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Integrated information theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334882/decreased-integration-and-information-capacity-in-stroke-measured-by-whole-brain-models-of-resting-state-activity
#1
Mohit H Adhikari, Carl D Hacker, Josh S Siegel, Alessandra Griffa, Patric Hagmann, Gustavo Deco, Maurizio Corbetta
While several studies have shown that focal lesions affect the communication between structurally normal regions of the brain, and that these changes may correlate with behavioural deficits, their impact on brain's information processing capacity is currently unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that focal lesions decrease the brain's information processing capacity, of which changes in functional connectivity may be a measurable correlate. To measure processing capacity, we turned to whole brain computational modelling to estimate the integration and segregation of information in brain networks...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334051/dissecting-the-relationships-of-igg-subclasses-and-complements-in-membranous-lupus-nephritis-and-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy
#2
Woong Na, Kijong Yi, Young Soo Song, Moon Hyang Park
Membranous lupus nephritis (MLN) and idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) are kidney diseases with similar morphology, but distinct etiologies, both producing glomeruli with immune deposits. Immunoglobulins and complements, the main components of the deposits, can be detected by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. Previous researches characterized the immune deposits only individually, but not the interactions between them. To study these relationships we analyzed an IF profile of IgG subclasses and complements (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, C3, C1q, and C4) in 53 and 95 cases of biopsy-confirmed MLNs and IMNs, respectively, mainly using information theory and Bayesian networks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333589/a-unified-theory-of-neuro-mri-data-shows-scale-free-nature-of-connectivity-modes
#3
Vitaly L Galinsky, Lawrence R Frank
A primary goal of many neuroimaging studies that use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to deduce the structure-function relationships in the human brain using data from the three major neuro-MRI modalities: high-resolution anatomical, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI. To date, the general procedure for analyzing these data is to combine the results derived independently from each of these modalities. In this article, we develop a new theoretical and computational approach for combining these different MRI modalities into a powerful and versatile framework that combines our recently developed methods for morphological shape analysis and segmentation, simultaneous local diffusion estimation and global tractography, and nonlinear and nongaussian spatial-temporal activation pattern classification and ranking, as well as our fast and accurate approach for nonlinear registration between modalities...
March 23, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333487/adaptation-of-the-arizona-cognitive-task-battery-for-use-with-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-mus-musculus-of-down-syndrome
#4
Michael R Hunsaker, Genevieve K Smith, Raymond P Kesner
We propose and validate a clear strategy to efficiently and comprehensively characterize neurobehavioral deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. This novel approach uses neurocognitive theory to design and select behavioral tasks that test specific hypotheses concerning the results of Down syndrome. In this article, we model the Arizona Cognitive Task Battery, used to study human populations with Down syndrome, in Ts65Dn mice. We observed specific deficits for spatial memory, impaired long-term memory for visual objects, acquisition and reversal of motor responses, reduced motor dexterity, and impaired adaptive function as measured by nesting and anxiety tasks...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300998/psychological-assistance-provided-to-patients-diagnosed-with-depression-in-primary-care
#5
Cibele Cunha Lima da Motta, Carmen Leontina Ojeda Ocampo Moré, Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes
The scope of this research was to understand the assistance provided by psychologists to patients diagnosed with depression in the municipal health care network. In this study, the phenomenon is examined from its broader perspective, taking the psychosocial dimensions of health into account. A group of 22 psychologists participated in this study of a qualitative nature. Data collection began with participant in-field observation of the institutional context followed by semi-structured interviews. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze information, thereby facilitating its integration and categorization...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295659/genetic-parameters-for-fur-quality-graded-on-live-animals-and-dried-pelts-of-american-mink-neovison-vison
#6
J P Thirstrup, J Jensen, M S Lund
Fur quality and skin size are integral qualities in the mink industry and are main determinants of sales price and subsequent income for mink fur producers. Parental animals of future generations are selected based on quality grading from live animals, but selection response is obtained from dried skins sold after pelting. In this study, we evaluated traits assessed during live grading and pelt traits examined on dried skins to determine correlation between live and pelt traits. Grading traits and body weight were measured during live animal grading for 9,539 Brown American mink, and pelt quality traits and skin size were evaluated on 8,385 dried mink skins after pelting...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295279/cultural-competence-among-nursing-students-in-saudi-arabia-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
J P Cruz, N Alquwez, C P Cruz, R F D Felicilda-Reynaldo, L M Vitorino, S M S Islam
AIM: This study assessed the cultural competence of nursing students in a Saudi University. BACKGROUND: With the current situation of immigration in Saudi Arabia, the cultural diversity in healthcare facilities is anticipated to grow. This presents a great challenge to the members of the healthcare team. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 272 nursing students in a Saudi university using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of two parts, namely the respondents' demographics and cultural background information sheet and the Cultural Capacity Scale Arabic version...
