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Integrated information theory

Joseph E Lawrence, David E Manolopoulos
The Wolynes theory of electronically nonadiabatic reaction rates [P. G. Wolynes, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6559 (1987)] is based on a saddle point approximation to the time integral of a reactive flux autocorrelation function in the nonadiabatic (golden rule) limit. The dominant saddle point is on the imaginary time axis at tsp =iλsp ℏ, and provided λsp lies in the range -β/2≤λsp ≤β/2, it is straightforward to evaluate the rate constant using information obtained from an imaginary time path integral calculation...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Ryan B Scott, Jason Samaha, Ron Chrisley, Zoltan Dienes
While theories of consciousness differ substantially, the 'conscious access hypothesis', which aligns consciousness with the global accessibility of information across cortical regions, is present in many of the prevailing frameworks. This account holds that consciousness is necessary to integrate information arising from independent functions such as the specialist processing required by different senses. We directly tested this account by evaluating the potential for associative learning between novel pairs of subliminal stimuli presented in different sensory modalities...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Louise Stjerne Knudsen, Thomas Skovgaard, Thomas Bredahl
INTRODUCTION: The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers' views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers' motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Xiujun Li, Xudong Zhao, Wendian Shi, Yang Lu, Christopher M Conway
A current controversy in the area of implicit statistical learning (ISL) is whether this process consists of a single, central mechanism or multiple modality-specific ones. To provide insight into this question, the current study involved three ISL experiments to explore whether multimodal input sources are processed separately in each modality or are integrated together across modalities. In Experiment 1, visual and auditory ISL were measured under unimodal conditions, with the results providing a baseline level of learning for subsequent experiments...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yunxiao Chen, Xiaoou Li, Jingchen Liu, Zhiliang Ying
Item response theory (IRT) plays an important role in psychological and educational measurement. Unlike the classical testing theory, IRT models aggregate the item level information, yielding more accurate measurements. Most IRT models assume local independence, an assumption not likely to be satisfied in practice, especially when the number of items is large. Results in the literature and simulation studies in this paper reveal that misspecifying the local independence assumption may result in inaccurate measurements and differential item functioning...
March 12, 2018: Psychometrika
Edward R Dougherty, Anne-Laure Boulesteix, Lori A Dalton, Michelle Zhang
Cancer is a systems disease involving mutations and altered regulation. This supplement treats cancer research as it pertains to 3 systems issues of an inherently statistical nature: regulatory modeling and information processing, diagnostic classification, and therapeutic intervention and control. Topics of interest include (but are not limited to) multiscale modeling, gene/protein transcriptional regulation, dynamical systems, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling, compensatory regulation, feedback, apoptotic and proliferative control, copy number-expression interaction, integration of different feature types, error estimation, and reproducibility...
2018: Cancer Informatics
Gail M Rosenbaum, Vinod Venkatraman, Laurence Steinberg, Jason M Chein
Adolescents are known to take more risks than adults, which can be harmful to their health and well-being. However, despite age differences in real-world risk taking, laboratory risk-taking paradigms often do not evince these developmental patterns. Recent findings in the literature suggest that this inconsistency may be due in part to differences between how adolescents process information about risk when it is described (e.g., in a description-based classroom intervention) versus when it is experienced (e...
March 2018: Developmental Review: DR
Jessica Stevenson, Allison Tong, Katrina L Campbell, Jonathan C Craig, Vincent W Lee
OBJECTIVE: To describe the perspectives of healthcare providers on the nutritional management of patients on haemodialysis, which may inform strategies for improving patient-centred nutritional care. DESIGN: Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted until data saturation, and thematic analysis based on principles of grounded theory. SETTING: 21 haemodialysis centres across Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 42 haemodialysis clinicians (nephrologists and nephrology trainees (15), nurses (12) and dietitians (15)) were purposively sampled to obtain a range of demographic characteristics and clinical experiences...
March 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Minsoo Jung
Active discussions are underway on whether or not the absence or insufficiency of communication is a decisive factor affecting hesitancy with regard to vaccines. Low-quality services such as insufficient communication can lead to an increase in the population postponing vaccinations in countries without deficiencies in vaccine procurement. This study examines the strategies and tasks of health communication in relation to vaccinations. Social networking services (SNSs) are major channels of health communication in responding to infectious diseases...
