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Derek R MacFadden, David Fisman, Jeff Andre, Yuki Ara, Maimuna S Majumder, Isaac I Bogoch, Nick Daneman, Annie Wang, Marianna Vavitsas, Lucas Castellani, John S Brownstein
Background: Our understanding of the global burden of antimicrobial resistance is limited. Complementary approaches to antimicrobial resistance surveillance are needed. Methods: We developed a Web-based/mobile platform for aggregating, analyzing, and disseminating regional antimicrobial resistance information. Antimicrobial resistance indices from existing but disparate online sources were identified and abstracted. To validate antimicrobial resistance data, in the absence of regional comparators, US and Canadian indices were aggregated and compared to existing national and state estimates...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marcel Salathé
The digital revolution has contributed to very large data sets (ie, big data) relevant for public health. The two major data sources are electronic health records from traditional health systems and patient-generated data. As the two data sources have complementary strengths-high veracity in the data from traditional sources and high velocity and variety in patient-generated data-they can be combined to build more-robust public health systems. However, they also have unique challenges. Patient-generated data in particular are often completely unstructured and highly context dependent, posing essentially a machine-learning challenge...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
M S B Araújo, R F Daher, B R S Menezes, G A Gravina, V B Silva, A T Amaral Júnior, E V Rodrigues, B O Almeida, N J Ponciano
The objectives of this study were to estimate the stability of dry biomass production of elephant grass genotypes under an annual harvest regime, in soil-climatic conditions of the Northern region of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and to compare methodologies for stability analyses of Yates and Cochran (YC), Plaisted and Peterson (PP), Annicchiarico (ANN), Lin and Binns (LB), Huenh (HU), and Kang and Phan (KP). A randomized block design with 83 treatments and two replicates was adopted. Four annual harvests were performed (2012-2015) and dry matter yield (DMY, t...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Andrea Marina Alma, Alejandro G Farji-Brener, Luciana Elizalde
Empirical data about food size carried by central-place foragers do not often fit with the optimum predicted by classical foraging theory. Traditionally, biotic constraints such as predation risk and competition have been proposed to explain this inconsistency, leaving aside the possible role of abiotic factors. Here we documented how wind affects the load size of a central-place forager (leaf-cutting ants) through a mathematical model including the whole foraging process. The model showed that as wind speed at ground level increased from 0 to 2 km/h, load size decreased from 91 to 30 mm(2), a prediction that agreed with empirical data from windy zones, highlighting the relevance of considering abiotic factors to predict foraging behavior...
September 2017: American Naturalist
Séverine Bézie, Claire Usal, Carole Guillonneau
The main concern in transplantation is to achieve specific tolerance through induction of regulatory cells. The understanding of tolerance mechanisms requires reliable models. Here, we describe models of tolerance to cardiac allograft in rat, induced by blockade of costimulation signals or by upregulation of immunoregulatory molecules through gene transfer. Each of these models allowed in vivo generation of regulatory cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs), regulatory B cells (Bregs) or regulatory myeloid cells (RegMCs)...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Leticia Torres, Yue Liu, Amy Guitreau, Huiping Yang, Terrence R Tiersch
Quality control (QC) is essential for reproducible and efficient functioning of germplasm repositories. However, many biomedical fish models present significant QC challenges due to small body sizes (<5 cm) and miniscule sperm volumes (<5 μL). Using minimal volumes of sperm, we used Zebrafish to evaluate common QC endpoints as surrogates for fertilization success along sequential steps of cryopreservation. First, concentrations of calibration bead suspensions were evaluated with a Makler(®) counting chamber by using different sample volumes and mixing methods...
August 22, 2017: Zebrafish
Andrea Della Bella, Enrico Salomi, Francesca Buttini, Ruggero Bettini
Direct administration of drugs to the lung is commonly used for the treatment of local respiratory diseases, but it can also be employed to obtain a systemic effect. Besides the advantages offered in terms of higher therapeutic efficacy, this administration route raised specific drug delivery issues. In fact, to obtain a suitable bioavailability and therapeutic effect, the drug has to be efficiently deposited in the lower airways. Formulation is required to render the drug respirable. Area covered. The present paper deals with dry powders formulations, in particular it reviews the literature of the last two decades with respect to the role of the solid-state characteristics of the excipients used as carriers in adhesive mixture toward respirability of the active ingredient...
