after prison release. The Affordable Care Act may have increased Medicaid access for some of those who need coverage in Medicaid expansion states, but inmates in non-expansion states still have high need for Medicaid coverage and face unique barriers to enrollment. We sought to explore barriers and facilitators to Medicaid enrollment among prison inmates in a non-expansion state...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Robert Szulawski, Peter J Kourlas, Marc Antonchak
BACKGROUND Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has myriad manifestations that can affect any organ system in the body. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a disease of uncontrolled lymphocyte and macrophage proliferation and activation, which has various triggers, including autoimmune disorder, viral infection, and malignancy. We report here on MAS as a complication of adult SLE, a rare association in the literature, in a patient with an unknown past medical history. CASE REPORT A 38-year-old male patient presented with severe muscle weakness, diffuse abdominal cramps with vomiting and incontinence of stool, confusion, cough, and sweating increasing in severity for about 1 week...
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Susan Young, Rafael A González, Moshe Fridman, Paul Hodgkins, Keira Kim, Gisli H Gudjonsson
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and head injury (including traumatic brain injury (TBI)) manifest in high levels across prison samples and guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence notes that people with acquired brain injury may have increased prevalence of ADHD. We aimed to examine the association of ADHD with TBI and the impact of the association upon health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and service use among imprisoned adults...
June 22, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Valerio Baćak, Kate Thurman, Katie Eyer, Rubab Qureshi, Jason D P Bird, Luis M Rivera, Suzanne A Kim
Incarceration is considerably more prevalent among sexual and gender minority persons (SGM) than among the general population. Once behind bars, they are at the greatest risk for health-related harms. Although a growing number of studies have assessed health disparities produced by mass incarceration, scholars are yet to systematically assess the health consequences of incarceration on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. We invite public health scholars to study the effects of incarceration on health in the SGM population and provide a roadmap to aid these research efforts...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Beatrice Annaheim, Wiebke Bretschneider, Violet Handtke, Angelo Belardi, Bernice S Elger
PURPOSE: In prison populations, treating pain is particularly challenging, especially for the growing number of older prisoners. The objective was to find out about prevalence, frequency, and types of pain medications prescribed to older prisoners (≥50 years) in comparison with younger prisoners (<50 years). METHODS: Data were collected in Switzerland as part of a study on ageing prisoners' health. Fifteen prisons (out of 26 of the total eligible population) agreed to take part, and data from medical records of 190 older and 190 younger male prisoners were analysed...
June 21, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Cristina Acedo-Carmona, Antoni Gomila
We studied 2 groups of workers from Oaxaca (Mexico) with different levels of income and education to investigate the role that the affective-based psychological mechanism of personal trust, as evolutionarily acquired, plays on group cooperation. We measured trust levels through some questionnaires and cooperative behaviour through an iterated prisoner's dilemma under different conditions and analysed trust networks of group members. While these groups did not differ in trust levels or cooperation among trustees, they did differ in terms of cooperation with other group members...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Tomaž Erzar, Lifan Yu, Robert D Enright, Katarina Kompan Erzar
The links between childhood victimization, subsequent emotional dysregulation, and insufficient coping skills have been repeatedly documented in the scientific literature. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding the role of forgiveness as a coping strategy and relationships between offense-specific hurt, chronic anger, and early victimization. The goals of our study were (a) to explore how offenders cope with recent unjust treatment, and test the links between type of injustice, hurt experienced due to injustice, and use of forgiveness; (b) to test the links between childhood victimization, hurt, and chronic anger; and (c) to assess the mediating role of chronic anger in relation to hurt and forgiveness...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Sara Sanders, Meredith Stensland
The prison population is graying as more individuals are receiving longer sentences without opportunities for parole or release for health-related reasons. While research has expanded on end-of-life care in and out of prison settings, to date there has been little research conducted on how inmates experience dying behind bars. Through collecting data during observation of facilitated advance care planning sessions, this qualitative study revealed four main themes: (1) losing a piece of everything, (2) not sure what to feel, (3) where will I die, and (4) finding purpose in the midst of purposelessness...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Izabella Smolicz, Jonathan Mayhew, Faye Gishen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Clinical Teacher
Giovanni Antonetti, Daniela D'Angelo, Paola Scampati, Ileana Croci, Narciso Mostarda, Saverio Potenza, Rosaria Alvaro
INTRODUCTION: Health care in prisons represents an important part of public health due to the interaction between prisons and society. Women prisoners have needs that distinguish them from male prisoners, however little is known about how those needs are met. The aim of the study was to gather information about the needs of women in prison and to identify which of their needs are the most or the least met. METHODS: This study investigated the needs of detained women using a newly developed Questionnaire based on Gordon's model...
