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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445774/voxresnet-deep-voxelwise-residual-networks-for-brain-segmentation-from-3d-mr-images
#1
REVIEW
Hao Chen, Qi Dou, Lequan Yu, Jing Qin, Pheng-Ann Heng
Segmentation of key brain tissues from 3D medical images is of great significance for brain disease diagnosis, progression assessment and monitoring of neurologic conditions. While manual segmentation is time-consuming, laborious, and subjective, automated segmentation is quite challenging due to the complicated anatomical environment of brain and the large variations of brain tissues. We propose a novel voxelwise residual network (VoxResNet) with a set of effective training schemes to cope with this challenging problem...
April 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445416/structure-function-model-for-kissing-loop-interactions-that-initiate-dimerization-of-ty1-rna
#2
Eric R Gamache, Jung H Doh, Justin Ritz, Alain Laederach, Stanislav Bellaousov, David H Mathews, M Joan Curcio
The genomic RNA of the retrotransposon Ty1 is packaged as a dimer into virus-like particles. The 5' terminus of Ty1 RNA harbors cis-acting sequences required for translation initiation, packaging and initiation of reverse transcription (TIPIRT). To identify RNA motifs involved in dimerization and packaging, a structural model of the TIPIRT domain in vitro was developed from single-nucleotide resolution RNA structural data. In general agreement with previous models, the first 326 nucleotides of Ty1 RNA form a pseudoknot with a 7-bp stem (S1), a 1-nucleotide interhelical loop and an 8-bp stem (S2) that delineate two long, structured loops...
April 26, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445263/acupuncture-for-enhancing-early-recovery-of-bowel-function-in-cancer-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#3
Yi-Hua Liu, Yang Ye, Jia-Bin Zheng, Xue-Qian Wang, Ying Zhang, Hong-Sheng Lin
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients undergoing surgical procedure often suffer from bowel dysfunction and postoperative ileus (POI). Cancer management for early recovery of bowel function is still a challenging topic. Acupuncture has been commonly used in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of acupuncture therapy to reduce the duration of POI and enhance bowel function in cancer patients. METHODS: We will systematically screen all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through electronically and hand searching...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445107/hypodermal-adipose-tissue-sonoelastography-for-monitoring-treatment-response-in-patients-with-plaque-psoriasis
#4
Annunziata Dattola, Simone Altobelli, Salvatore Marsico, Domenico Plastina, Steven P Nistico, Armando Cavallo, Roberto Floris, Luca Bianchi, Manlio Guazzaroni
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis (PsO) is a multifactorial chronic and relapsing skin disease that affects about 125 million people in the world. Several studies have demonstrated the link between adipose tissue, inflammation, and PsO. The purpose of our study is to evaluate hypodermal adipose tissue inflammation underneath PsO plaques quantifying tissue elasticity with sonoelastography before and after treatment. The study was conducted at the Department of Dermatology of the University of "Rome Tor Vergata" and Department of Radiology of the University of "Rome Tor Vergata...
April 24, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444426/investigation-of-altered-microstructure-in-patients-with-drug-refractory-epilepsy-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#5
Yuwei Jiang, Lingyan Mao, Xu Yan, Mingxia Fan, Xin Wang, Jing Ding, Dongrong Xu
PURPOSE: The risk of refractory epilepsy can be more dangerous than the adverse effect caused by medical treatment. In this study, we employed voxel-wise analysis (VWA) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) methods to measure microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients of drug refractory epilepsy (DRE) who had been epileptic for more than 10 years. METHODS: To examine the specific microstructural abnormalities in DRE patients and its difference from medically controlled epilepsy (MCE), we acquired DTI data of 7 DRE patients, 37 MCE patients, and 31 healthy controls (HCs) using a 3 T MRI scanner...
April 25, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444391/dual-display-phage-selection-driven-by-co-engagement-of-two-targets-by-two-different-antibody-fragments
#6
Séverine Fagète, Ledicia Botas-Perez, Irène Rossito-Borlat, Kenneth Adea, Franck Gueneau, Ulla Ravn, François Rousseau, Marie Kosco-Vilbois, Nicolas Fischer, Oliver Hartley
Antibody phage display technology has supported the emergence of numerous therapeutic antibodies. The development of bispecific antibodies, a promising new frontier in antibody therapy, could be facilitated by new phage display approaches that enable pairs of antibodies to be co-selected based on co-engagement of their respective targets. We describe such an approach, making use of two complementary leucine zipper domains that heterodimerize with high affinity. Phagemids encoding a first antibody fragment (scFv) fused to phage coat protein via the first leucine zipper are rescued in bacteria expressing a second scFv fused to the second leucine zipper as a soluble periplasmic protein, so that it is acquired by phage during assembly...
