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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647609/a-machine-learning-approach-for-automated-wide-range-frequency-tagging-analysis-in-embedded-neuromonitoring-systems
#1
Fabio Montagna, Marco Buiatti, Simone Benatti, Davide Rossi, Elisabetta Farella, Luca Benini
EEG is a standard non-invasive technique used in neural disease diagnostics and neurosciences. Frequency-tagging is an increasingly popular experimental paradigm that efficiently tests brain function by measuring EEG responses to periodic stimulation. Recently, frequency-tagging paradigms have proven successful with low stimulation frequencies (0.5 - 6 Hz), but the EEG signal is intrinsically noisy in this frequency range, requiring heavy signal processing and significant human intervention for response estimation...
June 21, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646936/surgical-flow-disruptions-during-robotic-assisted-radical-prostatectomy
#2
Christopher J Dru, Jennifer T Anger, Colby P Souders, Catherine Bresee, Matthias Weigl, Elyse Hallett, Ken Catchpole
INTRODUCTION: We sought to apply the principles of human factors research to robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy to understand where training and integration challenges lead to suboptimal and inefficient care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissections over a 20 week period were observed for flow disruptions (FD) - deviations from optimal care that can compromise safety or efficiency. Other variables - physician experience, trainee involvement, robot model (S versus Si), age, body mass index (BMI), and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status - were used to stratify the data and understand the effect of context...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646563/cohesive-network-reconfiguration-accompanies-extended-training
#3
Qawi K Telesford, Arian Ashourvan, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett
Human behavior is supported by flexible neurophysiological processes that enable the fine-scale manipulation of information across distributed neural circuits. Yet, approaches for understanding the dynamics of these circuit interactions have been limited. One promising avenue for quantifying and describing these dynamics lies in multilayer network models. Here, networks are composed of nodes (which represent brain regions) and time-dependent edges (which represent statistical similarities in activity time series)...
June 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645698/radiological-studies-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-in-humans-and-animal-models-an-updated-comprehensive-review
#4
Van T Nguyen, Suyinn Chong, Quang M Tieng, Karine Mardon, Graham J Galloway, Nyoman D Kurniawan
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders encompass a wide range of birth defects in children born to mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Typical mental impairments in FASD include difficulties in life adaptation and learning and memory, deficits in attention, visuospatial skills, language and speech disabilities, mood disorders and motor disabilities. Multimodal imaging methods have enabled in vivo studies of the teratogenic effects of alcohol on the central nervous system, giving more insight into the FASD phenotype...
June 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645414/humanizing-the-patient-a-lesson-i-learned-from%C3%A2-pumbaa
#5
EDITORIAL
Austin Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643622/lung-microbiota-and-its-impact-on-the-mucosal-immune-phenotype
#6
Benjamin G Wu, Leopoldo N Segal
The use of culture-independent techniques has allowed us to appreciate that the upper and lower respiratory tract contain a diverse community of microbes in health and disease. Research has only recently explored the effects of the microbiome on the host immune response. The exposure of the human body to the bacterial environment is an important factor for immunological development; thus, the interaction between the microbiome and its host is critical to understanding the pathogenesis of disease. In this article, we discuss the mechanisms that determine the composition of the airway microbiome and its effects on the host immune response...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643328/drug-repurposing-by-simulating-flow-through-protein-protein-interaction-networks
#7
M Manczinger, V Bodnár, B T Papp, B Sz Bolla, K Szabó, B Balázs, E Csányi, E Szél, G Erős, L Kemény
As drug development is extremely expensive, the identification of novel indications for in-market drugs is financially attractive. Multiple algorithms are used to support such drug repurposing, but highly reliable methods combining simulation of intracellular networks and machine learning are currently not available. We developed an algorithm that simulates drug effects on the flow of information through protein-protein interaction networks, and uses Support Vector Machine to identify potentially effective drugs in our model disease, psoriasis...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642938/correlation-weighted-sparse-group-representation-for-brain-network-construction-in-mci-classification
#8
Renping Yu, Han Zhang, Le An, Xiaobo Chen, Zhihui Wei, Dinggang Shen
Analysis of brain functional connectivity network (BFCN) has shown great potential in understanding brain functions and identifying biomarkers for neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and its early stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In all these applications, the accurate construction of biologically meaningful brain network is critical. Due to the sparse nature of the brain network, sparse learning has been widely used for complex BFCN construction. However, the conventional l1-norm penalty in the sparse learning equally penalizes each edge (or link) of the brain network, which ignores the link strength and could remove strong links in the brain network...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642437/human-in-the-loop-optimization-of-exoskeleton-assistance-during-walking
