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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449316/does-my-high-blood-pressure-improve-your-survival-overall-and-subgroup-learning-curves-in-health
#1
Raf Van Gestel, Tobias Müller, Johan Bosmans
Learning curves in health are of interest for a wide range of medical disciplines, healthcare providers, and policy makers. In this paper, we distinguish between three types of learning when identifying overall learning curves: economies of scale, learning from cumulative experience, and human capital depreciation. In addition, we approach the question of how treating more patients with specific characteristics predicts provider performance. To soften collinearity problems, we explore the use of least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression as a variable selection method and Theil-Goldberger mixed estimation to augment the available information...
April 27, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448553/a-computational-toxicogenomics-approach-identifies-a-list-of-highly-hepatotoxic-compounds-from-a-large-microarray-database
#2
Héctor A Rueda-Zárate, Iván Imaz-Rosshandler, Roberto A Cárdenas-Ovando, Juan E Castillo-Fernández, Julieta Noguez-Monroy, Claudia Rangel-Escareño
The liver and the kidney are the most common targets of chemical toxicity, due to their major metabolic and excretory functions. However, since the liver is directly involved in biotransformation, compounds in many currently and normally used drugs could affect it adversely. Most chemical compounds are already labeled according to FDA-approved labels using DILI-concern scale. Drug Induced Liver Injury (DILI) scale refers to an adverse drug reaction. Many compounds do not exhibit hepatotoxicity at early stages of development, so it is important to detect anomalies at gene expression level that could predict adverse reactions in later stages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448493/variable-habitat-conditions-drive-species-covariation-in-the-human-microbiota
#3
Charles K Fisher, Thierry Mora, Aleksandra M Walczak
Two species with similar resource requirements respond in a characteristic way to variations in their habitat-their abundances rise and fall in concert. We use this idea to learn how bacterial populations in the microbiota respond to habitat conditions that vary from person-to-person across the human population. Our mathematical framework shows that habitat fluctuations are sufficient for explaining intra-bodysite correlations in relative species abundances from the Human Microbiome Project. We explicitly show that the relative abundances of closely related species are positively correlated and can be predicted from taxonomic relationships...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447901/straw-men-deep-learning-and-the-future-of-the-human-microscopist-response-to-artificial-intelligence-and-the-pathologist-future-frenemies
#4
Scott R Granter, Andrew H Beck, David J Papke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447900/alphago-deep-learning-and-the-future-of-the-human-microscopist
#5
Scott R Granter, Andrew H Beck, David J Papke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446694/social-learning-and-the-demise-of-costly-cooperation-in-humans
#6
Maxwell N Burton-Chellew, Claire El Mouden, Stuart A West
Humans have a sophisticated ability to learn from others, termed social learning, which has allowed us to spread over the planet, construct complex societies, and travel to the moon. It has been hypothesized that social learning has played a pivotal role in making human societies cooperative, by favouring cooperation even when it is not favoured by genetical selection. However, this hypothesis lacks direct experimental testing, and the opposite prediction has also been made, that social learning disfavours cooperation...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446518/glutaminyl-cyclase-inhibitor-pq912-improves-cognition-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-studies-on-relation-to-effective-target-occupancy
#7
Torsten Hoffmann, Antje Meyer, Ulrich Heiser, Stephan Kurat, Livia Bohme, Martin Kleinschmidt, Karl-Ulrich Buhring, Birgit Hutter-Paier, Martina Farcher, Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Inge Lues, Stephan Schilling
Numerous studies suggest that the majority of Aβ peptides deposited in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is truncated and post-translationally modified at the N-terminus. Among these modified species, pyroglutamyl-Aβ (pE-Aβ including N3pE-Aβ42) has been identified as particularly neurotoxic. The N-terminal modification renders the peptide hydrophobic, accelerates formation of oligomers and reduces degradation by peptidases leading ultimately to the accumulation of the peptide and progression of AD. It has been shown, that the formation of pyroglutamyl residues is catalysed by glutaminyl cyclase (QC)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445988/specific-up-regulation-of-p21-by-a-small-active-rna-sequence-suppresses-human-colorectal-cancer-growth
#8
Lu-Lu Wang, Hui-Hui Guo, Yun Zhan, Chen-Lin Feng, Shuai Huang, Yan-Xing Han, Wen-Sheng Zheng, Jian-Dong Jiang