August 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Courtney Paolicelli, Danielle Berman, Tameka Owens, Allison Magness, Kelley S Scanlon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Derya Bessinger, Laura Ascherl, Florian Auras, Thomas Bein
Most covalent organic frameworks (COFs) to date are made from relatively small aromatic subunits, which can only absorb the high-energy part of the visible spectrum. We have developed near-infrared-absorbing low bandgap COFs by incorporating donor-acceptor-type isoindigo- and thienoisoindigo-based building blocks. The new materials are intensely colored solids with a high degree of long-range order and a pseudo-quadratic pore geometry. Growing the COF as a vertically oriented thin film allows for the construction of an ordered interdigitated heterojunction through infiltration with a complementary semiconductor...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yasuyuki Tezuka
The precision design of topologically intriguing macromolecular architectures has continuously been an attractive challenge in polymer science and polymer materials engineering. A class of multicyclic polymer topologies, including three subclasses of spiro, bridged, and fused forms, are particularly unique not only from a topological geometry viewpoint but also from their biochemical relevance to programmed folding structures. In this Account, we describe recent progress in constructing this class of macromolecules, in particular by means of an electrostatic self-assembly and covalent fixation (ESA-CF) protocol, in which ion-paired polymer self-assemblies are employed as key intermediates...
August 22, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Jincai Wu, Feng Yu, Zheng Zhang, Yong Chen, Jie Du
Correction for 'Highly sensitive self-complementary DNA nanoswitches triggered by polyelectrolytes' by Jincai Wu et al., Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 464-470.
August 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Vail Johnson, Sophie Beckett, Nicholas Márquez-Grant
One of the roles of a forensic anthropologist is to assist medico-legal investigations in the identification of human skeletal remains. In some instances, only small fragments of bone may be present. In this study, a non-destructive novel technique is presented to distinguish between human and non-human long bones. This technique is based on the macroscopic and computed tomography (CT) analysis of nutrient foramina. The nutrient foramen of long bone diaphyses transmits the nutrient artery which provides much of the oxygen and nutrients to the bone...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Philippe Desjardins-Proulx, Idaline Laigle, Timothée Poisot, Dominique Gravel
Species interactions are a key component of ecosystems but we generally have an incomplete picture of who-eats-who in a given community. Different techniques have been devised to predict species interactions using theoretical models or abundances. Here, we explore the K nearest neighbour approach, with a special emphasis on recommendation, along with a supervised machine learning technique. Recommenders are algorithms developed for companies like Netflix to predict whether a customer will like a product given the preferences of similar customers...
2017: PeerJ
J Kumar, I Reccia, T Kusano
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive therapies are important parts of renal transplantation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the present literature on the effectiveness of early introduction of mTOR inhibitors with or without calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) in renal transplant recipients in terms of renal functioning and graft survival. METHODS: The current literature was reviewed following PROSPERO approval, assessing the role of immunosuppressive agent, mTOR inhibitors as an alternative to CNI within 6 months of renal transplantation by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Crossref, and Scopus...
