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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793206/effects-on-the-hepatic-transcriptome-of-chicken-embryos-in-ovo-exposed-to-phenobarbital
#1
Jiahua Guo, Shohei Ito, Hoa Thanh Nguyen, Kimika Yamamoto, Hisato Iwata
This work aimed at evaluating the toxic effects of in ovo exposure to phenobarbital (PB) and unveiling the mode of action by transcriptome analysis in the embryonic liver of a model avian species, chicken (Gallus gallus). Embryos were initially treated with saline or 1 μg PB /g egg at Hamburger Hamilton Stage (HHS) 1 (1st day), followed by 20 days of incubation to HHS 46. At 21st day, chicks that pipped successfully were euthanized and dissected for assessing the PB caused effects on phenotypes and the liver transcriptome in both genders...
May 21, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792869/preferential-inputs-from-cholecystokinin-positive-neurons-to-the-somatic-compartment-of-parvalbumin-expressing-neurons-in-the-mouse-primary-somatosensory-cortex
#2
Hiroyuki Hioki, Jaerin Sohn, Hisashi Nakamura, Shinichiro Okamoto, Jungwon Hwang, Yoko Ishida, Megumu Takahashi, Hiroshi Kameda
Parvalbumin-positive (PV+) neurons in the cerebral cortex, mostly corresponding to fast-spiking basket cells, have been implicated in higher-order brain functions and psychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that the somatic compartment of PV+ neurons received inhibitory inputs mainly from vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)+ neurons, whereas inhibitory inputs to the dendritic compartment were derived mostly from PV+ and somatostatin (SOM)+ neurons. However, a substantial number of the axosomatic inputs have remained unidentified...
May 21, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792762/genetic-profiling-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-path-to-predicting-treatment-outcome
#3
Giuseppe Visani, Federica Loscocco, Alessandro Isidori, Pier Paolo Piccaluga
Despite substantial progresses in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) diagnosis and treatment, at least half of patient will eventually die for the disease. In the last decades, the use of genetic and genomic approaches allowed the identification of patients with higher risk of recurrence after and/or resistance to CHT. However, though many novel drugs have been proposed and tested, only little clinical improvements have been made concerning the treatment of the so called 'high risk' patients. Areas covered: In this article, the authors, based on their own experience and the most updated literature, review the basic knowledge of AML prognostication and treatment prediction developed throughout genetic and genomic profiling, and focus on the use of gene expression profiling as a promising predictive tool...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792376/somatic-ace-regulates-self-renewal-of-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells-via-the-mapk-signaling-pathway
#4
Tingting Gao, Xin Zhao, Chenchen Liu, Binbin Shao, Xi Zhang, Kai Li, Jinyang Cai, Su Wang, Xiaoyan Huang
Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal is an indispensable part of spermatogenesis. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase that plays a critical role in regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. Here, we used RT-PCR and Western blot analysis to confirm that somatic ACE (sACE) but not testicular ACE (tACE) is highly expressed in mouse testis before postpartum day 7 and in cultured SSCs. Our results revealed that sACE is located on the membrane of SSCs. Treating cultured SSCs with the ACE competitive inhibitor captopril was found to inhibit sACE activity, and significantly reduced the proliferation rate of SSCs...
May 24, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791502/anthropometry-based-24-h-urinary-creatinine-excretion-reference-for-chinese-children
#5
Wei Wang, Cong Du, Laixiang Lin, Wen Chen, Long Tan, Jun Shen, Elizabeth N Pearce, Yixin Zhang, Min Gao, Jianchao Bian, Xiaoming Wang, Wanqi Zhang
To establish 24-h urinary creatinine excretion reference ranges based on anthropometry in healthy Chinese children, a cross-sectional survey was conducted using twice-sampled 24-h urine and anthropometric variables. Age- and sex-specific 24-h creatinine excretion reference ranges (crude and related to individual anthropometric variables) were derived. During October 2013 and May 2014, urine samples were collected. Anthropometric variables were measured in the first survey. Data of 710 children (377 boys and 333 girls) aged 8-13 years who completed the study were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791457/a-feasibility-study-of-colorectal-cancer-diagnosis-via-circulating-tumor-dna-derived-cnv-detection
#6
Bhuvan Molparia, Glenn Oliveira, Jennifer L Wagner, Emily G Spencer, Ali Torkamani
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has shown great promise as a biomarker for early detection of cancer. However, due to the low abundance of ctDNA, especially at early stages, it is hard to detect at high accuracies while keeping sequencing costs low. Here we present a pilot stage study to detect large scale somatic copy numbers variations (CNVs), which contribute more molecules to ctDNA signal compared to point mutations, via cell free DNA sequencing. We show that it is possible to detect somatic CNVs in early stage colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and subsequently discriminate them from normal patients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791087/sexual-and-somatic-development-of-wood-frog-tadpoles-along-a-thermal-gradient
#7
Max R Lambert, Meredith S Smylie, Amber J Roman, L Kealoha Freidenburg, David K Skelly
All amphibian species are known to have genetic sex determination. However, a variety of environmental conditions can moderate sexual differentiation, in some cases leading to sex reversal and skewed sex ratios. While there has been a recent focus on chemically-induced sex reversal in amphibians, temperature can also influence sexual differentiation. Building upon a classic 1929 study by Emil Witschi, we assessed temperature-mediated sex reversal. Witschi found that the wood frog sex ratio is 100% male at a high temperature (32°C) compared to a 50:50 sex ratio at 20°C...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791079/overexpression-of-tet3-in-donor-cells-enhances-goat-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-efficiency
#8
Chengquan Han, Ruizhi Deng, Tingchao Mao, Yan Luo, Biao Wei, Peng Meng, Lu Zhao, Qing Zhang, Fusheng Quan, Liu Jun, Yong Zhang
Ten-eleven translocation 3 (TET3) mediates active DNA demethylation of paternal genomes during mouse embryonic development. However, the mechanism of DNA demethylation in goat embryos remains unknown. In addition, aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming prevalently occurs in cloned embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, we reported that TET3 is a key factor in DNA demethylation in goat pre-implantation embryos. Knockdown of Tet3 hindered DNA demethylation at 2-4-cell stage in goat embryos and decreased Nanog expression in blastocysts...
