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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786067/disrupting-reconsolidation-memory-erasure-or-blunting-of-emotional-motivational-value
#1
Elizabeth S Cogan, Mark A Shapses, Terry E Robinson, Natalie C Tronson
When memories are retrieved they become labile, and subject to alteration by a process known as reconsolidation. Disruption of memory reconsolidation decreases the performance of learned responses, which is often attributed to erasure of the memory; in the case of Pavlovian learning, to a loss of the association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). However, an alternative interpretation is that disrupting reconsolidation does not erase memories, but blunts their emotional/motivational impact...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785844/regularity-extraction-across-species-associative-learning-mechanisms-shared-by-human-and-non-human-primates
#2
Arnaud Rey, Laure Minier, Raphaëlle Malassis, Louisa Bogaerts, Joël Fagot
Extracting the regularities of our environment is a core cognitive ability in human and non-human primates. Comparative studies may provide information of strong heuristic value to constrain the elaboration of computational models of regularity learning. This study illustrates this point by testing human and non-human primates (Guinea baboons, Papio papio) with the same experimental paradigm, using a novel online learning measure. For local co-occurrence regularities, we found similar patterns of regularity extraction in baboons and humans...
May 21, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784875/a-human-specific-truncated-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-subunit-assembles-with-full-length-%C3%AE-7-and-forms-functional-receptors-with-different-stoichiometries
#3
Matías Lasala, Jeremías Corradi, Ariana Bruzzone, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat
The cholinergic α7 nicotinic receptor gene, CHRNA7, encodes a subunit that forms the homopentameric α7 receptor, involved in learning and memory. In humans, exons 5-10 in CHRNA7 are duplicated and fused to the FAM7A genetic element, giving rise to the hybrid gene CHRFAM7A. Its product, dupα7, is a truncated subunit lacking part of the N-terminal extracellular ligand-binding domain and is associated with neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, and immunomodulation.We combined dupα7 expression on mammalian cells with patch clamp recordings to understand its functional role...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784659/united-states-of-amnesia-rescuing-memory-loss-from-diverse-conditions
#4
EDITORIAL
Clara Ortega-de San Luis, Tomás J Ryan
Amnesia - the loss of memory function - is often the earliest and most persistent symptom of dementia. It occurs as a consequence of a variety of diseases and injuries. These include neurodegenerative, neurological or immune disorders, drug abuse, stroke or head injuries. It has both troubled and fascinated humanity. Philosophers, scientists, physicians and anatomists have all pursued an understanding of how we learn and memorise, and why we forget. In the last few years, the development of memory engram labelling technology has greatly impacted how we can experimentally study memory and its disorders in animals...
May 18, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784230/re-building-trust-after-physical-restraint-during-involuntary-psychiatric-hospitalization
#6
Anwar Khatib, Mahajne Ibrahim, David Roe
This study attempted to identify the elements which might best minimize the negative consequences of restriction of inpatients and rebuild therapeutic alliance and trust. Through in depth interviews with 15 psychiatric patients who had experience restrained during the last involuntary psychiatric hospitalization. Analysis of the data revealed three major themes with regard to trust between restrained patient and restraining staff members during restriction of the patient's freedom. Duration of Restriction, Contact with a Staff Member while Restrained, Supportive Interactions and Staff's Response to Restricted Patients' Needs were reported by patients as crucial in determining the way restrained is experienced and its later impact...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784083/a-homozygous-loss-of-function-camk2a-mutation-causes-growth-delay-frequent-seizures-and-severe-intellectual-disability
#7
Poh Hui Chia, Franklin Lei Zhong, Shinsuke Niwa, Carine Bonnard, Kagistia Hana Utami, Ruizhu Zeng, Hane Lee, Ascia Eskin, Stanley F Nelson, William H Xie, Samah Al-Tawalbeh, Mohammad El-Khateeb, Mohammad Shboul, Mahmoud A Pouladi, Mohammed Al-Raqad, Bruno Reversade
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) plays fundamental roles in synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. Here, we describe a new recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome with global developmental delay, seizures and intellectual disability. Using linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we found that this disease maps to chromosome 5q31.1-q34 and is caused by a biallelic germline mutation in CAMK2A . The missense mutation, p.His477Tyr is located in the CAMK2A association domain that is critical for its function and localization...
