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Integrated information theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637322/predicting-perceived-isolation-among-midlife-and-older-lgbt-adults-the-role-of-welcoming-aging-service-providers
#1
Jie Yang, Yoosun Chu, Mary Anne Salmon
Background and Objectives: Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults are more likely to live alone and less likely to have children compared with their heterosexual counterparts. The lack of immediate family system can render older LGBT adults particularly vulnerable to social isolation and its consequences. The current study utilizes social exclusion theory, which asserts that not only material resources but also engagement with and inclusion into the society are necessary for marginalized people to be integrated into the mainstream...
June 16, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630450/concurrent-talking-in-immersive-virtual-reality-on-the-dominance-of-visual-speech-cues
#2
Mar Gonzalez-Franco, Antonella Maselli, Dinei Florencio, Nikolai Smolyanskiy, Zhengyou Zhang
Humans are good at selectively listening to specific target conversations, even in the presence of multiple concurrent speakers. In our research, we study how auditory-visual cues modulate this selective listening. We do so by using immersive Virtual Reality technologies with spatialized audio. Exposing 32 participants to an Information Masking Task with concurrent speakers, we find significantly more errors in the decision-making processes triggered by asynchronous audiovisual speech cues. More precisely, the results show that lips on the Target speaker matched to a secondary (Mask) speaker's audio severely increase the participants' comprehension error rates...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624364/decision-making-in-swiss-home-like-childbirth-a-grounded-theory-study
#3
Yvonne Meyer, Franziska Frank, Franziska Schläppy Muntwyler, Valerie Fleming, Jessica Pehlke-Milde
BACKGROUND: Decision-making in midwifery, including a claim for shared decision-making between midwives and women, is of major significance for the health of mother and child. Midwives have little information about how to share decision-making responsibilities with women, especially when complications arise during birth. AIM: To increase understanding of decision-making in complex home-like birth settings by exploring midwives' and women's perspectives and to develop a dynamic model integrating participatory processes for making shared decisions...
June 14, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621695/learning-challenges-and-sustainable-development-a-methodological-perspective
#4
Laura Seppänen
BACKGROUND: Sustainable development requires learning, but the contents of learning are often complex and ambiguous. This requires new integrated approaches from research. It is argued that investigation of people's learning challenges in every-day work is beneficial for research on sustainable development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper is to describe a research method for examining learning challenges in promoting sustainable development. This method is illustrated with a case example from organic vegetable farming in Finland...
June 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616997/emotion-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-an-integrative-review
#5
Matthew L Dixon, Ravi Thiruchselvam, Rebecca Todd, Kalina Christoff
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in the generation and regulation of emotion. However, we lack an integrative framework for understanding how different emotion-related functions are organized across the entire expanse of the PFC, as prior reviews have generally focused on specific emotional processes (e.g., decision making) or specific anatomical regions (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex). Additionally, psychological theories and neuroscientific investigations have proceeded largely independently because of the lack of a common framework...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610834/the-evolution-of-ecosystem-ascendency-in-a-complex-systems-based-model
#6
Katharina Brinck, Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen
General patterns in ecosystem development can shed light on driving forces behind ecosystem formation and recovery and have been of long interest. In recent years, the need for integrative and process oriented approaches to capture ecosystem growth, development and organisation, as well as the scope of information theory as a descriptive tool has been addressed from various sides. However data collection of ecological network flows is difficult and tedious and comprehensive models are lacking. We use a hierarchical version of the Tangled Nature Model of evolutionary ecology to study the relationship between structure, flow and organisation in model ecosystems, their development over evolutionary time scales and their relation to ecosystem stability...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609991/the-use-of-bioacoustics-in-anuran-taxonomy-theory-terminology-methods-and-recommendations-for-best-practice
#7
Jörn Köhler, Martin Jansen, Ariel Rodríguez, Philippe J R Kok, Luís Felipe Toledo, Mike Emmrich, Frank Glaw, Célio F B Haddad, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Miguel Vences
Vocalizations of anuran amphibians have received much attention in studies of behavioral ecology and physiology, but also provide informative characters for identifying and delimiting species. We here review the terminology and variation of frog calls from a perspective of integrative taxonomy, and provide hands-on protocols for recording, analyzing, comparing, interpreting and describing these sounds. Our focus is on advertisement calls, which serve as premating isolation mechanisms and, therefore, convey important taxonomic information...
