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Integrated information theory consciousness

Diane K Dao, Adeline L Goss, Andrew S Hoekzema, Lauren A Kelly, Alexander A Logan, Sanjiv D Mehta, Utpal N Sandesara, Michelle R Munyikwa, Horace M DeLisser
Many efforts to design introductory "cultural competence" courses for medical students rely on an information delivery (competence) paradigm, which can exoticize patients while obscuring social context, medical culture, and power structures. Other approaches foster a general open-minded orientation, which can remain nebulous without clear grounding principles. Medical educators are increasingly recognizing the limitations of both approaches and calling for strategies that reenvision cultural competence training...
September 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
(no author information available yet)
"Universal design provides a blueprint for maximum inclusion of all people" [7]. This statement is now nearly 20 years old. The present collection of papers from the 3rd International Conference on Universal Design (UD 2016) is testament to the fact that Universal Design is now benefitting from a climate that is more knowledgeable about, and possibly more accommodating of, individual differences between people. However, there are still many open issues, and much to be learnt from exchanging experiences between all stakeholders interested in Universal Design, be they policy makers, practitioners or researchers...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Theodora Banica, D Samuel Schwarzkopf
It remains unknown to what extent the human visual system interprets information about complex scenes without conscious analysis. Here we used visual masking techniques to assess whether illusory contours (Kanizsa shapes) are perceived when the inducing context creating this illusion does not reach awareness. In the first experiment we tested perception directly by having participants discriminate the orientation of an illusory contour. In the second experiment, we exploited the fact that the presence of an illusory contour enhances performance on a spatial localization task...
2016: PloS One
Tomer Fekete, Cees van Leeuwen, Shimon Edelman
A computational theory of consciousness should include a quantitative measure of consciousness, or MoC, that (i) would reveal to what extent a given system is conscious, (ii) would make it possible to compare not only different systems, but also the same system at different times, and (iii) would be graded, because so is consciousness. However, unless its design is properly constrained, such an MoC gives rise to what we call the boundary problem: an MoC that labels a system as conscious will do so for some-perhaps most-of its subsystems, as well as for irrelevantly extended systems (e...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
William Marshall, Jaime Gomez-Ramirez, Giulio Tononi
Integrated information (Φ) is a measure of the cause-effect power of a physical system. This paper investigates the relationship between Φ as defined in Integrated Information Theory and state differentiation ([Formula: see text]), the number of, and difference between potential system states. Here we provide theoretical justification of the relationship between Φ and [Formula: see text], then validate the results using a simulation study. First, we show that a physical system in a state with high Φ necessarily has many elements and specifies many causal relationships...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Luca Puviani, Sidita Rama
Despite growing scientific interest in the placebo effect and increasing understanding of neurobiological mechanisms, theoretical modeling of the placebo response remains poorly developed. The most extensively accepted theories are expectation and conditioning, involving both conscious and unconscious information processing. However, it is not completely understood how these mechanisms can shape the placebo response. We focus here on neural processes which can account for key properties of the response to substance intake...
2016: Scientific Reports
Eivind Engebretsen, Kristin Heggen, Sietse Wieringa, Trisha Greenhalgh
The evidence-based practice and evidence-based medicine (EBM) movements have promoted standardization through guideline development methodologies based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses of best available research. EBM has challenged clinicians to question their reliance on practical reasoning and clinical judgement. In this paper, we argue that the protagonists of EBM position their mission as reducing uncertainty through the use of standardized methods for knowledge evaluation and use. With this drive towards uniformity, standardization and control comes a suspicion towards intuition, creativity and uncertainty as integral parts of medical practice...
June 3, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Giulio Tononi, Melanie Boly, Marcello Massimini, Christof Koch
In this Opinion article, we discuss how integrated information theory accounts for several aspects of the relationship between consciousness and the brain. Integrated information theory starts from the essential properties of phenomenal experience, from which it derives the requirements for the physical substrate of consciousness. It argues that the physical substrate of consciousness must be a maximum of intrinsic cause-effect power and provides a means to determine, in principle, the quality and quantity of experience...
July 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Gomathi Balasubramanian, Ganapathy Ramanathan
Today, the world's ever-changing lifestyles demand a reliable, comprehensive system of integrative medicine with minimal side effects. One of the most prominent candidates for such a system is music, an enjoyable health care approach, and in response to the need for that system, the present article formulates one that is music based. Specifically, the authors have explored the physician-patient interaction, developing a model of that interaction within the context of music therapy. That model is based on ancient Ayurvedic principles and on research from modern physics and biology, such as that on quantum consciousness, chaos theory, the statistical theory of communication, information theory, and neurodynamics...
April 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Masafumi Oizumi, Shun-ichi Amari, Toru Yanagawa, Naotaka Fujii, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Accumulating evidence indicates that the capacity to integrate information in the brain is a prerequisite for consciousness. Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness provides a mathematical approach to quantifying the information integrated in a system, called integrated information, Φ. Integrated information is defined theoretically as the amount of information a system generates as a whole, above and beyond the amount of information its parts independently generate. IIT predicts that the amount of integrated information in the brain should reflect levels of consciousness...