#9
Juanjuan Zhang, Pieter Fiers, Kirby A Witte, Rachel W Jackson, Katherine L Poggensee, Christopher G Atkeson, Steven H Collins
Exoskeletons and active prostheses promise to enhance human mobility, but few have succeeded. Optimizing device characteristics on the basis of measured human performance could lead to improved designs. We have developed a method for identifying the exoskeleton assistance that minimizes human energy cost during walking. Optimized torque patterns from an exoskeleton worn on one ankle reduced metabolic energy consumption by 24.2 ± 7.4% compared to no torque. The approach was effective with exoskeletons worn on one or both ankles, during a variety of walking conditions, during running, and when optimizing muscle activity...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642081/tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-impairs-encoding-but-not-retrieval-of-verbal-information
#10
Mohini Ranganathan, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Peter H Addy, Ashley Schnakenberg, Ashley Williams, Michelle Carbuto, Jacqueline Elander, Brian Pittman, R Andrew Sewell, Patrick D Skosnik, Deepak Cyril D'Souza
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis and agonists of the brain cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) produce acute memory impairments in humans. However, the extent to which cannabinoids impair encoding and retrieval in humans has not been established. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the administration of Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis, impairs encoding and/or retrieval of verbal information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy subjects were recruited from the community...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641809/re-emerging-infectious-diseases-from-the-past-hysteria-or-real-risk
#11
Charlier Philippe, Claverie Jean-Michel, Sansonetti Philippe, Coppens Yves, Augias Anaïs, Jacqueline Sophie, Rengot Fanny, Deo Saudamini
BACKGROUND: Work on human remains and old biological samples is a potential source of contamination by conventional or atypical infectious agents. Similarly, current and future environmental changes are a source of resurgence of ancient epidemic diseases. To what extent are anthropologists sorcerer apprentices (especially those working on ancient samples, i.e. paleo-anthropologists)? Are ancient skeletons, palaeosols and museum objects with a biological component at risk for current populations? Unless there are unfounded fears and undue risk… What can be learned from the recent scientific literature and the common sense of the researchers? METHODS: We have attempted to compile data from the literature and from our personal experience in the fields of anthropology, clinical medicine and epidemiology, in order to grasp the reality of the risk to the human population...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641247/modeling-task-fmri-data-via-deep-convolutional-autoencoder
#12
Heng Huang, Xintao Hu, Yu Zhao, Milad Makkie, Qinglin Dong, Shijie Zhao, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
Task-based fMRI (tfMRI) has been widely used to study functional brain networks under task performance. Modeling tfMRI data is challenging due to at least two problems: the lack of the ground truth of underlying neural activity and the highly complex intrinsic structure of tfMRI data. To better understand brain networks based on fMRI data, data-driven approaches have been proposed, for instance, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Dictionary Learning (SDL). However, both ICA and SDL only build shallow models, and they are under the strong assumption that original fMRI signal could be linearly decomposed into time series components with their corresponding spatial maps...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641239/automatic-recognition-of-fmri-derived-functional-networks-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#13
Yu Zhao, Qinglin Dong, Shu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Hanbo Chen, Xi Jiang, Lei Guo, Xintao Hu, Junwei Han, Tianming Liu
Current fMRI data modeling techniques such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Coding methods can effectively reconstruct dozens or hundreds of concurrent interacting functional brain networks simultaneously from the whole brain fMRI signals. However, such reconstructed networks have no correspondences across different subjects. Thus, automatic, effective and accurate classification and recognition of these large numbers of fMRI-derived functional brain networks are very important for subsequent steps of functional brain analysis in cognitive and clinical neuroscience applications...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641136/age-exacerbates-abnormal-protein-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#14
Md Mahiuddin Ahmed, Aaron Block, Suhong Tong, Muriel T Davisson, Katheleen J Gardiner
The Ts65Dn is a popular mouse model of Down syndrome (DS). It displays DS-relevant features of learning/memory deficits and age-related loss of functional markers in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Here we describe protein expression abnormalities in brain regions of 12-month-old male Ts65Dn mice. We show that the magnitudes of abnormalities of human chromosome 21 and non-human chromosome 21 orthologous proteins are greater at 12 months than at ∼6 months. Age-related exacerbations involve the number of components affected in the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway, the levels of components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease...