April 11, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606892/systematic-and-iterative-development-of-a-smartphone-app-to-promote-sun-protection-among-holidaymakers-design-of-a-prototype-and-results-of-usability-and-acceptability-testing
#8
Angela M Rodrigues, Falko F Sniehotta, Mark A Birch-Machin, Patrick Olivier, Vera Araújo-Soares
BACKGROUND: Sunburn and intermittent exposure to ultraviolet rays are risk factors for melanoma. Sunburn is a common experience during holidays, making tourism settings of particular interest for skin cancer prevention. Holidaymakers are a volatile populations found at different locations, which may make them difficult to reach. Given the widespread use of smartphones, evidence suggests that this might be a novel, convenient, scalable, and feasible way of reaching the target population...
June 12, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591301/a-grounded-theory-study-of-the-intention-of-nurses-to-leave-the-profession
#9
Leyla Alilu, Vahid Zamanzadeh, Leila Valizadeh, Hosein Habibzadeh, Mark Gillespie
Objective: this study explores the process of the development of an intention to leave bedside nursing. Method: the process was studied from the perspective of 21 nurses using the grounded theory method. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and the constant comparative method of Corbin and Strauss was used for data analysis. Results: according to the participants, the two main categories, "social image of nursing", and "culture and structure of the bedside", were the contextual factors that influence why nurses are leaving bedside care provision...
June 5, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587198/resonance-based-sparse-signal-decomposition-and-its-application-in-mechanical-fault-diagnosis-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Wentao Huang, Hongjian Sun, Weijie Wang
Mechanical equipment is the heart of industry. For this reason, mechanical fault diagnosis has drawn considerable attention. In terms of the rich information hidden in fault vibration signals, the processing and analysis techniques of vibration signals have become a crucial research issue in the field of mechanical fault diagnosis. Based on the theory of sparse decomposition, Selesnick proposed a novel nonlinear signal processing method: resonance-based sparse signal decomposition (RSSD). Since being put forward, RSSD has become widely recognized, and many RSSD-based methods have been developed to guide mechanical fault diagnosis...
June 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585719/toward-a-community-ecology-of-landscapes-predicting-multiple-predator-prey-interactions-across-geographic-space
#11
Oswald J Schmitz, Jennifer R B Miller, Anne M Trainor, Briana Abrahms
Community ecology was traditionally an integrative science devoted to studying interactions between species and their abiotic environments in order to predict species' geographic distributions and abundances. Yet for philosophical and methodological reasons it has become divided into two enterprises: one devoted to local experimentation on species interactions to predict community dynamics; the other devoted to statistical analyses of abiotic and biotic information to describe geographic distribution. Our goal here is to instigate thinking about ways to reconnect the two enterprises and thereby return to a tradition to do integrative science...
June 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583170/community-dialogues-for-child-health-results-from-a-qualitative-process-evaluation-in-three-countries
#12
Sandrine Martin, Jordana Leitão, Denis Muhangi, Anthony Nuwa, Dieterio Magul, Helen Counihan
BACKGROUND: Across the developing world, countries are increasingly adopting the integrated community case management of childhood illnesses (iCCM) strategy in efforts to reduce child mortality. This intervention's effectiveness is dependent on community adoption and changes in care-seeking practices. We assessed the implementation process of a theory-driven community dialogue (CD) intervention specifically designed to strengthen the support and uptake of the newly introduced iCCM services and related behaviours in three African countries...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583122/decision-making-experiences-of-family-members-of-older-adults-with-moderate-dementia-towards-community-and-residential-care-home-services-a-grounded-theory-study-protocol
#13
Lisa Pau Le Low, Lai Wah Lam, Kim Pong Fan
BACKGROUND: Caring and supporting older people with dementia have become a major public health priority. Recent reports have also revealed a diminishing number of family carers to provide dementia care in the future. Carers who are engaged in the caring role are known to bear significant psychological, practical and economic challenges as the disease advances over time. Seemingly, evidence indicates that the burden of care can be relieved by formal services. This study aims to explore decision-making experiences of family members of older adults with moderate dementia towards the use of community support (CS) and residential care home (RCH) services...
June 5, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578790/the-role-of-interneurons-in-autism-and-tourette-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Maximiliano Rapanelli, Luciana Romina Frick, Christopher Pittenger
The brain includes multiple types of interconnected excitatory and inhibitory neurons that together allow us to move, think, feel, and interact with the environment. Inhibitory interneurons (INs) comprise a small, heterogeneous fraction, but they exert a powerful and tight control over neuronal activity and consequently modulate the magnitude of neuronal output and, ultimately, information processing. IN abnormalities are linked to two pediatric psychiatric disorders with high comorbidity: autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Tourette syndrome (TS)...
