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Integrated information theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781918/health-self-empowerment-theory-predicting-health-behaviors-and-bmi-in-culturally-diverse-adults
#1
Carolyn M Tucker, Julia Roncoroni, Guillermo M Wippold, Michael Marsiske, Delphia J Flenar, Kristin Hultgren
Health Self-Empowerment Theory asserts that 5 controllable psychological variables predict engagement in health-promoting behaviors. This study tests the theoretical integrity of Health Self-Empowerment Theory and its usefulness in predicting health-promoting behaviors and body mass index. Results from surveying 189 predominantly low-income, overweight/obese, and culturally diverse adults showed that most Health Self-Empowerment Theory variables were positively correlated. Structural equation modeling showed that 4 variables significantly predicted engagement in health-promoting behaviors, which mediated the relationships between body mass index and (a) motivation, (b) health self-efficacy, and (c) self-praise...
July 2018: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780970/three-challenges-for-future-research-on-cochlear-implants
#2
REVIEW
David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Michael S Harris, Aaron C Moberly
Cochlear implants (CIs) often work very well for many children and adults with profound sensorineural (SNHL) hearing loss. Unfortunately, while many CI patients display substantial benefits in recognizing speech and understanding spoken language following cochlear implantation, a large number of patients achieve poor outcomes. Understanding and explaining the reasons for poor outcomes following implantation is a very challenging research problem that has received little attention despite the pressing clinical significance...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776172/towards-information-optimal-simulation-of-partial-differential-equations
#3
Reimar H Leike, Torsten A Enßlin
Most simulation schemes for partial differential equations (PDEs) focus on minimizing a simple error norm of a discretized version of a field. This paper takes a fundamentally different approach; the discretized field is interpreted as data providing information about a real physical field that is unknown. This information is sought to be conserved by the scheme as the field evolves in time. Such an information theoretic approach to simulation was pursued before by information field dynamics (IFD). In this paper we work out the theory of IFD for nonlinear PDEs in a noiseless Gaussian approximation...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771539/psi4numpy-an-interactive-quantum-chemistry-programming-environment-for-reference-implementations-and-rapid-development
#4
Daniel G A Smith, Lori A Burns, Dominic A Sirianni, Daniel R Nascimento, Ashutosh Kumar, Andrew M James, Jeffrey B Schriber, Tianyuan Zhang, Boyi Zhang, Adam S Abbott, Eric J Berquist, Marvin H Lechner, Leonardo A Cunha, Alexander G Heide, Jonathan M Waldrop, Tyler Y Takeshita, Asem Alenaizan, Daniel Neuhauser, Rollin A King, Andrew C Simmonett, Justin M Turney, Henry F Schaefer, Francesco A Evangelista, A Eugene DePrince, T Daniel Crawford, Konrad Patkowski, C David Sherrill
Psi4NumPy demonstrates the use of efficient computational kernels from the open-source Psi4 program through the popular NumPy library for linear algebra in Python to facilitate the rapid development of clear, understandable Python computer code for new quantum chemical methods, while maintaining a relatively low execution time. Using these tools, reference implementations have been created for a number of methods, including self-consistent field (SCF), SCF response, many-body perturbation theory, coupled-cluster theory, configuration interaction, and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768117/experiences-and-expectations-of-bereavement-contact-among-caregivers-of-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#5
Maisam Makarem, Shan Mohammed, Nadia Swami, Ashley Pope, Nanor Kevork, Monika Krzyzanowska, Gary Rodin, Breffni Hannon, Camilla Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Contact with bereaved caregivers is not standard practice among cancer physicians, and little is known about its impact on caregivers. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the experiences and opinions of caregivers regarding bereavement contact from healthcare providers (HCP). DESIGN: Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 61 bereaved caregivers. SUBJECTS: Bereaved caregivers of advanced cancer patients who had completed a randomized controlled trial of an early palliative care intervention were approached one to five years after the patient's death...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767401/from-theory-to-application-a-description-of-transnationalism-in-culturally-appropriate-hiv-interventions-of-outreach-access-and-retention-among-latino-a-populations
#6
John A Sauceda, Ronald A Brooks, Jessica Xavier, Andres Maiorana, Lisa Georgetti Gomez, Sophia Zamudio-Haas, Carlos E Rodriguez-Diaz, Adan Cajina, Janet Myers
Interventions aiming to improve access to and retention in HIV care are optimized when they are tailored to clients' needs. This paper describes an initiative of interventions implemented by ten demonstration sites using a transnational framework to tailor services for Mexicans and Puerto Ricans living with HIV. Transnationalism describes how immigrants (and their children) exist in their "receiving" place (e.g., continental U.S.) while simultaneously maintaining connections to their country or place of origin (e...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764628/national-preceptor-development-program-pdp-influential-evidence-and-theory-the-first-of-a-3-part-series
#7
Katrina Mulherin, Sheila Walter, Craig D Cox
INTRODUCTION: Priority #3 of the Canadian Experiential Education Project for Pharmacy provided evidence-based guidance for the design and implementation of a national approach to preceptor development. In this first article (of three), findings from the project and recommendations to achieve a high-quality preceptor development program (PDP) are presented. METHODS: A multi-method approach including detailed semi-structured interviews, classic literature review, and advisory committee feedback was employed...
