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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677699/-epidemic-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-prisoners-compared-to-the-german-population-an-analysis-based-on-laboratory-results
#1
Friedrich Pürner, Merle M Böhmer, Manfred Wildner
OBJECTIVE: Effects of long-term imprisonment on the vitamin D (vitD) status of prison inmates in Germany have not been systematically assessed so far. Special circumstances in prisons - little sunlight exposure combined with restricted outdoor activities - may lead to vitD deficiency among prisoners. The aim of this study was to assess the vitD status of prisoners and the general population in order to quantify the extent of vitD deficiency in both groups. METHODS: VitD status (25(OH)D in blood serum samples) was assessed in female inmates of a prison in southern Germany between May 2012-June 2013...
April 20, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668374/evidence-based-occupational-hearing-screening-ii-validation-of-a-screening-methodology-using-measures-of-functional-hearing-ability
#2
Sigfrid D Soli, Akiko Amano-Kusumoto, Odile Clavier, Jed Wilbur, Kristen Casto, Daniel Freed, Chantal Laroche, Véronique Vaillancourt, Christian Giguère, Wouter A Dreschler, Koenraad S Rhebergen
OBJECTIVE: Validate use of the Extended Speech Intelligibility Index (ESII) for prediction of speech intelligibility in non-stationary real-world noise environments. Define a means of using these predictions for objective occupational hearing screening for hearing-critical public safety and law enforcement jobs. DESIGN: Analyses of predicted and measured speech intelligibility in recordings of real-world noise environments were performed in two studies using speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) and intelligibility measures...
May 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667292/sharing-power-in-criminal-justice-the-potential-of-co-production-for-offenders-experiencing-mental-health-and-addictions-in-new-zealand
#3
Katey Thom, Dave Burnside
Co-production has begun to make inroads into research, policy, and practice in mental health and addictions. Little is known, however, about the role co-production has or could have in shaping how the criminal justice system responds to mental health and addictions. Given that a large majority of prisoners in Aotearoa New Zealand have been diagnosed with either a mental health or substance use disorder within their lifetime, it is imperative alternative approaches are considered if we are to reduce the high imprisonment rates and contribute positively to health, safety, and well-being of all New Zealanders...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666647/oral-health-of-lipjan-convicts-kosovo-prison-house
#4
Luljeta Zajmi, Agim Begzati, Milaim Sejdini, Nora Berisha, Lumnije Krasniqi
Objectives: The oral health services of the prison population are considered more complex than those of the general population. The aim of this study was to examine the oral health status (the DMFT index and OHI index) and to evaluate the relation between the oral health and risk factors of inmates of this population, thus identifying the dental health status of inmates by gender, age, and the duration of their sentence. Materials and Methods: Our study has included a total number of 150 inmates, of both genders, from Lipjan prison house in Kosovo...
2018: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663957/high-utility-of-active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-an-ethiopian-prison
#5
Y Merid, Y Woldeamanuel, M Abebe, D G Datiko, T Hailu, G Habtamu, G Assefa, R R Kempker, H M Blumberg, A Aseffa
SETTING: Hawassa Prison, Southern Region of Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) using active case finding among prisoners. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, prisoners were screened for TB using a symptom screen. Those with cough of 2 weeks had spot and morning sputum samples collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and molecular diagnostic testing (Xpert® MTB/RIF). RESULTS: Among 2068 prisoners, 372 (18%) had a positive cough screen...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663951/active-case-finding-and-treatment-adherence-in-risk-groups-in-the-tuberculosis-pre-elimination-era
#6
R K Gupta, M Lipman, A Story, A Hayward, G de Vries, R van Hest, C Erkens, M X Rangaka, I Abubakar
Vulnerable populations, including homeless persons, high-risk drug and alcohol users, prison inmates and other marginalised populations, contribute a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis (TB) cases in low-incidence settings. Drivers of this disease burden include an increased risk of both TB transmission in congregate settings, and progression from infection to active disease. Late diagnosis and poor treatment completion further propagate the epidemic and fuel the acquisition of drug resistance. These groups are therefore a major priority for TB control programmes in low-incidence settings...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661117/sexual-victimization-and-mental-illness-prevalence-rates-among-incarcerated-women-a-literature-review
#7
Marie E Karlsson, Melissa J Zielinski
Incarcerated women evidence high rates of both interpersonal trauma and mental illness. In particular, the rates of sexual violence victimization are so high that some researchers have suggested that sexual abuse may be a pathway to prison for women, likely through the development of mental illness, including substance abuse. This review article summarizes the literature on sexual victimization ( n = 32 articles; 28 independent studies) and mental illness ( n = 11 articles; 8 independent studies) prevalence among samples of incarcerated women ( Ns ≥ 100) in context of methodological choices within included articles...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661109/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-infections-in-custodial-populations-a-systematic-review
#8
Leigh Haysom, Melanie Cross, Rebecca Anastasas, Elizabeth Moore, Stephen Hampton
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in prisons can result in serious morbidity and death. We reviewed rates and risk factors for MRSA infection in custody, searching Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases. Between 1997 and 2015, 17 studies reported MRSA skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), with four case reports of MRSA non-SSTI (necrotizing pneumonias, brain abscess, and epiduritis). Significant associations with MRSA SSTI were found: MRSA colonization, previous skin infection, sharing soap or personal items, SSTI presenting as an abscess or furuncle, younger age, non-Caucasian, overweight, communal laundering, infrequent handwashing, lower hygiene score...
