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Integrated information theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908844/quittr-the-design-of-a-video-game-to-support-smoking-cessation
#1
Ivan Bindoff, Kristy de Salas, Gregory Peterson, Tristan Ling, Ian Lewis, Lindsay Wells, Peter Gee, Stuart G Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Smoking is recognized as the largest, single, preventable cause of death and disease in the developed world. While the majority of smokers report wanting to quit, and many try each year, smokers find it difficult to maintain long-term abstinence. Behavioral support, such as education, advice, goal-setting, and encouragement, is known to be beneficial in improving the likelihood of succeeding in a quit attempt, but it remains difficult to effectively deliver this behavioral support and keep the patient engaged with the process for a sufficient duration...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908839/the-transition-of-acute-postoperative-pain-to-chronic-pain-an-integrative-overview-of-research-on-mechanisms
#2
C Richard Chapman, Charles J Vierck
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites both clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907024/utility-evaluation-based-on-one-to-n-mapping-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-for-interdependent-networks
#3
Juan Wang, Wenwen Lu, Lina Liu, Li Li, Chengyi Xia
In the field of evolutionary game theory, network reciprocity has become an important means to promote the level of promotion within the population system. Recently, the interdependency provides a novel perspective to understand the widespread cooperation behavior in many real-world systems. In previous works, interdependency is often built from the direct or indirect connections between two networks through the one-to-one mapping mode. However, under many realistic scenarios, players may need much more information from many neighboring agents so as to make a more rational decision...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905959/development-of-a-metric-for-tracking-and-comparing-population-health-based-on-the-minimal-generic-set-of-domains-of-functioning-and-health
#4
Cornelia Oberhauser, Somnath Chatterji, Carla Sabariego, Alarcos Cieza
BACKGROUND: The following minimal set of valid health domains for tracking the health of both clinical and general populations has recently been proposed: 1) energy and drive functions, 2) emotional functions, 3) sensation of pain, 4) carrying out daily routine, 5) walking and moving around, and 6) remunerative employment. This study investigates whether these domains can be integrated into a sound psychometric measure to adequately assess, compare, and monitor the health of populations...
May 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905871/phyinformr-phylogenetic-experimental-design-and-phylogenomic-data-exploration-in-r
#5
Alex Dornburg, J Nick Fisk, Jules Tamagnan, Jeffrey P Townsend
BACKGROUND: Analyses of phylogenetic informativeness represent an important step in screening potential or existing datasets for their proclivity toward convergent or parallel evolution of molecular sites. However, while new theory has been developed from which to predict the utility of sequence data, adoption of these advances have been stymied by a lack of software enabling application of advances in theory, especially for large next-generation sequence data sets. Moreover, there are no theoretical barriers to application of the phylogenetic informativeness or the calculation of quartet internode resolution probabilities in a Bayesian setting that more robustly accounts for uncertainty, yet there is no software with which a computationally intensive Bayesian approach to experimental design could be implemented...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905677/coping-and-caring-support-resources-integral-to-perioperative-nurses-during-the-process-of-organ-procurement-surgery
#6
Zaneta Smith, Gavin Leslie, Dianne Wynaden
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: This paper, discusses and explores the levels of support provided to perioperative nurses' when participating in multi-organ procurement surgery and the impact to their overall well-being. BACKGROUND: Assisting within multi-organ procurement surgical procedures has been recognised to impact on the well-being of perioperative nurses leaving little opportunity for them to recover from their participation or to seek available support resources. To date, this area has remained largely unexplored with limited evidence of how nurses manage and cope with these procedures, in addition to the support received in the workplace...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897341/adaptive-self-assembly-behaviour-restrained-by-supramolecular-crystallization-and-molecular-recognition
#7
Seiji Shinkai, Bappaditya Roy, Takao Noguchi, Daisuke Yoshihara, Junji Sakamoto, Tatsuhiro Yamamoto