April 24, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443337/inhaled-nanoparticles-accumulate-at-sites-of-vascular-disease
#7
Mark R Miller, Jennifer B Raftis, Jeremy P Langrish, Steven G McLean, Pawitrabhorn Samutrtai, Shea P Connell, Simon Wilson, Alex T Vesey, Paul H B Fokkens, A John F Boere, Petra Krystek, Colin J Campbell, Patrick W F Hadoke, Ken Donaldson, Flemming R Cassee, David E Newby, Rodger Duffin, Nicholas L Mills
The development of engineered nanomaterials is growing exponentially, despite concerns over their potential similarities to environmental nanoparticles that are associated with significant cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms through which inhalation of nanoparticles could trigger acute cardiovascular events are emerging, but a fundamental unanswered question remains: Do inhaled nanoparticles translocate from the lung in man and directly contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease? In complementary clinical and experimental studies, we used gold nanoparticles to evaluate particle translocation, permitting detection by high-resolution inductively coupled mass spectrometry and Raman microscopy...
April 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443323/prevalence-of-ctr1-and-ercc1-polymorphisms-and-response-of-biliary-tract-cancer-to-gemcitabine-platinum-chemotherapy
#8
Skolchart Pongmaneratanakul, Suebpong Tanasanvimon, Thitima Pengsuparp, Nutthada Areepium
Purpose: Biliary tract cancer (BTC)is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage for which curative surgery is not possible and gemcitabine-platinum chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for advanced cases. Several studies had focused on biomarkers to predict response from platinum drugs in lung cancer, but information is limited for BTC. In this study, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the copper transporter (CTR1) and excision repair cross-complementary group 1 (ERCC1) genes were investigated as predictive biomarkers of objective response to gemcitabine-platinum...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443003/complementary-modular-microcircuits-of-the-rat-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#9
Saikat Ray, Andrea Burgalossi, Michael Brecht, Robert K Naumann
The parahippocampal region is organized into different areas, with the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), presubiculum and parasubiculum prominent in spatial memory. Here, we also describe a region at the extremity of the MEC and bordering the subicular complex, the medial-most part of the entorhinal cortex. While the subdivisions of hippocampus proper form more or less continuous cell sheets, the superficial layers of the parahippocampal region have a distinct modular architecture. We investigate the spatial distribution, laminar position, and putative connectivity of zinc-positive modules in layer 2 of the MEC of rats and relate them to the calbindin-positive patches previously described in the entorhinal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442904/anti-fgfr1-aptamer-tagged-superparamagnetic-conjugates-for-anticancer-hyperthermia-therapy
#10
Przemysław M Jurek, Konrad Zabłocki, Urszula Waśko, Maciej P Mazurek, Jacek Otlewski, Filip Jeleń
Compounds that recognize and strongly bind to molecular targets are one of the cornerstones of modern pharmaceutics. Work has been ongoing for the past 25 years on the therapeutic use of aptamers, nucleic acid molecules, whose three-dimensional structure is the result of interactions between complementary base pairs. The aptamers selection methods allow the oligonucleotides which bind the molecular target in its native environment to be quickly isolated from a large library of random oligonucleotides. The possibilities presented for aptamers in the field of targeted therapy require the application of effective carriers to counter the renal clearance effect and/or functional cargo to exert therapeutic action if the aptamer is only used as a targeting moiety...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442309/a-universal-colorimetry-for-nucleic-acids-and-aptamer-specific-ligands-detection-based-on-dna-hybridization-amplification
#11
Shuang Li, Xinxin Shang, Jia Liu, Yujie Wang, Yingshu Guo, Jinmao You
We present a universal amplified-colorimetric for detecting nucleic acid targets or aptamer-specific ligand targets based on gold nanoparticle-DNA (GNP-DNA) hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The universal arrays consisted of capture probe and hairpin DNA-GNP. First, capture probe recognized target specificity and released the initiator sequence. Then dispersed hairpin DNA modified GNPs were cross-linked to form aggregates through HCR events triggered by initiator sequence. As the aggregates accumulate, a significant red-to purple color change can be easily visualized by the naked eye...
April 22, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442270/interpretation-of-physiological-indicators-of-motivation-caveats-and-recommendations
#12
Michael Richter, Kate Slade
Motivation scientists employing physiological measures to gather information about motivation-related states are at risk of committing two fundamental errors: overstating the inferences that can be drawn from their physiological measures and circular reasoning. We critically discuss two complementary approaches, Cacioppo and colleagues' model of psychophysiological relations and construct validation theory, to highlight the conditions under which these errors are committed and provide guidance on how to avoid them...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442200/next-generation-sequencing-and-culture-based-techniques-offer-complementary-insights-into-fungi-and-prokaryotes-in-beach-sands
#13
Daniela Romão, Christopher Staley, Filipa Ferreira, Raquel Rodrigues, Raquel Sabino, Cristina Veríssimo, Ping Wang, Michael Sadowsky, João Brandão
A next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach, in conjunction with culture-based methods, was used to examine fungal and prokaryotic communities for the presence of potential pathogens in beach sands throughout Portugal. Culture-based fungal enumeration revealed low and variable concentrations of the species targeted (yeasts and dermatophytes), which were underrepresented in the community characterized by NGS targeting the ITS1 region. Conversely, NGS indicated that the potentially pathogenic species Purpureocillium liliacinum comprised nearly the entire fungal community...