March 8, 2018: Health Care Manager
Keith J Holyoak, Dušan Stamenković
We review psychological research bearing on major theories of metaphor comprehension. A broad survey of behavioral studies is coupled with findings from recent meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of metaphor processing. We identify three broad theoretical positions that have been the foci of research efforts: analogy, categorization, and conceptual mapping. The first two of these emphasize relatively well-specified information-processing models; the third links metaphor comprehension to embodied cognition...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Yijia Zhang, Hongfei Lin, Zhihao Yang, Jian Wang, Yiwei Liu
BACKGROUND: Recently, researchers have tried to integrate various dynamic information with static protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks to construct dynamic PPI networks. The shift from static PPI networks to dynamic PPI networks is essential to reveal the cellular function and organization. However, it is still impossible to construct an absolutely reliable dynamic PPI networks due to the noise and incompletion of high-throughput experimental data. RESULTS: To deal with uncertain data, some uncertain graph models and theories have been proposed to analyze social networks, electrical networks and biological networks...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
Hyoungkyu Kim, Anthony G Hudetz, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
The integrated information theory (IIT) proposes a quantitative measure, denoted as Φ, of the amount of integrated information in a physical system, which is postulated to have an identity relationship with consciousness. IIT predicts that the value of Φ estimated from brain activities represents the level of consciousness across phylogeny and functional states. Practical limitations, such as the explosive computational demands required to estimate Φ for real systems, have hindered its application to the brain and raised questions about the utility of IIT in general...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Molly Knowles, Saba Khan, Deepak Palakshappa, Rachel Cahill, Evelyne Kruger, Bridget G Poserina, Brittany Koch, Mariana Chilton
Food insecurity, lack of access to enough food for an active and healthy life, is associated with poor child health. Three pediatric clinics implemented a two-question food insecurity screening of 7,284 families with children younger than five years. Over one thousand (1,133, 15.6%) reported food insecurity and 630 (55.6%) were referred to a benefits access organization for connection to public benefits and community resources. This study evaluated the efficacy of screening and referral through process evaluation, key informant interviews, and focus groups with 19 caregivers and 11 clinic staff...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Crawford I P Winlove, Fraser Milton, Jake Ranson, Jon Fulford, Matthew MacKisack, Fiona Macpherson, Adam Zeman
Visual imagery is a form of sensory imagination, involving subjective experiences typically described as similar to perception, but which occur in the absence of corresponding external stimuli. We used the Activation Likelihood Estimation algorithm (ALE) to identify regions consistently activated by visual imagery across 40 neuroimaging studies, the first such meta-analysis. We also employed a recently developed multi-modal parcellation of the human brain to attribute stereotactic co-ordinates to one of 180 anatomical regions, the first time this approach has been combined with the ALE algorithm...
January 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Milawaty Nurjono, Pami Shrestha, Alice Lee, Xin Ya Lim, Farah Shiraz, Shermin Tan, Shing Hei Wong, Kah Mun Foo, Thomas Wee, Sue-Anne Toh, Joanne Yoong, Hubertus Johannes Maria Vrijhoef
INTRODUCTION: The lack of understanding of how complex integrated care programmes achieve their outcomes due to the lack of acceptable methods leads to difficulties in the development, implementation, adaptation and scaling up of similar interventions. In this study, we evaluate an integrated care network, the National University Health System (NUHS) Regional Health System (RHS), consisting of acute hospitals, step down care, primary care providers, social services and community partners using a theory-driven realist evaluation approach...
March 1, 2018: BMJ Open
Robert Bush, Sandra Capra, Selina Box, David McCallum, Stephanie Khalil, Remo Ostini
In the context of stubbornly high childhood obesity rates, health promotion activities in schools provide a potential avenue to improve children's nutritional behaviours. Theatre production has a rich history as a health behaviour promotion strategy but lacks sound, outcome-based evaluation. This study evaluated the effect of an integrated, two-part, place-based theatre performance program with 212 students in five schools in a regional urban and semi-rural area. The program included a theatre performance and a healthy eating competition...
March 2, 2018: Children
Andrea Lavazza, Marcello Massimini
Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies of human cells; they also make it possible to test new molecules on human tissue...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
M Humberto Reyes-Valdés, Juan Burgueño, Sukhwinder Singh, Octavio Martínez, Carolina Paola Sansaloni
Germplasm banks are growing in their importance, number of accessions and amount of characterization data, with a large emphasis on molecular genetic markers. In this work, we offer an integrated view of accessions and marker data in an information theory framework. The basis of this development is the mutual information between accessions and allele frequencies for molecular marker loci, which can be decomposed in allele specificities, as well as in rarity and divergence of accessions. In this way, formulas are provided to calculate the specificity of the different marker alleles with reference to their distribution across accessions, accession rarity, defined as the weighted average of the specificity of its alleles, and divergence, defined by the Kullback-Leibler formula...
2018: PloS One
Alison L Kitson
BACKGROUND: Nursing theories have attempted to shape the everyday practice of clinical nurses and patient care. However, many theories-because of their level of abstraction and distance from everyday caring activity-have failed to help nurses undertake the routine practical aspects of nursing care in a theoretically informed way. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the paper is to present a point-of-care theoretical framework, called the fundamentals of care (FOC) framework, which explains, guides, and potentially predicts the quality of care nurses provide to patients, their carers, and family members...
March 2018: Nursing Research
Joshua Snell, Sebastiaan Mathôt, Jonathan Mirault, Jonathan Grainger
There are roughly two lines of theory to account for recent evidence that word processing is influenced by adjacent orthographic information. One line assumes that multiple words can be processed simultaneously through a parallel graded distribution of visuo-spatial attention. The other line assumes that attention is strictly directed to single words, but that letter detectors are connected to both foveal and parafoveal feature detectors, as such driving parafoveal-foveal integrative effects. Putting these two accounts to the test, we build on recent research showing that the pupil responds to the brightness of covertly attended (i...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
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