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R B Acton, L Vanderlee, C A Roberto, D Hammond
An increasing number of countries are developing front-of-package (FOP) labels; however, there is limited evidence examining the impact of specific design characteristics for these labels. The current study investigated consumer perceptions of several FOP label design characteristics, including potential differences among sociodemographic sub-groups. Two hundred and thirty-four participants aged 16 years or older completed nine label rating tasks on a laptop at a local shopping mall in Canada. The rating tasks asked participants to rate five primary design characteristics (border, background presence, background colour, 'caution' symbol and government attribution) on their noticeability, readability, believability and likelihood of changing their beverage choice...
March 3, 2018: Health Education Research
Emma J Cordes, Melanie LaPlant, Daniel A Saltzman, Robert D Acton, Bradley J Segura, Donavon J Hess
BACKGROUND: Umbilical hernia is a common congenital anomaly, and can result in the appearance of a protuberant umbilicus. In select cases, inversion of the umbilical skin can be impaired by the presence of thickened dermis or fascial remnants of the umbilical stalk. DESCRIPTION OF OPERATIVE TECHNIQUE: After umbilical herniorrhaphy, the skin is everted over the left index finger and radial partial thickness incisions in the fascia and dermis of the undersurface of the umbilicus...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Kelly McGowan, Saso Ivanovski, Caroline Acton
BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a serious complication of both radiation and antiresorptive therapies. This study aimed to determine how many patients have been treated for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) and osteoradionecrosis (ORN), and whether the number of diagnoses has decreased over time with improved awareness and preventative measures. METHODS: Medical records at the Royal Brisbane & Women's Hospital, Gold Coast University Hospital, and Robina Hospital were reviewed to identify patients diagnosed with MRONJ and ORN between January 2003 - May 2017...
February 12, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
Nancy Krieger, Sheida Nabavi, Pamela D Waterman, Ninah S Achacoso, Luana Acton, Stuart J Schnitt, Laurel A Habel
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of quantifying long-term trends in breast tumor DNA copy number variation (CNV) profiles. METHODS: We evaluated CNV profiles in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens from 30 randomly selected Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan women members diagnosed with breast cancer from 1950 to 2010. Assays were conducted for five cases per decade who had available tumor blocks and pathology reports...
February 9, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Ivan Kopljar, An N Hermans, Ard Teisman, David J Gallacher, Hua Rong Lu
INTRODUCTION: Calcium-based screening of hiPS-CMs is a useful preclinical safety evaluation platform with the ability to generate robust signals that facilitates high-throughput screening and data analysis. However, due to the potential inherent toxicities, it is important to understand potential effects of different calcium-sensitive dyes on the hiPS-CMs model. METHODS: We compared three calcium-sensitive fluorescence dyes (Cal520, ACTOne and Calcium 5) for their impact on the variability, the beating properties and the pharmacological responses of hiPS-CMs using the Hamamatsu FDSS/μCell imaging platform...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Simon Urschel, Gwen Y Bond, Irina A Dinu, Fahime Moradi, Jennifer Conway, Gonzalo Garcia-Guerra, Bryan V Acton, Ari R Joffe, Mohammed AlAklabi, Ivan M Rebeyka, Charlene M T Robertson
BACKGROUND: Children requiring heart transplantation (HTx) for congenital heart disease (CHD) or failing anatomically normal hearts (CMP) face different challenges pre-HTx. We compared the neurocognitive capabilities in pre-school-age children receiving HTx for CHD vs CMP and determined factors predicting outcomes. METHODS: Data were collected within a prospective multi-provincial project from children who underwent HTx ≤4 years of age between 1999 and 2011. At age 54 ± 3 months, we obtained scores from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence for full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ), and from the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test for visual-motor integration (VMI)...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Christopher G Bell, Fei Gao, Wei Yuan, Leonie Roos, Richard J Acton, Yudong Xia, Jordana Bell, Kirsten Ward, Massimo Mangino, Pirro G Hysi, Jun Wang, Timothy D Spector