April 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660697/relapse-to-smoking-following-release-from-smoke-free-correctional-facilities-in-queensland-australia
#9
Cheneal Puljević, Dominique de Andrade, Ross Coomber, Stuart A Kinner
BACKGROUND: Smoke-free prison policies are increasingly common, but few studies have investigated relapse to smoking after release from prison. This study investigated return to tobacco smoking and correlates of smoking at reduced levels after release among adults recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 114 people at parole offices within two months of release from prison was used. The survey measured health, social, and criminological factors related to tobacco smoking...
April 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660674/the-relation-of-borderline-personality-disorder-to-aggression-victimization-and-institutional-misconduct-among-prisoners
#10
Kelly E Moore, Robyn L Gobin, Heather L McCauley, Chien-Wen Kao, Stephanie M Anthony, Sheryl Kubiak, Caron Zlotnick, Jennifer E Johnson
OBJECTIVE: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is highly prevalent among incarcerated populations; however, research has yet to examine whether prisoners diagnosed with BPD experience greater interpersonal dysfunction and institutional misconduct while incarcerated. PROCEDURE: This study drew from a sample of 184 male and female prisoners diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a randomized trial of depression treatment. The presence of a BPD diagnosis (n = 69) was analyzed as a predictor of disciplinary incidents/infractions (i...
March 21, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659780/health-outcomes-for-clients-of-needle-and-syringe-programs-in-prisons
#11
Jeffrey V Lazarus, Kelly Safreed-Harmon, Kristina L Hetherington, Daniel J Bromberg, Denise Ocampo, Niels Graf, Anna Dichtl, Heino Stöver, Hans Wolff
High levels of drug dependence have been observed in the prison population globally, and the sharing of injecting drug equipment in prisons has contributed to higher prevalence of bloodborne diseases in prisoners than in the general population. Few prison needle and syringe programs (PNSPs) exist. We conducted a systematic review to assess evidence regarding health outcomes of PNSPs. We searched peer-reviewed databases for data relating to needle and syringe programs in prisons. The search methodology was conducted in accordance with accepted guidelines...
April 12, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657697/characterizing-mortality-from-substance-abuse-in-iran-an-epidemiological-study-during-march-2014-to-february-2015
#12
Fatemeh Shahbazi, Seyed Davood Mirtorabi, Mohammad Reza Ghadirzadeh, Seyed Saeed Hashemi-Nazari, Abdolrazagh Barzegar
Background: Drug abuse is a severe and chronic disorder that leaves morbidity, disability and premature mortality in the society. The study of death due to substance abuse provides useful information for local, national and international administrators. Thus, by identifying the factors that have an impact on overdose-related mortality we can provide suitable intervention for vulnerable groups. The aim of this study was an investigation of mortality rate caused by consumption of narcotic and psychoactive substances in Iran...
July 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657514/navigating-limited-and-uncertain-access-to-subsidized-housing-after-prison
#13
Danya E Keene, Alana Rosenberg, Penelope Schlesinger, Monica Guo, Kim M Blankenship
An emerging literature has documented the challenges that formerly incarcerated individuals face in securing stable housing. Given the increasingly unaffordable rental market, rental subsidies represent an important and understudied source of stable housing for this population. The existing literature has described substantial discretion and a varied policy landscape that determine former prisoners' access to housing subsidies, or subsidized housing spaces that are leased to members of their social and family networks...
2018: Housing Policy Debate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652094/from-in-vivo-to-in-vitro-how-the-guatemala-std-experiments-transformed-bodies-into-biospecimens
#14
Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Paul A Lombardo
Policy Points: While most scholarship regarding the US Public Health Service's STD experiments in Guatemala during the 1940s has focused on the intentional exposure experiments, secondary research was also conducted on biospecimens collected from these subjects. These biospecimen experiments continued after the Guatemala grant ended, and the specimens were used in conjunction with those from the Tuskegee syphilis experiments for ongoing research. We argue there should be a public accounting of whether there are still biospecimens from the Guatemala and Tuskegee experiments held in US government biorepositories today...
