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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545225/state-of-art-of-cancer-pharmacogenomics-in-latin-american-populations
#1
REVIEW
Andrés López-Cortés, Santiago Guerrero, María Ana Redal, Angel Tito Alvarado, Luis Abel Quiñones
Over the past decades, several studies have shown that tumor-related somatic and germline alterations predicts tumor prognosis, drug response and toxicity. Latin American populations present a vast geno-phenotypic diversity due to the great interethnic and interracial mixing. This genetic flow leads to the appearance of complex characteristics that allow individuals to adapt to endemic environments, such as high altitude or extreme tropical weather. These genetic changes, most of them subtle and unexplored, could establish a mutational profile to develop new pharmacogenomic therapies specific for Latin American populations...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545147/chromosome-divergence-during-evolution-of-the-tetraploid-clawed-frogs-xenopus-mellotropicalis-and-xenopus-epitropicalis-as-revealed-by-zoo-fish
#2
Martin Knytl, Ondřej Smolík, Svatava Kubíčková, Tereza Tlapáková, Ben J Evans, Vladimír Krylov
Whole genome duplication (WGD) generates new species and genomic redundancy. In African clawed frogs of the genus Xenopus, this phenomenon has been especially important in that (i) all but one extant species are polyploid and (ii) whole genome sequences of some species provide an evidence for genomic rearrangements prior to or after WGD. Within Xenopus in the subgenus Silurana, at least one allotetraploidization event gave rise to three extant tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) species-Xenopus mellotropicalis, X. epitropicalis, and X...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545049/first-cloned-bactrian-camel-camelus-bactrianus-calf-produced-by-interspecies-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-a-step-towards-preserving-the-critically-endangered-wild-bactrian-camels
#3
Nisar Ahmad Wani, Binoy S Vettical, Seung B Hong
Studies were conducted to explore the possibility of employing dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes as recipient cytoplasts for the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos using skin fibroblast cells of an adult Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and Llama (Llama glama) as donor nuclei. Also, the embryos reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred into the uterus of synchronized dromedary camel recipients to explore the possibility of using them as surrogate mothers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544751/constitutional-abnormalities-of-idh1-combined-with-secondary-mutations-predispose-a-patient-with-maffucci-syndrome-to-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#4
Shinsuke Hirabayashi, Masafumi Seki, Daisuke Hasegawa, Motohiro Kato, Nobuyuki Hyakuna, Takuya Shuo, Shunsuke Kimura, Kenichi Yoshida, Keisuke Kataoka, Yoichi Fujii, Yuichi Shiraishi, Kenichi Chiba, Hiroko Tanaka, Nobutaka Kiyokawa, Satoru Miyano, Seishi Ogawa, Junko Takita, Atsushi Manabe
Maffucci syndrome is a nonhereditary disorder caused by somatic mosaic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1 or IDH2) mutations and is characterized by multiple enchondromas along with hemangiomas. Malignant transformation of enchondromas to chondrosarcomas and secondary neoplasms, such as brain tumors or acute myeloid leukemia, are serious complications. A 15-year-old female with Maffucci syndrome developed B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). A somatic mutation in IDH1 was detected in hemangioma and leukemic cells...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544709/somatic-autonomic-neurorrhaphy-for-erectile-function-restoration-after-radical-prostatectomy
#5
EDITORIAL
Jaime A Cavallo, Ashutosh K Tewari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544703/high-ubiquitin-specific-protease-44-expression-induces-dna-aneuploidy-and-provides-independent-prognostic-information-in-gastric-cancer
#6
Sho Nishimura, Eiji Oki, Koji Ando, Makoto Iimori, Yu Nakaji, Yuichiro Nakashima, Hiroshi Saeki, Yoshinao Oda, Yoshihiko Maehara
Chromosomal instability (CIN), characterized by aneuploidy, is a major molecular subtype of gastric cancer. The deubiquitinase USP44 is an important regulator of APC activation in the spindle checkpoint and leads to proper chromosome separation to prevent aneuploidy. Aberrant expression of USP44 leads CIN in cells; however, the correlation between USP44 and DNA aneuploidy in gastric cancer is largely unknown. We analyzed USP44 expression in 207 patients with gastric cancer by immunohistochemistry and found that the proportion of USP44 expression was higher in gastric cancer tumors (mean, 39...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544411/chronic-comorbidity-in-multiple-sclerosis-is-associated-with-lower-incomes-and-dissolved-intimate-relationships
#7
A Thormann, P S Sørensen, N Koch-Henriksen, L C Thygesen, B Laursen, M Magyari
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The social and economic consequences of comorbidity in multiple sclerosis (MS) are largely unexplored. Differences were investigated in income and in the rate of broken relationships between cases of MS with and without chronic comorbidity. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study including all incident cases of MS in Denmark with clinical MS onset between 1980 and 2005. The difference in income was investigated at MS onset and 5 and 10 years after MS onset...