January 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Naotsugu Tsuchiya, Shigeru Taguchi, Hayato Saigo
One of the most mysterious phenomena in science is the nature of conscious experience. Due to its subjective nature, a reductionist approach is having a hard time in addressing some fundamental questions about consciousness. These questions are squarely and quantitatively tackled by a recently developed theoretical framework, called integrated information theory (IIT) of consciousness. In particular, IIT proposes that a maximally irreducible conceptual structure (MICS) is identical to conscious experience. However, there has been no principled way to assess the claimed identity...
June 2016: Neuroscience Research
Ravinder Jerath, Molly W Crawford, Vernon A Barnes
The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Jakub Jonkisz
Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness - the main aim of this article -into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
E M Aldana, J L Valverde, N Fábregas
A detailed analysis of the literature on consciousness and cognition mechanisms based on the neural networks theory is presented. The immune and inflammatory response to the anesthetic-surgical procedure induces modulation of neuronal plasticity by influencing higher cognitive functions. Anesthetic drugs can cause unconsciousness, producing a functional disruption of cortical and thalamic cortical integration complex. The external and internal perceptions are processed through an intricate network of neural connections, involving the higher nervous activity centers, especially the cerebral cortex...
October 2016: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Andrew R Gallimore
The psychological state elicited by the classic psychedelics drugs, such as LSD and psilocybin, is one of the most fascinating and yet least understood states of consciousness. However, with the advent of modern functional neuroimaging techniques, the effect of these drugs on neural activity is now being revealed, although many of the varied phenomenological features of the psychedelic state remain challenging to explain. Integrated information theory (IIT) is one of the foremost contemporary theories of consciousness, providing a mathematical formalization of both the quantity and quality of conscious experience...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Michał Bola, Bernhard A Sabel
How does cognition emerge from neural dynamics? The dominant hypothesis states that interactions among distributed brain regions through phase synchronization give basis for cognitive processing. Such phase-synchronized networks are transient and dynamic, established on the timescale of milliseconds in order to perform specific cognitive operations. But unlike resting-state networks, the complex organization of transient cognitive networks is typically not characterized within the graph theory framework. Thus, it is not known whether cognitive processing merely changes the strength of functional connections or, conversely, requires qualitatively new topological arrangements of functional networks...
July 1, 2015: NeuroImage
Giulio Tononi, Christof Koch
The science of consciousness has made great strides by focusing on the behavioural and neuronal correlates of experience. However, while such correlates are important for progress to occur, they are not enough if we are to understand even basic facts, for example, why the cerebral cortex gives rise to consciousness but the cerebellum does not, though it has even more neurons and appears to be just as complicated. Moreover, correlates are of little help in many instances where we would like to know if consciousness is present: patients with a few remaining islands of functioning cortex, preterm infants, non-mammalian species and machines that are rapidly outperforming people at driving, recognizing faces and objects, and answering difficult questions...
May 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
T K Das, P M Abeyasinghe, J S Crone, A Sosnowski, S Laureys, A M Owen, A Soddu
With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, it becomes feasible to explore the structure-function relationships in the brain. When the brain is not involved in any cognitive task or stimulated by any external output, it preserves important activities which follow well-defined spatial distribution patterns. Understanding the self-organization of the brain from its anatomical structure, it has been recently suggested to model the observed functional pattern from the structure of white matter fiber bundles. Different models which study synchronization (e...
2014: BioMed Research International
Paul Thagard, Terrence C Stewart
Consciousness results from three mechanisms: representation by firing patterns in neural populations, binding of representations into more complex representations called semantic pointers, and competition among semantic pointers to capture the most important aspects of an organism's current state. We contrast the semantic pointer competition (SPC) theory of consciousness with the hypothesis that consciousness is the capacity of a system to integrate information (IIT). We describe computer simulations to show that SPC surpasses IIT in providing better explanations of key aspects of consciousness: qualitative features, onset and cessation, shifts in experiences, differences in kinds across different organisms, unity and diversity, and storage and retrieval...
November 2014: Consciousness and Cognition
Geraint A Wiggins, Joydeep Bhattacharya
Creativity is the hallmark of human cognition and is behind every innovation, scientific discovery, piece of music, artwork, and idea that have shaped our lives, from ancient times till today. Yet scientific understanding of creative processes is quite limited, mostly due to the traditional belief that considers creativity as a mysterious puzzle, a paradox, defying empirical enquiry. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in revealing the neural correlates of human creativity. Though many of these studies, pioneering in nature, help demystification of creativity, but the field is still dominated by popular beliefs in associating creativity with "right brain thinking", "divergent thinking", "altered states" and so on (Dietrich and Kanso, 2010)...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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