March 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763422/capturing-farm-diversity-with-hypothesis-based-typologies-an-innovative-methodological-framework-for-farming-system-typology-development
#8
Stéphanie Alvarez, Carl J Timler, Mirja Michalscheck, Wim Paas, Katrien Descheemaeker, Pablo Tittonell, Jens A Andersson, Jeroen C J Groot
Creating typologies is a way to summarize the large heterogeneity of smallholder farming systems into a few farm types. Various methods exist, commonly using statistical analysis, to create these typologies. We demonstrate that the methodological decisions on data collection, variable selection, data-reduction and clustering techniques can bear a large impact on the typology results. We illustrate the effects of analysing the diversity from different angles, using different typology objectives and different hypotheses, on typology creation by using an example from Zambia's Eastern Province...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761636/physical-activity-and-parents-of-very-young-children-the-role-of-beliefs-and-social-cognitive-factors
#9
Eloise Cowie, Katherine White, Kyra Hamilton
OBJECTIVES: Despite the unequivocal benefits of regular physical activity, many parents engage in lower levels of physical activity (PA) following the birth of a child. Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and health action process approach (HAPA), an integrative model was developed to examine variables predicting PA in parents of very young children. In addition, key beliefs related to PA intentions and behaviour among parents of very young children were investigated. DESIGN: A prospective-correlational design with two waves of data collection, spaced one week apart, was adopted...
May 14, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757142/autistic-traits-but-not-schizotypy-predict-increased-weighting-of-sensory-information-in-bayesian-visual-integration
#10
Povilas Karvelis, Aaron R Seitz, Stephen M Lawrie, Peggy Seriès
Recent theories propose that schizophrenia/schizotypy and autistic spectrum disorder are related to impairments in Bayesian inference i.e. how the brain integrates sensory information (likelihoods) with prior knowledge. However existing accounts fail to clarify: i) how proposed theories differ in accounts of ASD vs. schizophrenia and ii) whether the impairments result from weaker priors or enhanced likelihoods. Here, we directly address these issues by characterizing how 91 healthy participants, scored for autistic and schizotypal traits, implicitly learned and combined priors with sensory information...
May 14, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746689/impact-of-hospital-context-on-transitioning-patients-from-hospital-to-skilled-nursing-facility-a-grounded-theory-study
#11
Barbara J King, Andrea L Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Tonya J Roberts, Korey A Kennelty, Jacquelyn F Mirr, Michael B Gehring, Melissa N Dattalo, Amy J H Kind
Background: Twenty-five percentage of patients who are transferred from hospital settings to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are rehospitalized within 30 days. One significant factor in poorly executed transitions is the discharge process used by hospital providers. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine how health care providers in hospitals transition care from hospital to SNF, what actions they took based on their understanding of transitioning care, and what conditions influence provider behavior...
May 8, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737244/the-development-of-specialized-palliative-care-in-the-community-a-qualitative-study-of-the-evolution-of-15-teams
#12
Hsien Seow, Daryl Bainbridge
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional specialized palliative care teams at home improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and support many patients to die at home. However, practical details about how to develop home-based teams in different regions and health systems are scarce. AIM: To examine how a variety of home-based specialized palliative care teams created and grew their team over time and to identify critical steps in their evolution. DESIGN: A qualitative study was designed based on a grounded theory approach, using semi-structured interviews and other documentation...
May 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736907/multisensory-integration-processing-during-olfactory-visual-stimulation-an-fmri-graph-theoretical-network-analysis
#13
Isabelle Ripp, Anna-Nora Zur Nieden, Sonja Blankenagel, Nicolai Franzmeier, Johan N Lundström, Jessica Freiherr
In this study, we aimed to understand how whole-brain neural networks compute sensory information integration based on the olfactory and visual system. Task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data was obtained during unimodal and bimodal sensory stimulation. Based on the identification of multisensory integration processing (MIP) specific hub-like network nodes analyzed with network-based statistics using region-of-interest based connectivity matrices, we conclude the following brain areas to be important for processing the presented bimodal sensory information: right precuneus connected contralaterally to the supramarginal gyrus for memory-related imagery and phonology retrieval, and the left middle occipital gyrus connected ipsilaterally to the inferior frontal gyrus via the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus including functional aspects of working memory...