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783904/opportunity-to-discuss-ethical-issues-during-clinical-learning-experience
#8
Alvisa Palese, Silvia Gonella, Anne Destrebecq, Irene Mansutti, Stefano Terzoni, Michela Morsanutto, Pietro Altini, Anita Bevilacqua, Anna Brugnolli, Federica Canzan, Adriana Dal Ponte, Laura De Biasio, Adriana Fascì, Silvia Grosso, Franco Mantovan, Oliva Marognolli, Raffaela Nicotera, Giulia Randon, Morena Tollini, Luisa Saiani, Luca Grassetti, Valerio Dimonte
BACKGROUND: Undergraduate nursing students have been documented to experience ethical distress during their clinical training and felt poorly supported in discussing the ethical issues they encountered. Research aims: This study was aimed at exploring nursing students' perceived opportunity to discuss ethical issues that emerged during their clinical learning experience and associated factors. RESEARCH DESIGN: An Italian national cross-sectional study design was performed in 2015-2016...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781135/non-adjacent-dependencies-processing-in-human-and-non-human-primates
#9
Raphaëlle Malassis, Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot
Human and non-human primates share the ability to extract adjacent dependencies and, under certain conditions, non-adjacent dependencies (i.e., predictive relationships between elements that are separated by one or several intervening elements in a sequence). In this study, we explore the online extraction dynamics of non-adjacent dependencies in humans and baboons using a serial reaction time task. Participants had to produce three-target sequences containing deterministic relationships between the first and last target locations...
May 20, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780658/the-selective-labels-problem-evaluating-algorithmic-predictions-in-the-presence-of-unobservables
#10
Himabindu Lakkaraju, Jon Kleinberg, Jure Leskovec, Jens Ludwig, Sendhil Mullainathan
Evaluating whether machines improve on human performance is one of the central questions of machine learning. However, there are many domains where the data is selectively labeled in the sense that the observed outcomes are themselves a consequence of the existing choices of the human decision-makers. For instance, in the context of judicial bail decisions, we observe the outcome of whether a defendant fails to return for their court appearance only if the human judge decides to release the defendant on bail...
August 2017: KDD: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780303/closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-for-ptsd-addiction-and-disorders-of-affective-facial-interpretation-review-and-discussion-of-potential-biomarkers-and-stimulation-paradigms
#11
REVIEW
Robert W Bina, Jean-Phillipe Langevin
The treatment of psychiatric diseases with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is becoming more of a reality as studies proliferate the indications and targets for therapies. Opinions on the initial failures of DBS trials for some psychiatric diseases point to a certain lack of finesse in using an Open Loop DBS (OLDBS) system in these dynamic, cyclical pathologies. OLDBS delivers monomorphic input into dysfunctional brain circuits with modulation of that input via human interface at discrete time points with no interim modulation or adaptation to the changing circuit dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779751/can-shared-mechanisms-of-cultural-evolution-illuminate-the-process-of-creativity-within-the-arts-and-the-sciences
#12
Rory Allen, Pamela Heaton
All creative activity brings about change, since it results in the production of something that did not previously exist. The act of creation is itself influenced by changes that have been previously brought about by others, including previous acts of creation. As with any human behavior, creativity has both biological and cultural aspects and is therefore influenced by biological as well as cultural evolution. However, biological evolution operates slowly and over a much longer timescale than cultural evolution, and change occurring within a human lifetime must be driven by cultural and social, rather than biological processes...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779737/neurodevelopmental-perspectives-on-dance-learning-insights-from-early-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#13
Dilini K Sumanapala, Jon Walbrin, Louise P Kirsch, Emily S Cross
Studies investigating human motor learning and movement perception have shown that similar sensorimotor brain regions are engaged when we observe or perform action sequences. However, the way these networks enable translation of complex observed actions into motor commands-such as in the context of dance-remains poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that the ability to encode specific visuospatial and kinematic movement properties encountered via different routes of sensorimotor experience may be an integral component of action learning throughout development...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779623/educating-emergency-department-staff-on-the-identification-and-treatment-of-human-trafficking-victims