June 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544240/cell-cycle-synchronization-and-analysis-of-apoptosis-related-gene-in-skin-fibroblasts-from-domestic-cat-felis-silvestris-catus-and-kodkod-leopardus-guigna
#8
D Veraguas, P F Gallegos, F O Castro, L Rodriguez-Alvarez
The kodkod population is in constant decrease and the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) might help to preserve the genetic pool of this species. The cell cycle synchronization of donor cells plays a crucial role in SCNT. The objective of this research was to evaluate two different methods for quiescence induction, serum starvation (SS) and contact inhibition (CI), both for 1, 3 and 5 days, on skin fibroblast from domestic cat and kodkod. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that in domestic cat, SS and CI, both at 3 and 5 days, increased the percentage of fibroblasts in G0/G1 compared to growing cells (GC) (p < ...
May 22, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544151/the-emt-spectrum-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#9
REVIEW
Dominic Chih-Cheng Voon, Ruby Yun-Ju Huang, Rebecca A Jackson, Jean Paul Thiery
Carcinomas are phenotypically arrayed along an EMT spectrum, a developmental program currently exploited to understand the acquisition of drug resistance through a re-routing of growth factor signalling. This review collates the current approaches employed in developing therapeutics against cancer-associated EMT, and provides an assessment of their respective strengths and drawbacks. We reflect on the close relationship between EMT and chemoresistance against current targeted therapeutics, with a special focus on the epigenetic mechanisms that links these processes...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544006/morphology-and-phylogeny-of-two-novel-ciliates-arcanisutura-chongmingiensis-n-gen-n-sp-and-naxella-paralucida-n-sp-from-shanghai-china
#10
Wanying Liao, Xinpeng Fan, Qianqian Zhang, Yuan Xu, Fukang Gu
The morphologies of two novel ciliates, Arcanisutura chongmingiensis n. gen., n. sp. and Naxella paralucida n. sp., collected from Shanghai, China, have been investigated using live observation and silver staining methods. Arcanisutura n. gen. can be easily distinguished from related genera by its inconspicuous, oblique anterior suture. Arcanisutura chongmingiensis n. sp. is mainly recognized by its elongated body with a tail-like posterior end, 25-33 somatic kineties, and 4-11 excretory pores. Naxella paralucida n...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543693/somatic-driver-mutations-in-melanoma
#11
REVIEW
Bobby Y Reddy, David M Miller, Hensin Tsao
Melanoma has one of the highest somatic mutational burdens among solid malignancies. Although the rapid progress in genomic research has contributed immensely to our understanding of the pathogenesis of melanoma, the clinical significance of the vast array of genomic alterations discovered by next-generation sequencing is far from being fully characterized. Most mutations prevalent in melanoma are simply neutral "passengers," which accompany functionally significant "drivers" under transforming conditions. The delineation of driver mutations from passenger mutations is critical to the development of targeted therapies...
June 1, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543320/processes-in-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-and-the-rehabilitation-of-chronic-fatigue
#12
Henrik Børsting Jacobsen, Håvard Kallestad, Nils Inge Landrø, Petter C Borchgrevink, Tore C Stiles
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has never been tested for patients with chronic fatigue. We aimed to test if a 3.5-week ACT rehabilitation program for patients with chronic fatigue improved quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and psychological flexibility. Further, to test if improvements in QoL and fatigue were associated with improvement in psychological flexibility, and if psychological flexibility explained variance above and beyond maladaptive cognitions typically targeted in CBT for fatigue. Patients (n = 140) who had been on sick leave > 8 weeks due to chronic fatigue received a 3...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543182/prognostic-significance-of-promoter-cpg-island-methylation-of-obesity-related-genes-in-patients-with-nonmetastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#13
Julia Mendoza-Pérez, Jian Gu, Luis A Herrera, Nizar M Tannir, Shanyu Zhang, Surena Matin, Jose A Karam, Christopher G Wood, Xifeng Wu
BACKGROUND: Greater than 40% of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cases in the United States are attributed to excessive body weight. Moreover, obesity also may be linked to RCC prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations are unclear. In the current study, the authors evaluated the role of promoter methylation in obesity-related genes in RCC tumorigenesis and disease recurrence. METHODS: Paired tumors (TU) and normal adjacent (N-Adj) tissues from 240 newly diagnosed and previously untreated white patients with RCC were examined...