March 13, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293674/monitoring-and-analysis-of-the-change-process-in-curriculum-mapping-compared-to-the-national-competency-based-learning-objective-catalogue-for-undergraduate-medical-education-nklm-at-four-medical-faculties-part-i-conducive-resources-and-structures
#8
Maria Lammerding-Koeppel, Marianne Giesler, Maryna Gornostayeva, Elisabeth Narciss, Annette Wosnik, Stephan Zipfel, Jan Griewatz, Olaf Fritze
Objective: After passing of the National Competency-based Learning Objectives Catalogue in Medicine (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin, [NKLM, retrieved on 22.03.2016]), the German medical faculties must take inventory and develop their curricula. NKLM contents are expected to be present, but not linked well or sensibly enough in locally grown curricula. Learning and examination formats must be reviewed for appropriateness and coverage of the competences. The necessary curricular transparency is best achieved by systematic curriculum mapping, combined with effective change management...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291277/diagnostiska-fel-och-misstag-%C3%A3-r-vanliga-och-sv%C3%A3-ra-att-m%C3%A3-ta
#9
Anders von Heijne
Diagnostic errors are prevalent and hard to measure Diagnostic errors are prevalent in all aspects of healthcare and a common cause of adverse events. They are often the result of multifactorial events, where there is a complex interplay between cognitive factors, system factors and lack of adequate knowledge. The generic, iterative diagnostic process, with abductive, deductive and inductive components supported by tests and the physical exam, leads to a correct diagnosis for the great majority of patients, but can be derailed by suboptimal thinking, lack of adequate information and external factors such as stress and work overload...
March 13, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288637/exploring-implementation-practices-in-results-based-financing-the-case-of-the-verification-in-benin
#10
Matthieu Antony, Maria Paola Bertone, Olivier Barthes
BACKGROUND: Results-based financing (RBF) has been introduced in many countries across Africa and a growing literature is building around the assessment of their impact. These studies are usually quantitative and often silent on the paths and processes through which results are achieved and on the wider health system effects of RBF. To address this gap, our study aims at exploring the implementation of an RBF pilot in Benin, focusing on the verification of results. METHODS: The study is based on action research carried out by authors involved in the pilot as part of the agency supporting the RBF implementation in Benin...
March 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285941/how-far-can-we-go-in-chronic-disorders-of-consciousness-differential-diagnosis-the-use-of-neuromodulation-in-detecting-internal-and-external-awareness
#11
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Alfredo Manuli, Antonino Cannavò, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Awareness generation and modulation may depend on a balanced information integration and differentiation across default mode network (DMN) and external awareness networks (EAN). Neuromodulation approaches, capable of shaping information processing, may highlight residual network activities supporting awareness, which are not detectable through active paradigms, thus allowing to differentiate chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC). We studied aftereffects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) by applying graph theory within canonical frequency bands to compare the markers of these networks in the electroencephalographic data from 20 patients with DoC...
March 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284736/contributions-of-sensory-tuning-to-auditory-vocal-interactions-in-marmoset-auditory-cortex
#12
Steven J Eliades, Xiaoqin Wang
During speech, humans continuously listen to their own vocal output to ensure accurate communication. Such self-monitoring is thought to require the integration of information about the feedback of vocal acoustics with internal motor control signals. The neural mechanism of this auditory-vocal interaction remains largely unknown at the cellular level. Previous studies in naturally vocalizing marmosets have demonstrated diverse neural activities in auditory cortex during vocalization, dominated by a vocalization-induced suppression of neural firing...
