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Integrated information theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352028/the-mysteries-of-remote-memory
#1
REVIEW
Zimbul Albo, Johannes Gräff
Long-lasting memories form the basis of our identity as individuals and lie central in shaping future behaviours that guide survival. Surprisingly, however, our current knowledge of how such memories are stored in the brain and retrieved, as well as the dynamics of the circuits involved, remains scarce despite seminal technical and experimental breakthroughs in recent years. Traditionally, it has been proposed that, over time, information initially learnt in the hippocampus is stored in distributed cortical networks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349465/exploring-candidate-biomarkers-for-lung-and-prostate-cancers-using-gene-expression-and-flux-variability-analysis
#2
Yazdan Asgari, Pegah Khosravi, Zahra Zabihinpour, Mahnaz Habibi
Genome-scale metabolic models have provided valuable resources for exploring changes in metabolism under normal and cancer conditions. However, metabolism itself is strongly linked to gene expression, so integration of gene expression data into metabolic models might improve the detection of genes involved in the control of tumor progression. Herein, we considered gene expression data as extra constraints to enhance the predictive powers of metabolic models. We reconstructed genome-scale metabolic models for lung and prostate, under normal and cancer conditions to detect the major genes associated with critical subsystems during tumor development...
January 19, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331276/analyzing-recommender-systems-for-health-promotion-using-a-multidisciplinary-taxonomy-a-scoping-review
#3
Santiago Hors-Fraile, Octavio Rivera-Romero, Francine Schneider, Luis Fernandez-Luque, Francisco Luna-Perejon, Anton Civit-Balcells, Hein de Vries
BACKGROUND: Recommender systems are information retrieval systems that provide users with relevant items (e.g., through messages). Despite their extensive use in the e-commerce and leisure domains, their application in healthcare is still in its infancy. These systems may be used to create tailored health interventions, thus reducing the cost of healthcare and fostering a healthier lifestyle in the population. OBJECTIVE: This paper identifies, categorizes, and analyzes the existing knowledge in terms of the literature published over the past 10 years on the use of health recommender systems for patient interventions...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328703/asymptotic-one-point-functions-in-gauge-string-duality-with-defects
#4
Isak Buhl-Mortensen, Marius de Leeuw, Asger C Ipsen, Charlotte Kristjansen, Matthias Wilhelm
We take the first step in extending the integrability approach to one-point functions in AdS/dCFT to higher loop orders. More precisely, we argue that the formula encoding all tree-level one-point functions of SU(2) operators in the defect version of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, dual to the D5-D3 probe-brane system with flux, has a natural asymptotic generalization to higher loop orders. The asymptotic formula correctly encodes the information about the one-loop correction to the one-point functions of nonprotected operators once dressed by a simple flux-dependent factor, as we demonstrate by an explicit computation involving a novel object denoted as an amputated matrix product state...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325401/performance-based-financing-to-strengthen-the-health-system-in-benin-challenging-the-mainstream-approach
#5
Elisabeth Paul, Mohamed Lamine Dramé, Jean-Pierre Kashala, Armand Ekambi Ndema, Marcel Kounnou, Julien Codjovi Aïssan, Karel Gyselinck
BACKGROUND: Performance-based financing (PBF) is often proposed as a way to improve health system performance. In Benin, PBF was launched in 2012 through a World Bank-supported project. The Belgian Development Agency (BTC) followed suit through a health system strengthening (HSS) project. This paper analyses and draws lessons from the experience of BTC-supported PBF alternative approach - especially with regards to institutional aspects, the role of demand-side actors, ownership, and cost-effectiveness - and explores the mechanisms at stake so as to better understand how the "PBF package" functions and produces effects...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317079/biotensegrity-and-myofascial-chains-a-global-approach-to-an-integrated-kinetic-chain
#6
S L Dischiavi, A A Wright, E J Hegedus, C M Bleakley
Human movement is a complex orchestration of events involving many different body systems. Understanding how these systems interact during musculoskeletal movements can directly inform a variety of research fields including: injury etiology, injury prevention and therapeutic exercise prescription. Traditionally scientists have examined human movement through a reductionist lens whereby movements are broken down and observed in isolation. The process of reductionism fails to capture the interconnected complexities and the dynamic interactions found within complex systems such as human movement...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317061/modelling-information-flow-along-the-human-connectome-using-maximum-flow
#7
Youngwook Lyoo, Jieun E Kim, Sujung Yoon
The human connectome is a complex network that transmits information between interlinked brain regions. Using graph theory, previously well-known network measures of integration between brain regions have been constructed under the key assumption that information flows strictly along the shortest paths possible between two nodes. However, it is now apparent that information does flow through non-shortest paths in many real-world networks such as cellular networks, social networks, and the internet. In the current hypothesis, we present a novel framework using the maximum flow to quantify information flow along all possible paths within the brain, so as to implement an analogy to network traffic...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314172/shifting-mindsets-a-realist-synthesis-of-evidence-from-self-management-support-training
#8
REVIEW
Freya Davies, Fiona Wood, Alison Bullock, Carolyn Wallace, Adrian Edwards
CONTEXT: Accompanying the growing expectation of patient self-management is the need to ensure health care professionals (HCPs) have the required attitudes and skills to provide effective self-management support (SMS). Results from existing training interventions for HCPs in SMS have been mixed and the evidence base is weaker for certain settings, including supporting people with progressive neurological conditions (PNCs). We set out to understand how training operates, and to identify barriers and facilitators to training designed to support shifts in attitudes amongst HCPs...