May 7, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729857/development-of-a-patient-centered-video-series-to-improve-education-before-kidney-transplantation
#14
Nicola Rosaasen, Rahul Mainra, Azaad Kukha-Bryson, Victoria Nhin, Paraag Trivedi, Ahmed Shoker, Jay Wilson, Raj Padmanabh, Holly Mansell
BACKGROUND: Inadequate patient knowledge about transplantation can result in low patient satisfaction and contribute to poor clinical outcomes. The purpose of this patient-oriented research project was to develop an educational intervention for patients awaiting kidney transplantation. METHODS: An educational intervention was developed by patients and health care providers, experts in medication adherence, video education, motivational psychology, and cultural education...
April 26, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728149/a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-wellbeing-in-secondary-education-wise-project-an-intervention-to-improve-the-mental-health-support-and-training-available-to-secondary-school-teachers-protocol-for-an-integrated-process-evaluation
#15
Rhiannon Evans, Rowan Brockman, Jillian Grey, Sarah Bell, Sarah Harding, David Gunnell, Rona Campbell, Simon Murphy, Tamsin Ford, William Hollingworth, Kate Tilling, Richard Morris, Bryar Kadir, Ricardo Araya, Judi Kidger
BACKGROUND: Secondary school teachers have low levels of wellbeing and high levels of depression compared with the general population. Teachers are in a key position to support students, but poor mental health may be a barrier to doing so effectively. The Wellbeing in Secondary Education (WISE) project is a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention to improve the mental health support and training available to secondary school teachers through delivery of the training package Mental Health First Aid and a staff peer support service...
May 4, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723099/exploring-healthy-eating-and-exercise-behaviors-among-low-income-breastfeeding-mothers
#16
Alexandra L MacMillan Uribe, Beth H Olson
BACKGROUND: Postpartum weight retention is often a significant contributor to overweight and obesity. Lactation is typically not sufficient for mothers to return to pre-pregnancy weight. Modifiable health behaviors (e.g., healthy eating and exercise) are important for postpartum weight loss; however, engagement among mothers, especially those who are resource-limited, is low. A deeper understanding of low-income breastfeeding mothers' healthy-eating and exercise experience, a population that may have unique motivators for health-behavior change, may facilitate creation of effective intervention strategies for these women...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715596/complex-network-theory-for-the-identification-and-assessment-of-candidate-protein-targets
#17
Ken McGarry, Sharon McDonald
In this work we use complex network theory to provide a statistical model of the connectivity patterns of human proteins and their interaction partners. Our intention is to identify important proteins that may be predisposed to be potential candidates as drug targets for therapeutic interventions. Target proteins usually have more interaction partners than non-target proteins, but there are no hard-and-fast rules for defining the actual number of interactions. We devise a statistical measure for identifying hub proteins, we score our target proteins with gene ontology annotations...
April 26, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712623/an-early-model-for-value-and-sustainability-in-health-information-exchanges-qualitative-study
#18
Sue S Feldman
BACKGROUND: The primary value relative to health information exchange has been seen in terms of cost savings relative to laboratory and radiology testing, emergency department expenditures, and admissions. However, models are needed to statistically quantify value and sustainability and better understand the dependent and mediating factors that contribute to value and sustainability. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide a basis for early model development for health information exchange value and sustainability...
April 30, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708287/nurse-practitioner-integration-qualitative-experiences-of-the-change-management-process
#19
Grainne Lowe, Virginia Plummer, Leanne Boyd
AIM: The aim of this qualitative research was to explore perceptions of organisational change related to the integration of nurse practitioners from key nursing stakeholders. BACKGROUND: The ongoing delivery of effective and efficient patient services is reliant upon the development and sustainability of nurse practitioner roles. Examination of the factors contributing to the underutilization of nurse practitioner roles is crucial to inform future management policies...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706313/a-description-of-the-abcd-organizational-structure-and-communication-framework
#20
REVIEW
Allison M Auchter, Margie Hernandez Mejia, Charles J Heyser, Paul D Shilling, Terry L Jernigan, Sandra A Brown, Susan F Tapert, Gayathri J Dowling
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is designed to be the largest study of brain development and child health in the United States, performing comprehensive assessments of 11,500 children repeatedly for 10 years. An endeavor of this magnitude requires an organized framework of governance and communication that promotes collaborative decision-making and dissemination of information. The ABCD consortium structure, built upon the Matrix Management approach of organizational theory, facilitates the integration of input from all institutions, numerous internal workgroups and committees, federal partners, and external advisory groups to make use of a broad range of expertise to ensure the study's success...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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