March 8, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277729/motivated-cognition-and-fairness-insights-integration-and-creating-a-path-forward
#13
Laurie J Barclay, Michael R Bashshur, Marion Fortin
How do individuals form fairness perceptions? This question has been central to the fairness literature since its inception, sparking a plethora of theories and a burgeoning volume of research. To date, the answer to this question has been predicated on the assumption that fairness perceptions are subjective (i.e., "in the eye of the beholder"). This assumption is shared with motivated cognition approaches, which highlight the subjective nature of perceptions and the importance of viewing individuals arriving at those perceptions as active and motivated processors of information...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275990/the-dynamics-of-multimodal-integration-the-averaging-diffusion-model
#14
Brandon M Turner, Juan Gao, Scott Koenig, Dylan Palfy, James L McClelland
We combine extant theories of evidence accumulation and multi-modal integration to develop an integrated framework for modeling multimodal integration as a process that unfolds in real time. Many studies have formulated sensory processing as a dynamic process where noisy samples of evidence are accumulated until a decision is made. However, these studies are often limited to a single sensory modality. Studies of multimodal stimulus integration have focused on how best to combine different sources of information to elicit a judgment...
March 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273291/an-integrated-neuroscience-perspective-on-formulation-and-treatment-planning-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-educational-review
#15
David A Ross, Melissa R Arbuckle, Michael J Travis, Jennifer B Dwyer, Gerrit I van Schalkwyk, Kerry J Ressler
Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric illness, increasingly in the public spotlight in the United States due its prevalence in the soldiers returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. This educational review presents a contemporary approach for how to incorporate a modern neuroscience perspective into an integrative case formulation. The article is organized around key neuroscience "themes" most relevant for PTSD. Within each theme, the article highlights how seemingly diverse biological, psychological, and social perspectives all intersect with our current understanding of neuroscience...
March 8, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268525/estimating-multimodal-brain-connectivity-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-exploratory-factor-analysis
#16
Matteo Mancini, Giovanni Giulietti, Barbara Spano, Marco Bozzali, Mara Cercignani, Silvia Conforto
Graph-theoretical approaches have become a popular way to model brain data collected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both from the structural and the functional perspectives. In structural networks, tract-based mapping allows to model different aspects of brain structures by means of the specific characteristics of the different MRI modalities. However, there has been little effort to join the information carried by each modality and to understand what level of common variance is shown in these data...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263420/integrating-ecological-theories-and-traits-in-process-based-modeling-of-macroinvertebrate-community-dynamics-in-streams
#17
Cédric P Mondy, Nele Schuwirth
Predicting the composition and dynamics of communities is a challenging but useful task to efficiently support ecosystem management. Community ecology has developed a number of promising theories, including food webs, metabolic theory, ecological stoichiometry and environmental filtering. Their joint implementation in a mechanistic modeling framework should help us to bring community ecology to a new level by improving its predictive abilities. One of the challenges lies in the proper consideration of model uncertainty...
March 6, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263033/bridging-views-in-cinema-a-review-of-the-art-and-science-of-view-integration
#18
REVIEW
Daniel T Levin, Lewis J Baker
Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the relationship between film and cognitive science. This is reflected in a new science of cinema that can help us both to understand this art form, and to produce new insights about cognition and perception. In this review, we begin by describing how the initial development of cinema involved close observation of audience response. This allowed filmmakers to develop an informal theory of visual cognition that helped them to isolate and creatively recombine fundamental elements of visual experience...
March 6, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260413/the-institutional-logic-of-integrated-care-an-ethnography-of-patient-transitions
#19
James A Shaw, Pia Kontos, Wendy Martin, Christina Victor
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use theories of institutional logics and institutional entrepreneurship to examine how and why macro-, meso-, and micro-level influences inter-relate in the implementation of integrated transitional care out of hospital in the English National Health Service. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted an ethnographic case study of a hospital and surrounding services within a large urban centre in England. Specific methods included qualitative interviews with patients/caregivers, health/social care providers, and organizational leaders; observations of hospital transition planning meetings, community "hub" meetings, and other instances of transition planning; reviews of patient records; and analysis of key policy documents...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257319/contextual-challenges-to-safe-surgery-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-multicenter-multiprofessional-qualitative-study
#20
John W Scott, Yihan Lin, Georges Ntakiyiruta, Zeta A Mutabazi, William Austin Davis, Megan A Morris, Douglas S Smink, Robert Riviello, Steven Yule
OBJECTIVES: Safe surgery should be available to all patients, no matter the setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the contextual-specific challenges to safe surgical care encountered by surgeons and surgical teams in many in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and to understand the ways in which surgical teams overcome them. BACKGROUND: Optimal surgical performance is highly complex and requires providers to integrate and communicate information regarding the patient, task, team, and environment to coordinate team-based care that is timely, effective, and safe...
March 2, 2017: Annals of Surgery
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