The double stranded small active RNA (saRNA)- p21-saRNA-322 inhibits tumor growth by stimulating the p21 gene expression. We focused our research of p21-saRNA-322 on colorectal cancer because 1) p21 down-regulation is a signature abnormality of the cancer, and 2) colorectal cancer might be a suitable target for in situ p21-saRNA-322 delivery. The goal of the present study is to learn the activity of p21-saRNA-322 in colorectal cancer. Three human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT-116, HCT-116 (p53-/-) and HT-29 were transfected with the p21-saRNA-322...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445489/video-quality-assessment-using-motion-compensated-temporal-filtering-and-manifold-feature-similarity
#9
Yang Song, Mei Yu, Gangyi Jiang, Feng Shao, Zongju Peng
Well-performed Video quality assessment (VQA) method should be consistent with human visual systems for better prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a VQA method using motion-compensated temporal filtering (MCTF) and manifold feature similarity. To be more specific, a group of frames (GoF) is first decomposed into a temporal high-pass component (HPC) and a temporal low-pass component (LPC) by MCTF. Following this, manifold feature learning (MFL) and phase congruency (PC) are used to predict the quality of temporal LPC and temporal HPC respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445190/cognitive-learning-and-its-future-in-urology-surgical-skills-teaching-and-assessment
#10
Somayeh B Shafiei, Ahmed A Hussein, Khurshid A Guru
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the current status of novel cognitive training approaches in surgery and to investigate the potential role of cognitive training in surgical education. RECENT FINDINGS: Kinematics of end-effector trajectories, as well as cognitive state features of surgeon trainees and mentors have recently been studied as modalities to objectively evaluate the expertise level of trainees and to shorten the learning process...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444127/hla-class-i-binding-prediction-via-convolutional-neural-networks
#11
Yeeleng S Vang, Xiaohui Xie
Motivation: Many biological processes are governed by protein-ligand interactions. One such example is the recognition of self and nonself cells by the immune system. This immune response process is regulated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein which is encoded by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. Understanding the binding potential between MHC and peptides can lead to the design of more potent, peptide-based vaccines and immunotherapies for infectious autoimmune diseases...
April 21, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443274/the-guatemala-penn-partners-an-innovative-inter-institutional-model-for-scientific-capacity-building-healthcare-education-and-public-health
#12
Maria Alejandra Paniagua-Avila, Elizabeth Messenger, Caroline A Nelson, Erwin Calgua, Frances K Barg, Kent W Bream, Charlene Compher, Anthony J Dean, Sergio Martinez-Siekavizza, Victor Puac-Polanco, Therese S Richmond, Rudolf R Roth, Charles C Branas
Population health outcomes are directly related to robust public health programs, access to basic health services, and a well-trained health-care workforce. Effective health services need to systematically identify solutions, scientifically test these solutions, and share generated knowledge. The World Health Organization (WHO)'s Global Healthcare Workforce Alliance states that the capacity to perform research is an essential factor for well-functioning public health systems. Low- and middle-income countries have greater health-care worker shortages and lower research capacity than higher-income countries...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443015/cross-subject-eeg-feature-selection-for-emotion-recognition-using-transfer-recursive-feature-elimination
#13
Zhong Yin, Yongxiong Wang, Li Liu, Wei Zhang, Jianhua Zhang
Using machine-learning methodologies to analyze EEG signals becomes increasingly attractive for recognizing human emotions because of the objectivity of physiological data and the capability of the learning principles on modeling emotion classifiers from heterogeneous features. However, the conventional subject-specific classifiers may induce additional burdens to each subject for preparing multiple-session EEG data as training sets. To this end, we developed a new EEG feature selection approach, transfer recursive feature elimination (T-RFE), to determine a set of the most robust EEG indicators with stable geometrical distribution across a group of training subjects and a specific testing subject...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442279/avoiding-catastrophic-forgetting
#14
Michael E Hasselmo
Humans regularly perform new learning without losing memory for previous information, but neural network models suffer from the phenomenon of catastrophic forgetting in which new learning impairs prior function. A recent article presents an algorithm that spares learning at synapses important for previously learned function, reducing catastrophic forgetting.