April 13, 2018: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651681/higher-autistic-traits-among-criminals-but-no-link-to-psychopathy-findings-from-a-high-security-prison-in-portugal
#15
Diana Loureiro, Ana Machado, Tânia Silva, Tânia Veigas, Carlos Ramalheira, Joaquim Cerejeira
The relationship between autism, criminality and psychopathy has gained increased attention in recent years, although research has focused on autism spectrum disorders, and not autistic traits. We measured autistic traits (with the Autism Spectrum Quotient) in a sample of 101 inmates from a high-security prison and compared them to a control group, using a logistic regression model that included age, education, psychopathology, psychopathy and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder as covariates. Prisoners had more autistic traits (OR 1...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649258/clinician-ratings-of-the-comprehensive-assessment-of-psychopathic-personality-capp-in-a-representative-sample-of-spanish-prison-inmates-new-validity-evidence
#16
Gerardo Flórez, Ventura Ferrer, Luis S García, María R Crespo, Manuel Pérez, Pilar A Saíz, David J Cooke
The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) is a concept map of psychopathic personality disorder (PPD). The CAPP- Institutional Rating Scale (IRS) is a tool designed to assess CAPP symptoms in institutional settings. The CAPP contains 33 personality traits organized in six domains: attachment, behavioural, cognitive, dominance, emotional and self. Until now, much of the CAPP research has been conducted out of clinical, forensic and correctional settings using self-ratings. In the current study, the psychometric properties and construct validity of the CAPP-IRS were evaluated in a non-convenience sample of 204 Spanish convicts...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648594/active-case-finding-for-communicable-diseases-in-prison-settings-increasing-testing-coverage-and-uptake-among-the-prison-population-in-the-european-union-european-economic-area
#17
Lara Tavoschi, Hilde Vroling, Giordano Madeddu, Sergio Babudieri, Roberto Monarca, Marije Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Netta Beer, Joana Gomes Dias, Éamonn O'Moore, Dagmar Hedrich, Anouk Oordt-Speets
Prison populations are disproportionally affected by communicable diseases when compared with the general community because of a complex mix of socioeconomic determinants and environmental factors. Tailored and adequate health care provision in prisons has the potential to reach vulnerable and underserved groups and address their complex needs. We investigated the available evidence on modalities and effectiveness of active case-finding interventions in prisons by searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for records on prison and active case finding with no language limit...
April 10, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642879/correlates-of-healthy-life-expectancy-in-low-and-lower-middle-income-countries
#18
Md Shariful Islam, Md Nazrul Islam Mondal, Md Ismail Tareque, Md Aminur Rahman, Md Nazrul Hoque, Md Munsur Ahmed, Hafiz T A Khan
BACKGROUND: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth is an important indicator of health status and quality of life of a country's population. However, little is known about the determinants of HALE as yet globally or even country-specific level. Thus, we examined the factors that are associated with HALE at birth in low- and lower-middle-income countries. METHODS: In accordance with the World Bank (WB) classification seventy-nine low- and lower-middle-income countries were selected for the study...
April 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629635/juror-decision-making-in-acquaintance-and-marital-rape-the-influence-of-clothing-alcohol-and-preexisting-stereotypical-attitudes
#19
Kirsty Osborn, Josh P Davis, Susan Button, John Foster
Stereotypical biases about women's roles in intimate relationships including their marital status and lifestyle choices such as clothing and alcohol use influence juror attributions of rape case defendant guilt, potentially reducing access to justice for victims. Across two mock-juror decision-making experiments, participants read identical fictitious sexual assault vignettes varying in intoxicated defendant-complainant relationship (married vs. acquaintance), accompanied by photographs of complainant clothing at the crime (body revealing vs...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627177/the-evolutionary-saga-of-circumcision-from-a-religious-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Venkatachalam Raveenthiran
Circumcision is the oldest surgical operation known to mankind. It probably originated as a less radical form of genital mutilation inflicted on prisoners of war. Over time it was adopted by the Egyptian priesthood and nobility, perhaps inspired by the mythology of Osiris. In turn, circumcision became part of the Jewish and Muslim religious cultures. In contrast, ancient Greeks valued an intact prepuce, as evident from the nude figures of Renaissance art. In the 19th century, circumcision was touted as a treatment for excessive masturbation, seizures, epilepsy, and paraplegia...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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