January 4, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310110/-complexity-compatible-policy-for-integrated-care-lessons-from-the-implementation-of-ontario-s-health-links
#9
Agnes Grudniewicz, Tim Tenbensel, Jenna M Evans, Carolyn Steele Gray, G Ross Baker, Walter P Wodchis
Complex adaptive systems (CAS) theory views healthcare as numerous sub-systems characterized by diverse agents that interact, self-organize, and continuously adapt. We apply this complexity science perspective to examine the extent to which CAS theory is a useful lens for designing and implementing health policies. We present the case of Health Links, a "low rules" policy intervention in Ontario, Canada aimed at stimulating the development of voluntary networks of health and social organizations to improve care coordination for the most frequent users of the healthcare system...
December 24, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306521/what-can-autism-teach-us-about-the-role-of-sensorimotor-systems-in-higher-cognition-new-clues-from-studies-on-language-action-semantics-and-abstract-emotional-concept-processing
#10
REVIEW
Rachel L Moseley, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions...
December 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283653/award-for-distinguished-professional-contributions-to-applied-research
#11
(no author information available yet)
This award is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. To be eligible, this research should have led to innovative applications in an area of psychological practice, including but not limited to assessment, consultation, instruction, or intervention (either direct or indirect). Research involving the original development of procedures, methodologies, or technical skills that significantly improve the application of psychological knowledge and provide direct and immediate solutions to practical problem areas will be considered, as will research that has informed psychologists on how better to observe, define, predict, or control behavior...
December 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283616/attachment-informed-mentorship
#12
Randall Reitz, Stephen Mitchell, Shannon Keel
Attachment theory has been widely integrated into how clinicians view personal development and enduring relationships. Through the burgeoning field of interpersonal neurobiology, this model has also been applied to adult professional, training, and family relationships. However, the medical and integrated care literature currently lacks attempts to apply attachment principles to the mentorship relationships that are created between trainees and the faculty of a training program. Through this conceptual article, the authors introduce the attachment-informed mentorship model to bridge this gap...
December 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282112/religious-leaders-perceptions-of-advance-care-planning-a-secondary-analysis-of-interviews-with-buddhist-christian-hindu-islamic-jewish-sikh-and-bah%C3%A3-%C3%A3-leaders
#13
Amanda Pereira-Salgado, Patrick Mader, Clare O'Callaghan, Leanne Boyd, Margaret Staples
BACKGROUND: International guidance for advance care planning (ACP) supports the integration of spiritual and religious aspects of care within the planning process. Religious leaders' perspectives could improve how ACP programs respect patients' faith backgrounds. This study aimed to examine: (i) how religious leaders understand and consider ACP and its implications, including (ii) how religion affects followers' approaches to end-of-life care and ACP, and (iii) their implications for healthcare...