April 22, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441656/development-of-a-smartphone-app-for-visualizing-heart-sounds-and-murmurs
#15
Noritaka Mamorita, Naoya Arisaka, Risa Isonaka, Tadashi Kawakami, Akihiro Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: Auscultation is one of the basic techniques for the diagnosis of heart disease. However, the interpretation of heart sounds and murmurs is a highly subjective and difficult skill. OBJECTIVES: To assist the auscultation skill at the bedside, a handy phonocardiogram was developed using a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy J, Android OS 4.4.2) and an external microphone attached to a stethoscope. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Android app used Java classes, "AudioRecord," "AudioTrack," and "View," that recorded sounds, replayed sounds, and plotted sound waves, respectively...
April 26, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441518/learning-to-allocate-limited-time-to-decisions-with-different-expected-outcomes
#16
Arash Khodadadi, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome R Busemeyer
The goal of this article is to investigate how human participants allocate their limited time to decisions with different properties. We report the results of two behavioral experiments. In each trial of the experiments, the participant must accumulate noisy information to make a decision. The participants received positive and negative rewards for their correct and incorrect decisions, respectively. The stimulus was designed such that decisions based on more accumulated information were more accurate but took longer...
April 19, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441505/error-detection-based-model-to-assess-educational-outcomes-in-crisis-resource-management-training-a-pilot-study
#17
Sarah Bouhabel, Emily Kay-Rivest, Carol Nhan, Ilana Bank, Peter Nugus, Rachel Fisher, Lily Hp Nguyen
Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OTL-HNS) residents face a variety of difficult, high-stress situations, which may occur early in their training. Since these events occur infrequently, simulation-based learning has become an important part of residents' training and is already well established in fields such as anesthesia and emergency medicine. In the domain of OTL-HNS, it is gradually gaining in popularity. Crisis Resource Management (CRM), a program adapted from the aviation industry, aims to improve outcomes of crisis situations by attempting to mitigate human errors...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441393/sequence-learning-modulates-neural-responses-and-oscillatory-coupling-in-human-and-monkey-auditory-cortex
#18
Yukiko Kikuchi, Adam Attaheri, Benjamin Wilson, Ariane E Rhone, Kirill V Nourski, Phillip E Gander, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroto Kawasaki, Timothy D Griffiths, Matthew A Howard, Christopher I Petkov
Learning complex ordering relationships between sensory events in a sequence is fundamental for animal perception and human communication. While it is known that rhythmic sensory events can entrain brain oscillations at different frequencies, how learning and prior experience with sequencing relationships affect neocortical oscillations and neuronal responses is poorly understood. We used an implicit sequence learning paradigm (an "artificial grammar") in which humans and monkeys were exposed to sequences of nonsense words with regularities in the ordering relationships between the words...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440122/effects-of-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-on-dna-damage-caused-pathways-by-reverse-phase-protein-array-and-bayesian-networks
#19
Dong-Chul Kim, Mingon Kang, Ashis Biswas, Chin-Rang Yang, Xiaoyu Wang, Jean X Gao
Ionizing radiation (IR) causing damages to Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) constitutes a broad range of base damage and double strand break, and thereby, it induces the operation of relevant signaling pathways such as DNA repair, cell cycle control, and cell apoptosis. The goal of this paper is to study how the exposure to low dose radiation affects the human body by observing the signaling pathway associated with Ataxia Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) using Reverse-Phase Protein Array (RPPA) and isogenic human Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T) cells under different amounts and durations of IR exposure...
April 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439228/from-engrams-to-pathologies-of-the-brain
#20
REVIEW
Christine A Denny, Evan Lebois, Steve Ramirez
Memories are the experiential threads that tie our past to the present. The biological realization of a memory is termed an engram-the enduring biochemical and physiological processes that enable learning and retrieval. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of engram research that suggests we are closing in on boundary conditions for what qualifies as the physical manifestation of memory. In this review, we provide a brief history of engram research, followed by an overview of the many rodent models available to probe memory with intersectional strategies that have yielded unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution over defined sets of cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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