Recently, the supramolecular community is integrating different approaches to find converging ideas towards understanding the 'origin of life'. In this report, we have found an interesting adaptation trait, as like in Darwin's theory, in a bolaamphiphile molecule and established an environment friendly behaviour under non-covalent forces leading to evolve diverse assembly structures and interesting photo-physical properties. The perylene diimide (PDI)-based bolaamphiphile is used as a promising scaffold with great potential for the development of emerging supramolecular system...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878940/people-processes-and-systems-an-observational-study-of-the-role-of-technology-in-rural-youth-mental-health-services
#8
Simone Orlowski, Sharon Lawn, Ben Matthews, Anthony Venning, Gabrielle Jones, Megan Winsall, Gaston Antezana, Niranjan Bidargaddi, Peter Musiat
The merits of technology-based mental health service reform have been widely debated among academics, practitioners, and policy makers. The design of new technologies must first be predicated on a detailed appreciation of how the mental health system works before it can be improved or changed through the introduction of new products and services. Further work is required to better understand the nature of face-to-face mental health work and to translate this knowledge to computer scientists and system designers responsible for creating technology-based solutions...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871920/integrating-long-acting-reversible-contraception-larc-services-into-new-york-city-school-based-health-centers-sbhcs-quality-improvement-to-ensure-provision-of-youth-friendly-services
#9
Manaswi Sangraula, Samantha Garbers, Janet Garth, Emily Birchfield Shakibnia, Sarah Timmons, Melanie A Gold
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Adolescents face barriers to accessing youth-friendly family planning services, specifically long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). School-Based Health Centers (SBHCs) can provide youth-friendly care. A quality improvement (QI) project was undertaken to assess quality of care before, during and after LARC services at three SBHCs, and to identify specific strategies for improving these LARC services. METHODS: We interviewed 18 female adolescents who received LARC services...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870750/mapping-coaches-views-of-participation-in-crossfit-to-the-integrated-theory-of-health-behavior-change-and-sense-of-community
#10
Katie M Heinrich, Taran Carlisle, Ainslie Kehler, Sarah J Cosgrove
Group-based training through CrossFit has recently exploded in popularity. Anecdotally, participants often make lifestyle changes and experience improved fitness. Participation factors were mapped to the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change and "sense of community" constructs. Key informant interviews were conducted with 6 CrossFit gym owners/coaches. Data were thematically coded with NVivo 10. Results revealed key factors that both facilitated and restricted participation in CrossFit. Findings provide implications for future theory application and highlight how to improve initiation and adherence by capitalizing on community building and taking steps to reduce intimidation and cost, facilitate realistic goals, and ensure social support...
January 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863498/factors-affecting-implementation-of-perinatal-mental-health-screening-in-women-of-refugee-background
#11
Nishani Nithianandan, Melanie Gibson-Helm, Jacquie McBride, Amanda Binny, Kylie M Gray, Christine East, Jacqueline A Boyle
BACKGROUND: For women of refugee background, the increased risk of mental illness associated with pregnancy is compounded by pre- and post-settlement stressors. In Australia, antenatal screening for depression and anxiety symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is recommended for all women. Despite this, screening is not routinely implemented and little is known about barriers and enablers to implementation for women of refugee background. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of health professionals (n = 28: midwives, obstetricians, perinatal mental health and refugee health experts, interpreters) and women of refugee background (n = 9)...
November 18, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857695/information-compression-multiple-alignment-and-the-representation-and-processing-of-knowledge-in-the-brain
#12
J Gerard Wolff
The SP theory of intelligence, with its realization in the SP computer model, aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realized in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory-SP-neural-is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849290/the-prevention-of-diabetic-foot-ulceration-how-biomechanical-research-informs-clinical-practice
#13
Frank E DiLiberto, Judith F Baumhauer, Deborah A Nawoczenski
Background: Implementation of interprofessional clinical guidelines for the prevention of neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration has demonstrated positive effects regarding ulceration and amputation rates. Current foot care recommendations are primarily based on research regarding the prevention of ulcer recurrence and focused on reducing the magnitude of plantar stress (pressure overload). Yet, foot ulceration remains to be a prevalent and debilitating consequence of Diabetes Mellitus...