Integrating epigenetic data with genome-wide association study (GWAS) results can reveal disease mechanisms. The genome sequence itself also shapes the epigenome, with CpG density and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) strongly encoding the DNA methylome. Therefore, genetic polymorphism impacts on the observed epigenome. Furthermore, large genetic variants alter epigenetic signal dosage. Here, we identify DNA methylation variability between GWAS-SNP risk and non-risk haplotypes. In three subsets comprising 3128 MeDIP-seq peripheral-blood DNA methylomes, we find 7173 consistent and functionally enriched Differentially Methylated Regions...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
K J Donnelly, A Tucker, B Kerr, S McDonald, D S O'Longain, J D Acton
The term atypical femoral fractures most commonly occur in the subtrochanteric area. Concerns exist regarding the role of bisphosphonate treatment in their aetiology. Which surgical intervention provides the best outcome remains contentious. We reviewed all atypical subtrochanteric femoral fractures treated in Northern Ireland over 5 years, specifically investigating incidence, prodromal symptoms, association with bisphosphonates and optimal fixation methods. All subtrochanteric fractures treated in the region were identified and reviewed for atypical features...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Stephen McGovarin, Tamanna Sultana, Chris Metcalfe
To determine whether discharges of contaminants from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may be contributing to the decline in populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the watershed of the Credit River in ON, Canada, we caged juvenile brook trout upstream and downstream of the WWTPs of the small communities of Acton and Orangeville. Levels of vitellogenin were significantly elevated in liver tissue of trout caged downstream of both WWTPs, indicating exposure to estrogenic substances. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances indicative of oxidation of lipids were elevated in the gill tissue of brook trout caged downstream of the Orangeville WWTP, and levels of total glutathione were significantly lower in the gills of brook trout caged downstream of the Acton WWTP...
January 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jeffrey C Schneider, Vivian L Shie, Leda F Espinoza, Gabriel D Shapiro, Austin Lee, Amy Acton, Molly Marino, Alan Jette, Lewis E Kazis, Colleen M Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in long-term social reintegration outcomes for burn survivors with and without work-related injuries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Community-dwelling burn survivors. PARTICIPANTS: Burn survivors (N=601) aged ≥18 years with injuries to ≥5% total body surface area or burns to critical areas (hands, feet, face, or genitals). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable...
November 26, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
A K Gardner, E M Ritter, B J Dunkin, D S Smink, J N Lau, J T Paige, R Phitayakorn, R D Acton, D Stefanidis, D W Gee
BACKGROUND: The role of simulation-based education continues to expand exponentially. To excel in this environment as a surgical simulation leader requires unique knowledge, skills, and abilities that are different from those used in traditional clinically-based education. METHODS: Leaders in surgical simulation were invited to participate as discussants in a pre-conference course offered by the Association for Surgical Education. Highlights from their discussions were recorded...
February 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Rachel B Acton, David Hammond
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labelling and sugary drink taxation on consumer beverage purchases. METHODS: A total of 675 respondents aged 16 years and older participated in an experimental marketplace study using a 4 × 5 within-between group design. Participants were randomised to one of four labelling conditions (no label; star rating; high sugar symbol; health warning) and completed five within-subject purchase tasks...