April 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441949/-it-s-so-hard-taking-pills-when-you-don-t-know-what-they-re-for-a-qualitative-study-of-patients-medicine-taking-behaviours-and-conceptualisation-of-medicines-in-the-context-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Boitshoko Kobue, Shirra Moch, Jennifer Watermeyer
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic illnesses are often required to take lifelong medication to alleviate symptoms and prevent disease progression. Many patients find it difficult to adhere to prescribed medication for various reasons, some of which may link to the way they conceptualise medicines and understand their illness and treatment. This study explores the medicine taking behaviours of patients presenting with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease...
April 26, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441863/high-triplet-energy-level-achieved-by-tuning-the-arrangement-of-building-blocks-in-phosphorescent-polymer-backbones-for-furnishing-high-electroluminescent-performances-in-both-blue-and-white-organic-light-emitting-devices
#15
Boao Liu, Feifan Dang, Zhuanzhuan Tian, Zhao Feng, Deyuan Jin, Wanping Dang, Xiaolong Yang, Guijiang Zhou, Zhaoxin Wu
High triplet energy-level (ET) of ca. 2.83 eV has been achieved in novel polymer backbone through tuning the arrangement of two kinds of building blocks showing enhanced hole injection/transporting capacity. Based on this new polymer backbone with high ET, both blue and white phosphorescent polymers have been successfully developed with trade-off between high ET and enhanced charge carrier transporting ability of the polymer backbones. In addition, their photophysical features, electrochemical behaviors and electroluminescent (EL) properties have been characterized in detail...
April 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441775/progress-in-the-correlative-atomic-force-microscopy-and-optical-microscopy
#16
REVIEW
Lulu Zhou, Mingjun Cai, Ti Tong, Hongda Wang
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has evolved from the originally morphological imaging technique to a powerful and multifunctional technique for manipulating and detecting the interactions between molecules at nanometer resolution. However, AFM cannot provide the precise information of synchronized molecular groups and has many shortcomings in the aspects of determining the mechanism of the interactions and the elaborate structure due to the limitations of the technology, itself, such as non-specificity and low imaging speed...
April 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441773/overview-of-four-functional-classification-systems-commonly-used-in-cerebral-palsy
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Paulson, Jilda Vargus-Adams
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in childhood. CP comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders that can result in spasticity, dystonia, muscle contractures, weakness and coordination difficulty that ultimately affects the ability to control movements. Traditionally, CP has been classified using a combination of the motor type and the topographical distribution, as well as subjective severity level. Imprecise terms such as these tell very little about what a person is able to do functionally and can impair clear communication between providers...
April 24, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441674/the-development-of-an-indigenous-health-curriculum-for-medical-students
#18
Melissa Lewis, Amy Prunuske
Indigenous populations experience dramatic health disparities; yet, few medical schools equip students with the skills to address these inequities. At the University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth campus, a project to develop an Indigenous health curriculum began in September 2013. This project used collaborative and decolonizing methods to gather ideas and opinions from multiple stakeholders, including students, community members, faculty, and administration, to guide the process of adding Indigenous health content to the curriculum to prepare students to work effectively with Indigenous populations...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441635/validation-of-smartrank-a-likelihood-ratio-software-for-searching-national-dna-databases-with-complex-dna-profiles
#19
Corina C G Benschop, Linda van de Merwe, Jeroen de Jong, Vanessa Vanvooren, Morgane Kempenaers, C P Kees van der Beek, Filippo Barni, Eusebio López Reyes, Léa Moulin, Laurent Pene, Hinda Haned, Titia Sijen
Searching a national DNA database with complex and incomplete profiles usually yields very large numbers of possible matches that can present many candidate suspects to be further investigated by the forensic scientist and/or police. Current practice in most forensic laboratories consists of ordering these 'hits' based on the number of matching alleles with the searched profile. Thus, candidate profiles that share the same number of matching alleles are not differentiated and due to the lack of other ranking criteria for the candidate list it may be difficult to discern a true match from the false positives or notice that all candidates are in fact false positives...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441494/the-role-of-the-reducing-agent-in-the-electroless-deposition-of-copper-on-functionalized-sams
#20
Ashley Ann Ellsworth, Amy Victoria Walker
Metallized organic layer constructs have a wide range of technological applications. Electroless deposition is an attractive technique by which to deposit metal overlayers because it is inexpensive and can be performed low temperatures compatible with organic materials. Amine borane reducing agents are versatile which are capable of depositing metals, semiconductors and even insulators. We have investigated the role of amine borane reducing agents in the electroless deposition of copper on -CH3, -OH, and -COOH terminated SAMs adsorbed on gold using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, optical microscopy and complementary MP2 calculations...
April 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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