May 31, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570285/symptomcare-home-developing-an-integrated-symptom-monitoring-and-management-system-for-outpatients-receiving-chemotherapy
#15
Susan L Beck, Linda H Eaton, Christina Echeverria, Kathi H Mooney
SymptomCare@Home, an integrated symptom monitoring and management system, was designed as part of randomized clinical trials to help patients with cancer who receive chemotherapy in ambulatory clinics and often experience significant symptoms at home. An iterative design process was informed by chronic disease management theory and features of assessment and clinical decision support systems used in other diseases. Key stakeholders participated in the design process: nurse scientists, clinical experts, bioinformatics experts, and computer programmers...
May 31, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568902/managing-consequences-of-climate-driven-species-redistribution-requires-integration-of-ecology-conservation-and-social-science
#16
Timothy C Bonebrake, Christopher J Brown, Johann D Bell, Julia L Blanchard, Alienor Chauvenet, Curtis Champion, I-Ching Chen, Timothy D Clark, Robert K Colwell, Finn Danielsen, Anthony I Dell, Jennifer M Donelson, Birgitta Evengård, Simon Ferrier, Stewart Frusher, Raquel A Garcia, Roger B Griffis, Alistair J Hobday, Marta A Jarzyna, Emma Lee, Jonathan Lenoir, Hlif Linnetved, Victoria Y Martin, Phillipa C McCormack, Jan McDonald, Eve McDonald-Madden, Nicola Mitchell, Tero Mustonen, John M Pandolfi, Nathalie Pettorelli, Hugh Possingham, Peter Pulsifer, Mark Reynolds, Brett R Scheffers, Cascade J B Sorte, Jan M Strugnell, Mao-Ning Tuanmu, Samantha Twiname, Adriana Vergés, Cecilia Villanueva, Erik Wapstra, Thomas Wernberg, Gretta T Pecl
Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges...
June 1, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565907/thermodynamic-characterization-of-hydration-sites-from-integral-equation-derived-free-energy-densities-application-to-protein-binding-sites-and-ligand-series
#17
Stefan Güssregen, Hans Matter, Gerhard Hessler, Evanthia Lionta, Jochen Heil, Stefan M Kast
Water molecules play an essential role for mediating interactions between ligands and protein binding sites. Displacement of specific water molecules can favorably modulate the free energy of binding of protein-ligand complexes. Here, the nature of water interactions in protein binding sites is investigated by 3D RISM (three-dimensional reference interaction site model) integral equation theory to understand and exploit local thermodynamic features of water molecules by ranking their possible displacement in structure-based design...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562503/rebooting-kirkpatrick-integrating-information-system-theory-into-the-evaluation-of-web-based-continuing-professional-development-interventions-for-interprofessional-education
#18
Nelson Shen, Shira Yufe, Omid Saadatfard, Sanjeev Sockalingam, David Wiljer
INTRODUCTION: Information system research has stressed the importance of theory in understanding how user perceptions can motivate the use and adoption of technology such as web-based continuing professional development programs for interprofessional education (WCPD-IPE). A systematic review was conducted to provide an information system perspective on the current state of WCPD-IPE program evaluation and how current evaluations capture essential theoretical constructs in promoting technology adoption...
April 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561885/the-mediated-amplification-of-a-crisis-communicating-the-a-h1n1-pandemic-in-press-releases-and-press-coverage-in-europe
#19
Constanze Rossmann, Lisa Meyer, Peter J Schulz
In the aftermath of the A/H1N1 pandemic, health authorities were criticized for failures in crisis communication efforts, and the media were accused of amplifying the pandemic. Considering these criticisms, A/H1N1 provides a suitable case for examining risk amplification processes that may occur in the transfer of information from press releases to print news media during a health crisis. We integrated the social amplification of risk framework with theories of news decisions (news values, framing) in an attempt to contribute to existing research both theoretically and empirically...
May 31, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556354/modeling-precheck-parallel-screening-process-in-the-face-of-strategic-applicants-with-incomplete-information-and-screening-errors
#20
Cen Song, Jun Zhuang
In security check systems, tighter screening processes increase the security level, but also cause more congestion, which could cause longer wait times. Having to deal with more congestion in lines could also cause issues for the screeners. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Precheck Program was introduced to create fast lanes in airports with the goal of expediting passengers who the TSA does not deem to be threats. In this lane, the TSA allows passengers to enjoy fewer restrictions in order to speed up the screening time...
May 29, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
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