May 23, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791066/application-of-denaturing-capillary-electrophoresis-for-the-detection-of-prognostic-mutations-in-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-1-and-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-2-genes-in-brain-tumors
#9
Lucie Benesova, Barbora Belsanova, Filip Kramar, Tereza Halkova, Vladimir Benes, Marek Minarik
Malignant transformation in gliomas is frequently supplemented by somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 genes. It has recently emerged that mutations in these genes are associated with prolonged survival and should be used as prognostic factor in management of brain cancer patients. There are several approaches in use for the detection of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations, however, these often exhibit shortcomings such as convoluted protocols with long processing time, complex (and costly) dedicated fluorescent probes and/or high demand on amounts of input DNA...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790943/mutalisk-a-web-based-somatic-mutation-analyis-toolkit-for-genomic-transcriptional-and-epigenomic-signatures
#10
Jongkeun Lee, Andy Jinseok Lee, June-Koo Lee, Jongkeun Park, Youngoh Kwon, Seongyeol Park, Hyonho Chun, Young Seok Ju, Dongwan Hong
Somatic genome mutations occur due to combinations of various intrinsic/extrinsic mutational processes and DNA repair mechanisms. Different molecular processes frequently generate different signatures of somatic mutations in their own favored contexts. As a result, the regional somatic mutation rate is dependent on the local DNA sequence, the DNA replication/RNA transcription dynamics and epigenomic chromatin organization landscape in the genome. Here, we propose an online computational framework, termed Mutalisk, which correlates somatic mutations with various genomic, transcriptional and epigenomic features in order to understand mutational processes that contribute to the generation of the mutations...
May 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790648/anxiety-sensitivity-mediates-the-relationship-between-exercise-frequency-and-anxiety-and-depression-symptomology
#11
Joshua J Broman-Fulks, Chelsea M Abraham, Kelsey Thomas, Will H Canu, David C Nieman
The anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of regular physical exercise have been well documented, though the mechanisms through which exercise alleviates symptoms of emotion disorders require further investigation. Mounting research indicates that exercise reduces anxiety sensitivity, a known vulnerability factor for the development and maintenance of psychological disorders, presumably via repeated exposure to feared somatic sensations. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether anxiety sensitivity mediates the relation between exercise frequency and symptoms of anxiety and depression...
May 23, 2018: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790355/-pathophysiology-of-pain-and-its-clinical-application
#12
Richard Rokyta
The article describes the pathophysiology of both acute and chronic pain. Some common mechanisms of chronic pain, including somatic and visceral pains, are highlighted. There are also some painful syndromes and their pathophysiological mechanisms with a direct relationship to their treatment. In addition to the basic pharmacotherapeutic options resulting from the pathophysiology of pain, new possibilities of pain therapy are also mentioned, especially the neuromodulatory and neurostimulatory methods again from the point of view of pathophysiological principles...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789885/instability-of-endosperm-development-in-amphiploids-and-their-parental-species-in-the-genus-avena-l
#13
Paulina Tomaszewska, Romuald Kosina
The development of oat endosperm is modified by chromatin and nuclei elimination, intrusive growth of cell walls, and polyploidisation of cell clones. The last event is correlated with somatic crossing-over. Grass endosperm is a variable tissue in terms of its cytogenetics and development. Free-nuclear syncytium and starchy and aleurone endosperm were the main focus of the research. These were studied in oat amphiploids (4x, 6x, and 8x) and parental species (2x, 4x, and 6x). What the levels of cytogenetic disorders and developmental anomalies in species versus hybrids are, and, what the factors are determining phenotypes of both tissue components, are open questions for oats...