December 28, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281974/development-of-an-intervention-to-reduce-antibiotic-use-for-childhood-coughs-in-uk-primary-care-using-critical-synthesis-of-multi-method-research
#14
Patricia J Lucas, Jenny Ingram, Niamh M Redmond, Christie Cabral, Sophie L Turnbull, Alastair D Hay
BACKGROUND: Overuse of antibiotics contributes to the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotic stewardship interventions address this threat by reducing the use of antibiotics in occasions or doses unlikely to be effective. We aimed to develop an evidence-based, theory-informed, intervention to reduce antibiotic prescriptions in primary care for childhood respiratory tract infections (RTI). This paper describes our methods for doing so. METHODS: Green and Krueter's Precede/Proceed logic model was used as a framework to integrate findings from a programme of research including 5 systematic reviews, 3 qualitative studies, and 1 cohort study...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278283/delirium-pathophysiology-an-updated-hypothesis-of-the-etiology-of-acute-brain-failure
#15
José R Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric syndrome encountered by clinicians dealing with older adults and the medically ill and is best characterized by 5 core domains: cognitive deficits, attentional deficits, circadian rhythm dysregulation, emotional dysregulation, and alteration in psychomotor functioning. DESIGN: An extensive literature review and consolidation of published data into a novel interpretation of known pathophysiological causes of delirium...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260592/how-do-aggregated-patient-reported-outcome-measures-data-stimulate-health-care-improvement-a-realist-synthesis
#16
Joanne Greenhalgh, Sonia Dalkin, Elizabeth Gibbons, Judy Wright, Jose Maria Valderas, David Meads, Nick Black
Objectives Internationally, there has been considerable debate about the role of data in supporting quality improvement in health care. Our objective was to understand how, why and in what circumstances the feedback of aggregated patient-reported outcome measures data improved patient care. Methods We conducted a realist synthesis. We identified three main programme theories underlying the use of patient-reported outcome measures as a quality improvement strategy and expressed them as nine 'if then' propositions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258524/using-an-intervention-mapping-approach-to-develop-a-discharge-protocol-for-intensive-care-patients
#17
Margo van Mol, Marjan Nijkamp, Christine Markham, Erwin Ista
BACKGROUND: Admission into an intensive care unit (ICU) may result in long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional consequences for patients and their relatives. The care of the critically ill patient does not end upon ICU discharge; therefore, integrated and ongoing care during and after transition to the follow-up ward is pivotal. This study described the development of an intervention that responds to this need. METHODS: Intervention Mapping (IM), a six-step theory- and evidence-based approach, was used to guide intervention development...
December 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251530/instrument-development-of-integrative-health-and-wellness-assessment%C3%A2
#18
Deborah McElligott, Sarah Eckardt, Barbara Montgomery Dossey, Susan Luck, Patricia Eckardt
The nurse coach role was developed to address the needs of our nation and the world for health and wellbeing. The Theory of Integrative Nurse Coaching provides a foundation for coaching interventions supporting health promotion, and a framework for the development of the Integrative Health and Wellness Assessment (IHWA) short form. This 36-question Likert-type scale self-reporting tool assists participants in assessing healthy behaviors through a self-reflection process, provides information for the coaching relationship, and may be an outcome measurement...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249983/co-expression-network-approach-reveals-functional-similarities-among-diseases-affecting-human-skeletal-muscle
#19
Kavitha Mukund, Shankar Subramaniam
Diseases affecting skeletal muscle exhibit considerable heterogeneity in intensity, etiology, phenotypic manifestation and gene expression. Systems biology approaches using network theory, allows for a holistic understanding of functional similarities amongst diseases. Here we propose a co-expression based, network theoretic approach to extract functional similarities from 20 heterogeneous diseases comprising of dystrophinopathies, inflammatory myopathies, neuromuscular, and muscle metabolic diseases. Utilizing this framework we identified seven closely associated disease clusters with 20 disease pairs exhibiting significant correlation (p < 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246366/quality-of-operative-performance-feedback-given-to-thoracic-surgery-residents-using-an-app-based-system
#20
Azad S Karim, Joel M Sternbach, Edward M Bender, Joseph B Zwischenberger, Shari L Meyerson
OBJECTIVE: Residents frequently report inadequate feedback both in quantity and quality. The study evaluates the quality of faculty feedback about operative performance given using an app-based system. DESIGN: Residents requested operative performance evaluation from faculty on a real-time basis using the "Zwisch Me!!" mobile application which allows faculty to provide brief written feedback. Qualitative analysis of feedback was performed using grounded theory. SETTING: The 7 academic medical centers with thoracic surgery training programs...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
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