May 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640911/evolution-of-microrna-in-primates
#15
Jennifer C McCreight, Sean E Schneider, Damien B Wilburn, Willie J Swanson
MicroRNA play an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of most transcripts in the human genome, but their evolution across the primate lineage is largely uncharacterized. A particular miRNA can have one to thousands of messenger RNA targets, establishing the potential for a small change in sequence or overall miRNA structure to have profound phenotypic effects. However, the majority of non-human primate miRNA is predicted solely by homology to the human genome and lacks experimental validation. In the present study, we sequenced thirteen species representing a wide range of the primate phylogeny...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640805/high-confidence-assessment-of-functional-impact-of-human-mitochondrial-non-synonymous-genome-variations-by-apogee
#16
Stefano Castellana, Caterina Fusilli, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Tommaso Biagini, Daniele Capocefalo, Massimo Carella, Angelo Luigi Vescovi, Tommaso Mazza
24,189 are all the possible non-synonymous amino acid changes potentially affecting the human mitochondrial DNA. Only a tiny subset was functionally evaluated with certainty so far, while the pathogenicity of the vast majority was only assessed in-silico by software predictors. Since these tools proved to be rather incongruent, we have designed and implemented APOGEE, a machine-learning algorithm that outperforms all existing prediction methods in estimating the harmfulness of mitochondrial non-synonymous genome variations...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638700/vowel-decoding-from-single-trial-speech-evoked-electrophysiological-responses-a-feature-based-machine-learning-approach
#17
Han G Yi, Zilong Xie, Rachel Reetzke, Alexandros G Dimakis, Bharath Chandrasekaran
INTRODUCTION: Scalp-recorded electrophysiological responses to complex, periodic auditory signals reflect phase-locked activity from neural ensembles within the auditory system. These responses, referred to as frequency-following responses (FFRs), have been widely utilized to index typical and atypical representation of speech signals in the auditory system. One of the major limitations in FFR is the low signal-to-noise ratio at the level of single trials. For this reason, the analysis relies on averaging across thousands of trials...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638333/switching-adaptability-in-human-inspired-sidesteps-a-minimal-model
#18
Keisuke Fujii, Yuki Yoshihara, Hiroko Tanabe, Yuji Yamamoto
Humans can adapt to abruptly changing situations by coordinating redundant components, even in bipedality. Conventional adaptability has been reproduced by various computational approaches, such as optimal control, neural oscillator, and reinforcement learning; however, the adaptability in bipedal locomotion necessary for biological and social activities, such as unpredicted direction change in chase-and-escape, is unknown due to the dynamically unstable multi-link closed-loop system. Here we propose a switching adaptation model for performing bipedal locomotion by improving autonomous distributed control, where autonomous actuators interact without central control and switch the roles for propulsion, balancing, and leg swing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637483/analyzing-human-decisions-in-igrt-of-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-to-teach-image-registration-algorithms-what-experts-know
#19
Eva Maria Stoiber, Nina Bougatf, Hendrik Teske, Christian Bierstedt, Dieter Oetzel, Jürgen Debus, Rolf Bendl, Kristina Giske
BACKGROUND: In IGRT of deformable head-and-neck anatomy, patient setup corrections are derived by rigid registration methods. In practice, experienced radiation therapists often correct the resulting vectors, thus indicating a different prioritization of alignment of local structures. Purpose of this study is to transfer the knowledge experts apply when correcting the automatically generated result (pre-match) to automated registration. METHODS: Datasets of 25 head-and-neck-cancer patients with daily CBCTs and corresponding approved setup correction vectors were analyzed...
June 21, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637392/thoughts-on-human-geriatric-rehabilitation-from-a-geriatric-greyhound-lessons-learned-from-the-rehabilitation-given-to-an-aged-dog
#20
Nancy E Mayo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
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