May 22, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789719/selective-vulnerability-of-the-primitive-meningeal-layer-to-prenatal-smo-activation-for-skull-base-meningothelial-meningioma-formation
#14
Julien Boetto, Caroline Apra, Franck Bielle, Matthieu Peyre, Michel Kalamarides
Somatic activating mutations of smoothened (SMO), a component of the embryonic sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway, are found in 3-5% of grade I meningiomas, most of them corresponding to meningothelial meningiomas located at the anterior skull base. By generating different developmental stage-specific conditional activations in mice, we define a restricted developmental window during which conditional activation of Smo in Prostaglandin D2-synthase-positive mesoderm-derived meningeal layer of the skull base results in meningothelial meningioma formation...
May 22, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789579/endogenous-authentic-oct4a-proteins-directly-regulate-fos-ap-1-transcription-in-somatic-cancer-cells
#15
Yanwen Zhou, Xinyu Chen, Bo Kang, Shiqi She, Xiaobing Zhang, Cheng Chen, Wenxin Li, Wenjie Chen, Songsong Dan, Xiaoyun Pan, Xiaoli Liu, Jianqin He, Qingwei Zhao, Chenggang Zhu, Ling Peng, Haoyi Wang, Hangping Yao, Hongcui Cao, Lanjuan Li, Meenhard Herlyn, Ying-Jie Wang
OCT4A is well established as a master transcription factor for pluripotent stem cell (PSC) self-renewal and a pioneer factor for initiating somatic cell reprogramming, yet its presence and functionality in somatic cancer cells remain controversial and obscure. By combining the CRISPR-Cas9-based gene editing with highly specific PCR assays, highly sensitive immunoassays, and mass spectrometry, we provide unequivocal evidence here that full-length authentic OCT4A transcripts and proteins were both present in somatic cancer cells, and OCT4A proteins were heterogeneously expressed in the whole cell population and when expressed, they are predominantly localized in cell nucleus...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789566/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-adult-human-klinefelter-testis-and-cellularity-matched-controls-reveals-disturbed-differentiation-of-sertoli-and-leydig-cells
#16
Sofia Boeg Winge, Marlene Danner Dalgaard, Kirstine G Belling, Jacob Malte Jensen, John Erik Nielsen, Lise Aksglaede, Mikkel Heide Schierup, Søren Brunak, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Anders Juul, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts, Kristian Almstrup
The most common human sex chromosomal disorder is Klinefelter syndrome (KS; 47,XXY). Adult patients with KS display a diverse phenotype but are nearly always infertile, due to testicular degeneration at puberty. To identify mechanisms causing the selective destruction of the seminiferous epithelium, we performed RNA-sequencing of 24 fixed paraffin-embedded testicular tissue samples. Analysis of informative transcriptomes revealed 235 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in the adult KS testis showing enrichment of long non-coding RNAs, but surprisingly not of X-chromosomal transcripts...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788997/2d-versus-3d-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cultures-for-neurodegenerative-disease-modelling
#17
REVIEW
Eduarda G Z Centeno, Helena Cimarosti, Angela Bithell
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), affect millions of people every year and so far, there are no therapeutic cures available. Even though animal and histological models have been of great aid in understanding disease mechanisms and identifying possible therapeutic strategies, in order to find disease-modifying solutions there is still a critical need for systems that can provide more predictive and physiologically relevant results...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788737/diagnosis-for-carcinoma-of-unknown-primary-site-with-the-aid-of-simple-pcr-tests-a-single-center-experience
#18
E Suspitsin, G Yanus, E Imyanitov
This study was aimed to incorporate PCR testing in the determination of organ/tissue origin for cancers of unknown primary site (CUP). We developed a PCR panel consisting of 7 expression markers (CDX2, CDH17, SPB, UGRP, MAM, LPB, TG) and 2 genes frequently mutated in cancer (KRAS and BRAF). The expression tests were intentionally interpreted in a non-quantitative way, i.e. classified tumors either as positive or negative expressors. While applying these tests to 135 cancers belonging to 8 common types of adenocarcinomas (AdCa), we observed that this panel was capable to clearly discriminate between gastrointestinal vs...
March 14, 2018: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788453/myofascial-findings-and-psychopathological-factors-in-patients-with-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome
#19
Susanne G R Klotz, Gesche Ketels, Bernd Löwe, Christian A Brünahl
Objective: Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a common pain condition with psychosocial and somatic symptoms. Myofascial findings and psychiatric comorbidities are frequent. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze myofascial and psychosocial aspects. Furthermore, the study focuses on correlations between these aspects and gender differences in this topic. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Interdisciplinary outpatient clinic for patients with CPPS at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany...
May 19, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788434/a-novel-mouse-model-of-testicular-granulosa-cell-tumors
#20
Xin Fang, Nan Ni, Yang Gao, David F Vincent, Laurent Bartholin, Qinglei Li
STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of dysregulated transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling in the development of sex cord-stromal tumors in the testis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overactivation of TGFB signaling results in the development of testicular tumors resembling granulosa cell tumors (GrCTs). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In an earlier study, we demonstrated that constitutively active TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1) in ovarian somatic cells promotes the development of ovarian GrCTs...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
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