May 23, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543104/circulating-tumor-dna-profiling-reveals-clonal-evolution-and-real-time-disease-progression-in-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Zhi-Xiong Cai, Geng Chen, Yong-Yi Zeng, Xiu-Qing Dong, Min-Jie Lin, Xin-Hui Huang, Da Zhang, Xiao-Long Liu, Jing-Feng Liu
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) provides a potential non-invasive biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, but whether it could reflect tumor heterogeneity and monitor therapeutic responses in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. Focusing on 574 cancer genes known to harbor actionable mutations, we identified the mutation repertoire of HCC tissues, and monitored the corresponding ctDNA features in blood samples to evaluate its clinical significance. Analysis of 3 HCC patients' mutation profiles revealed that ctDNA could overcome tumor heterogeneity and provide information of tumor burden and prognosis...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543076/reproductive-characteristics-of-pike-characids-boulengerella-cuvieri-ctenoluciidae-in-the-middle-xingu-river-eastern-amazon
#15
Y A Mendes, M A P Ferreira, C M C Lobato, G M F Silva, L F A Montag, R M Rocha
This study evaluated the reproductive characteristics of pike-characids, Boulengerella cuvieri, during the hydrological cycle in the Xingu River, eastern Amazon. The sex ratio was 1:1 and the gonado-somatic index and relative frequency of maturation stages indicate a short breeding season of single phase spawning that coincides with a filling and flood period. Mean standard length at first sexual maturity for female B. cuvieri was estimated to be 22·9 cm.
May 24, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542181/the-varieties-of-contemplative-experience-a-mixed-methods-study-of-meditation-related-challenges-in-western-buddhists
#16
Jared R Lindahl, Nathan E Fisher, David J Cooper, Rochelle K Rosen, Willoughby B Britton
Buddhist-derived meditation practices are currently being employed as a popular form of health promotion. While meditation programs draw inspiration from Buddhist textual sources for the benefits of meditation, these sources also acknowledge a wide range of other effects beyond health-related outcomes. The Varieties of Contemplative Experience study investigates meditation-related experiences that are typically underreported, particularly experiences that are described as challenging, difficult, distressing, functionally impairing, and/or requiring additional support...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542174/specification-and-spatial-arrangement-of-cells-in-the-germline-stem-cell-niche-of-the-drosophila-ovary-depend-on-the-maf-transcription-factor-traffic-jam
#17
Trupti Panchal, Xi Chen, Ekaterina Alchits, Youjin Oh, James Poon, Jane Kouptsova, Frank A Laski, Dorothea Godt
Germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary are maintained by a somatic niche. The niche is structurally and functionally complex and contains four cell types, the escort, cap, and terminal filament cells and the newly identified transition cell. We find that the large Maf transcription factor Traffic jam (Tj) is essential for determining niche cell fates and architecture, enabling each niche in the ovary to support a normal complement of 2-3 germline stem cells. In particular, we focused on the question of how cap cells form...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542149/jak-stat-signaling-is-necessary-for-cell-monosis-prior-to-epithelial-cell-apoptotic-extrusion
#18
Alba Y Torres, Marianne Malartre, Anne-Marie Pret, François Agnès
Epithelial cell extrusion is crucial for proper development and tissue homeostasis. High-resolution 3D reconstruction and 4D imaging, combined with genetic analyis, have allowed us to reveal the highly-sterotyped morphogenetic events controlled by JAK/STAT signaling in a developmentally-programmed case of epithelial cell extrusion. Specialized somatic cells, Polar Cells (PCs), are produced in excess and then undergo apoptotic elimination from the follicular epithelium in the Drosophila ovary. We show that supernumerary PCs are first systematically enveloped by PC neighbors on all sides, first laterally, then apically in conjunction with highly-reinforced adherens junctions, and finally basally...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541831/genotoxicity-and-antigenotoxicity-assessments-of-the-flavonoid-vitexin-by-the-drosophila-melanogaster-somatic-mutation-and-recombination-test
#19
Liliane Menezes Fernandes, Zaira da Rosa Guterres, Igor Vivian Almeida, Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini
Vitexin is a C-glycosylated flavone found in various medicinal plants with several proven biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Considering that the human population consumes many foods that contain this flavonoid, the objective of this study was to investigate the genotoxic and the antigenotoxic potentials of vitexin by the SMART (Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test) in Drosophila melanogaster wings, in vivo. To evaluate the genotoxic activity, larvae obtained from standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses were chronically treated with different concentrations of vitexin (0...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541743/rarevar-a-framework-for-detecting-low-frequency-single-nucleotide-variants
#20
Yangyang Hao, Xiaoling Xuei, Lang Li, Harikrishna Nakshatri, Howard J Edenberg, Yunlong Liu
Accurate identification of low-frequency somatic point mutations in tumor samples has important clinical utilities. Although high-throughput sequencing technology enables capturing such variants while sequencing primary tumor samples, our ability for accurate detection is compromised when the variant frequency is close to the sequencer error rate. Most current experimental and bioinformatic strategies target mutations with ≥5% allele frequency, which limits our ability to understand the cancer etiology and tumor evolution...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
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