2017: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Liduan Zheng, Yajun Chen, Lin Ye, Wanju Jiao, Huajie Song, Hong Mei, Dan Li, Feng Yang, Huanhuan Li, Kai Huang, Qiangsong Tong
Recent evidence shows the emerging roles of promoter-targeting endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating gene transcription. However, miRNAs affecting the transcription of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP-14) in gastric cancer remain unknown. Herein, through integrative mining of public datasets, we identified the adjacent targeting sites of Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and miRNA-584-3p (miR-584-3p) within MMP-14 promoter. We demonstrated that YY1 directly targeted the MMP-14 promoter to facilitate its expression in gastric cancer cells...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kathrin Koch, Sarah Kalusche, Jonathan L Torres, Robyn L Stanfield, Welbeck Danquah, Kamal Khazanehdari, Hagen von Briesen, Eric R Geertsma, Ian A Wilson, Ulrich Wernery, Friedrich Koch-Nolte, Andrew B Ward, Ursula Dietrich
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 protect from infection and reduce viral load upon therapeutic applications. However no vaccine was able so far to induce bnAbs demanding their expensive biotechnological production. For clinical applications, nanobodies (VHH) derived from heavy chain only antibodies from Camelidae, may be better suited due to their small size, high solubility/stability and extensive homology to human VH3 genes. Here we selected broadly neutralizing nanobodies by phage display after immunization of dromedaries with different soluble trimeric envelope proteins derived from HIV-1 subtype C...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jasmin Schulz, Dönem Avci, Markus A Queisser, Aljona Gutschmidt, Lena-Sophie Dreher, Emma J Fenech, Norbert Volkmar, Yuki Hayashi, Thorsten Hoppe, John C Christianson
The mammalian ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 is the central component of a complex facilitating degradation of misfolded proteins during the ubiquitin-proteasome dependent process of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Hrd1 associates with cofactors to execute ERAD, but their roles and how they assemble with Hrd1 are not well understood. Here we identify crucial cofactor interaction domains within Hrd1 and report a previously unrecognised evolutionarily conserved segment within the intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic domain of Hrd1 (termed the HAF-H domain), which engages complementary segments in the cofactors FAM8A1 and Herp...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Andrew Hettle, Alexander Fillo, Kento Abe, Patricia Massel, Benjamin Pluvinage, David N Langelaan, Steven P Smith, Alisdair B Boraston
BH0236 from Bacillus halodurans is a multimodular β-1,3-glucanase comprising an N-terminal family 81 glycoside hydrolase catalytic module, an internal family 6 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) that binds the nonreducing end of β-1,3-glucans chains, and an uncharacterized C-terminal module classified into CBM family 56. Here, we determined that this latter CBM, BhCBM56, bound the soluble β-1,3-glucan laminarin with a dissociation constant (Kd) of ~26 μM, displayed higher affinity for insoluble β-1,3-glucans with Kds of ~2-10 μM, but lacked affinity for β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Aline de Castro Zacche-Tonini, Giuliana Schmidt França Fonseca, Laura Néspoli Nassar Passini de Jesus, Geisa Baptista Barros, Jordana Grazziela Alves Coelho-Dos-Reis, Samantha Ribeiro Béla, Anderson Silva Machado, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos Carneiro, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz Andrade, Daniel Vitor Vasconcelos-Santos, José Nélio Januário, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Ricardo Wagner Almeida Vitor, Eloísa Amália Vieira Ferro, José Roberto Mineo, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Elenice Moreira Lemos
The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of conventional serology (Q-Preven™ and ELFAVIDAS™) and flow cytometry-based serologic tools for early serologic diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. The study groups included prospectively confirmed cases of congenital toxoplasmosis (TOXO=88) and age-matching non-infected controls (NI=15).The results demonstrated that all samples tested positive/indeterminate for anti-T. gondii IgM screening at birth using air-dried whole blood samples. Serum samples collected at 30-45days after birth tested positive for ELFAVIDAS™ IgG in both groups...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
Rosa Pérez, Eva Domenech, Clara Coscollà, Vicent Yusà
Human Biomonitoring (HBM) studies are highly useful for evaluating population exposure to environmental contaminants and are being carried out in increasing numbers all over the world. The use of HBM in the field of food safety, in a risk assessment context, presents a growing interest as more health-based guidance values (HBGV) in biological matrices are derived, and can be used in a complementary way to the external exposure approaches such as total diet studies or surveillance programmes. The aims of the present work are: i) to describe the methodological framework of the BIOVAL study, a cross-sectional HBM program carried out by the Health Department of the Regional Government of Valencia (Spain), that is linked to the food safety official control, and is focused on children from 6 to 11 years of age ii) to explain and discuss the pre-analytical results iii) to report and discuss on lessons learned from its design and implementation...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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