November 16, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825732/cognitive-components-underpinning-the-development-of-model-based-learning
#14
Tracey C S Potter, Nessa V Bryce, Catherine A Hartley
Reinforcement learning theory distinguishes "model-free" learning, which fosters reflexive repetition of previously rewarded actions, from "model-based" learning, which recruits a mental model of the environment to flexibly select goal-directed actions. Whereas model-free learning is evident across development, recruitment of model-based learning appears to increase with age. However, the cognitive processes underlying the development of model-based learning remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined whether age-related differences in cognitive processes underlying the construction and flexible recruitment of mental models predict developmental increases in model-based choice...
October 29, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817761/words-are-not-enough-how-preschoolers-integration-of-perspective-and-emotion-informs-their-referential-understanding
#15
Susan A Graham, Valerie San Juan, Melanie Khu
When linguistic information alone does not clarify a speaker's intended meaning, skilled communicators can draw on a variety of cues to infer communicative intent. In this paper, we review research examining the developmental emergence of preschoolers' sensitivity to a communicative partner's perspective. We focus particularly on preschoolers' tendency to use cues both within the communicative context (i.e. a speaker's visual access to information) and within the speech signal itself (i.e. emotional prosody) to make on-line inferences about communicative intent...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809374/the-process-of-patient-enablement-in-general-practice-nurse-consultations-a-grounded-theory-study
#16
Jane Desborough, Michelle Banfield, Christine Phillips, Jane Mills
AIM: The aim of this study was to gain insight into the process of patient enablement in general practice nursing consultations. BACKGROUND: Enhanced roles for general practice nurses may benefit patients through a range of mechanisms, one of which may be increasing patient enablement. In studies with general practitioners enhanced patient enablement has been associated with increases in self-efficacy and skill development. DESIGN: This study used a constructivist grounded theory design...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807408/cortical-neural-computation-by-discrete-results-hypothesis
#17
REVIEW
Carlos Castejon, Angel Nuñez
One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799655/balancing-selection-shapes-density-dependent-foraging-behaviour
#18
Joshua S Greene, Maximillian Brown, May Dobosiewicz, Itzel G Ishida, Evan Z Macosko, Xinxing Zhang, Rebecca A Butcher, Devin J Cline, Patrick T McGrath, Cornelia I Bargmann
The optimal foraging strategy in a given environment depends on the number of competing individuals and their behavioural strategies. Little is known about the genes and neural circuits that integrate social information into foraging decisions. Here we show that ascaroside pheromones, small glycolipids that signal population density, suppress exploratory foraging in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that heritable variation in this behaviour generates alternative foraging strategies. We find that natural C. elegans isolates differ in their sensitivity to the potent ascaroside icas#9 (IC-asc-C5)...
October 31, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798437/a-review-and-critique-of-advances-in-nursing-science-articles-that-focus-on-sexual-health-and-sexual-rights-a-call-to-leadership-and-policy-development
#19
Lynn Rew, Whitney Thurman, Kari McDonald
Sexual health and sexual rights are integral to nursing science but ignored in nursing publications. We searched Advances in Nursing Science for prevalence of these topics. Fifteen articles (1.3%) met our criteria. No nursing theories were used as frameworks, and few concrete suggestions were made for further theory development. Discussion of sociopolitical influences on sexual health and/or sexual rights was limited, mostly unrelated to health care. Information to influence nursing practice, theory development, further research, or policy across the life span, for both males and females, and for variant-gender individuals, was limited...
October 28, 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798039/integration-of-oral-health-into-primary-care-a-scoping-review-protocol
#20
Elham Emami, Hermina Harnagea, Felix Girard, Anne Charbonneau, René Voyer, Christophe Pierre Bedos, Martin Chartier, John Wootton, Yves Couturier
INTRODUCTION: Integrated care has been introduced as a means of improving health outcomes and access to care, and reducing the cost of healthcare. Despite its importance, the integration of oral health into primary care is still an emerging healthcare pathway. This scoping review protocol has been developed and funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research to provide an evidence-based synthesis on a primary oral healthcare approach and its effectiveness in improving oral health outcomes...
October 18, 2016: BMJ Open
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