February 1, 2018: Appetite
Laura M Breij, Marieke Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Dennis Acton, Emanuella De Lucia Rolfe, Ken K Ong, Anita C S Hokken-Koelega
BACKGROUND: Accelerated gain in fat mass in the first months of life is considered to be a risk factor for adult diseases, given the tracking of infancy fat mass into adulthood. Our objective was to assess the influence of early growth, type of feeding and maternal variables on fat mass in early life. METHODS: In 300 healthy term infants, we longitudinally measured fat mass percentage (FM%) by air-displacement-plethysmography at 1, 3, and 6 months and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat measured by ultrasound at 3 and 6 months...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Brian Grieve, Gabriel D Shapiro, Lucy Wibbenmeyer, Amy Acton, Austin Lee, Molly Marino, Alan Jette, Jeffrey C Schneider, Lewis E Kazis, Colleen M Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in long-term social reintegration outcomes for burn survivors with and without peer support attendence. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Community-dwelling burn survivors. PARTICIPANTS: Burn survivors (N = 601) aged ≥18 years with injuries to ≥5% total body surface area or burns to critical areas (hands, feet, face, or genitals). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable...
October 30, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Rituparna Sarkar, Scott T Acton
In image classification, obtaining adequate data to learn a robust classifier has often proven to be difficult in several scenarios. Classification of histological tissue images for health care analysis is a notable application in this context due to the necessity of surgery, biopsy or autopsy. To adequately exploit limited training data in classification, we propose a saliency guided dictionary learning method and subsequently an image similarity technique for histo-pathological image classification. Salient object detection from images aids in the identification of discriminative image features...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Stephanie C Koch, David Acton, Martyn Goulding
The exteroceptive somatosensory system is important for reflexive and adaptive behaviors and for the dynamic control of movement in response to external stimuli. This review outlines recent efforts using genetic approaches in the mouse to map the spinal cord circuits that transmit and gate the cutaneous somatosensory modalities of touch, itch, and pain. Recent studies have revealed an underlying modular architecture in which nociceptive, pruritic, and innocuous stimuli are processed by distinct molecularly defined interneuron cell types...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
David Acton, Gareth Brian Miles
Astrocytes are proposed to converse with neurons at tripartite synapses, detecting neurotransmitter release and responding with release of gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. However, a paucity of evidence from behavioral studies calls into question the importance of gliotransmission for the operation of the nervous system in healthy animals. Central pattern generator (CPG) networks in the spinal cord and brainstem coordinate the activation of muscles during stereotyped activities such as locomotion, inspiration and mastication, and may therefore provide tractable models in which to assess the contribution of gliotransmission to behaviorally relevant neural activity...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Mark Dombrovski, Leanne Poussard, Kamilia Moalem, Lucia Kmecova, Nic Hogan, Elisabeth Schott, Andrea Vaccari, Scott Acton, Barry Condron
Spectacular examples of cooperative behavior emerge among a variety of animals and may serve critical roles in fitness [1, 2]. However, the rules governing such behavior have been difficult to elucidate [2]. Drosophila larvae are known to socially aggregate [3, 4] and use vision, mechanosensation, and gustation to recognize each other [5-8]. We describe here a model experimental system of cooperative behavior involving Drosophila larvae. While foraging in liquid food, larvae are observed to align themselves and coordinate their movements in order to drag a common air cavity and dig deeper...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
David Smith, Thomas Acton
We trace the post-war evolution of a national approach to providing caravan sites for Gypsies and Travellers-something essential to protect the health of that population in the United Kingdom (UK). Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the late Norman Dodds MP championed in Parliament the plight of the UK's Gypsies and other nomads. He was instrumental in galvanising support for the 1968 Caravan Sites Act. The vision of influential individuals working in public and environmental health surmounted practical considerations and local opposition to implement the national programme of site provision envisioned by the Act...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
Molly Marino, Emily C Dore, Pengsheng Ni, Colleen M Ryan, Jeff C Schneider, Amy Acton, Alan M Jette, Lewis E Kazis
OBJECTIVE: To develop self-reported short forms for the LIBRE Profile. DESIGN: Participants were selected for inclusion in the short forms based upon the item parameters of discrimination and average difficulty. Test information function, as well as floor and ceiling effects, were evaluated for both the full item bank and the short forms. SETTING: Participants were recruited were from the Phoenix Society (a support network for burn survivors), peer support networks, social media, and mailings...
September 6, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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