April 2018: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Shufang Sun, Natasha Crooks, Rebecca Kemnitz, Ryan P Westergaard
RATIONALE: Both the HIV epidemic and incarceration disproportionately affect Black men in the United States. A critical period for incarcerated Black men living with HIV/AIDS is re-entry into the community, which is often associated with adverse health outcomes. Additionally, Black men living with HIV/AIDS involved in the criminal justice system are burdened by multiple, intersecting disadvantaged identities and social positions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine community re-entry experiences among Black men living with HIV/AIDS from an intersectional perspective...
June 12, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Erfan Ayubi, Kamyar Mansori, Mostafa Salehi-Vaziri, Yousef Moradi, Behzad Gholamaliei, Salman Khazaei
Aim: Present study aimed to systematically review and quantitatively synthesize published data about the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection among high risk groups in Iran. Background: Determining true burden of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection among high-risk groups relies on knowledge of occurrence measures such as prevalence rate. There is no conclusive and comprehensive data regarding to prevalence of HBV infection among high risk groups in Iran...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Kenny Oh, Anil Hingorani
OBJECTIVE: Placement of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters is a controversial focus of medical malpractice. Clinicians currently have little information to guide them regarding key issues and outcomes in litigation. In this retrospective legal case review, we analyzed the factors associated with malpractice actions involving IVC filters. METHODS: The legal databases LexisNexis and Westlaw were searched from 1967 to 2016 for all published legal cases in the United States involving placement of IVC filters...
July 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Lia N Pizzicato, Rebecca Drake, Reed Domer-Shank, Caroline C Johnson, Kendra M Viner
BACKGROUND: High overdose mortality after release from state prison systems is well documented; however, little is known about overdose mortality following release from local criminal justice systems (CJS). The purpose of this study was to assess overdose mortality following release from a local CJS in Philadelphia, PA. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals released to the community from a local CJS between 2010 and 2016. Incarceration records were linked to overdose fatality data from the Medical Examiner's Office and death certificate records...
June 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Pablo Lozano, Alberto Antonioni, Marco Tomassini, Angel Sánchez
Reputation plays a key role among the mechanisms supporting cooperation in our society. This is a well-known observation and, in fact, several studies have shown that reputation may substantially increase cooperation among subjects playing Prisoner's Dilemma games in the laboratory. Unfortunately, recent experiments indicate that when reputation can be faked cooperation can still be maintained at the expense of honest subjects who are deceived by the dishonest ones. As experimental work is limited due to financial and other reasons, we present here an agent-based simulation model inspired by, and calibrated against, the results obtained in the experiment...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ravi Kumar Thetakala, B R Chandrashekar, S Sunitha, M Maurya, Priyanka Sharma, G Shubhi
Background: One of the widespread problems of oral health is bruxism and is defined as a parafunctional habit with involuntary grinding and gnashing of the teeth occurring during sleep. However, bruxism is connected to anxiety and stress, but the published literature on bruxism among prison inmates is scanty. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of active sleep bruxism and its impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among inmates in Central Penal Institution, Mysore...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Alexander R Robertson
OBJECTIVE: Ingestion of sharp foreign bodies is a less frequently encountered method of selfharm. This study aims to follow up patients presenting with foreign body (FB) ingestion requiring urgent endoscopic intervention under general anaesthetic in theatre, characterise each patient and establish whether admission or removal of the FB promotes further self-harm. METHOD: Eleven adult patients, totalling 38 presentations over a 28-month period were identified. Each was followed up from an initial presentation requiring endoscopy...
June 14, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Jeffrey R Stevens, Jan K Woike, Lael J Schooler, Stefan Lindner, Thorsten Pachur
Analyses of the evolution of cooperation often rely on two simplifying assumptions: (i) individuals interact equally frequently with all social network members and (ii) they accurately remember each partner's past cooperation or defection. Here, we examine how more realistic, skewed patterns of contact-in which individuals interact primarily with only a subset of their network's members-influence cooperation. In addition, we test whether skewed contact patterns can counteract the decrease in cooperation caused by memory errors (i...
June 13, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Lois James, Natalie Todak
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a sample of prison employees, investigate risk factors, and explore protective factors for PTSD. METHODS: We surveyed 355 Washington State Department of Corrections employees. The survey included the PTSD checklist for the DSM-5 (PCL-5), the Critical Incident History Questionnaire, and the Work Environment Inventory. RESULTS: We found 19% of the sample met the criteria for diagnosable PTSD...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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