#14
Steven Donahue, Michael Schwien, Danielle LaVallee
INTRODUCTION: Hospitalization is one of the few circumstances in which the lives of trafficking victims intersect with the general population. Based on survivor testimonies, the majority of human trafficking victims may receive medical treatment in a hospital's emergency department while in captivity. With evidenced-based training, ED personnel have a better opportunity to screen persons who are being trafficked and intervene on their behalf. METHODS: This project examined the efficacy of an innovative, evidence-based online training module (HTEmergency...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779553/social-work-student-and-practitioner-roles-in-integrated-care-settings
#15
Erin P Fraher, Erica Lynn Richman, Lisa de Saxe Zerden, Brianna Lombardi
INTRODUCTION: Social workers are increasingly being deployed in integrated medical and behavioral healthcare settings but information about the roles they fill in these settings is not well understood. This study sought to identify the functions that social workers perform in integrated settings and identify where they acquired the necessary skills to perform them. METHODS: Master of social work students (n=21) and their field supervisors (n=21) who were part of a Health Resources and Services Administration-funded program to train and expand the behavioral health workforce in integrated settings were asked how often they engaged in 28 functions, where they learned to perform those functions, and the degree to which their roles overlapped with others on the healthcare team...
June 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779546/state-legislative-approach-to-enumerating-behavioral-health-workforce-shortages-lessons-learned-in-new-mexico
#16
Deborah B Altschul, Caroline A Bonham, Martha J Faulkner, Amy W Farnbach Pearson, Jessica Reno, Wayne Lindstrom, Shelley M Alonso-Marsden, Annette Crisanti, Julie G Salvador, Richard Larson
Nationally, the behavioral health workforce is in crisis because of a lack of resources, culturally responsive services, quality clinical supervision, sufficient training in evidence-based practices, and targeted recruitment and retention. Disparities in access to behavioral health care are particularly significant in New Mexico, where 25% of the population live in rural areas, and behavioral health shortages are among the highest in the nation. Additionally, as a Medicaid expansion state, New Mexico providers experience increased demand for services at a time when the state is challenged with limited workforce capacity...
June 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779050/proprioceptive-loss-and-the-perception-control-and-learning-of-arm-movements-in-humans-evidence-from-sensory-neuronopathy
#17
R Chris Miall, Nick M Kitchen, Se-Ho Nam, Hannah Lefumat, Alix G Renault, Kristin Ørstavik, Jonathan D Cole, Fabrice R Sarlegna
It is uncertain how vision and proprioception contribute to adaptation of voluntary arm movements. In normal participants, adaptation to imposed forces is possible with or without vision, suggesting that proprioception is sufficient; in participants with proprioceptive loss (PL), adaptation is possible with visual feedback, suggesting that proprioception is unnecessary. In experiment 1 adaptation to, and retention of, perturbing forces were evaluated in three chronically deafferented participants. They made rapid reaching movements to move a cursor toward a visual target, and a planar robot arm applied orthogonal velocity-dependent forces...
May 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778926/a-computational-approach-to-estimate-postmortem-interval-using-opacity-development-of-eye-for-human-subjects
#18
İsmail Cantürk, Lale Özyılmaz
This paper presents an approach to postmortem interval (PMI) estimation, which is a very debated and complicated area of forensic science. Most of the reported methods to determine PMI in the literature are not practical because of the need for skilled persons and significant amounts of time, and give unsatisfactory results. Additionally, the error margin of PMI estimation increases proportionally with elapsed time after death. It is crucial to develop practical PMI estimation methods for forensic science. In this study, a computational system is developed to determine the PMI of human subjects by investigating postmortem opacity development of the eye...
May 17, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777827/is-reward-prediction-error-encoding-reliable-during-development
#19
Hanna Keren, Gang Chen, Brenda Benson, Monique Ernst, Ellen Leibenluft, Nathan A Fox, Daniel S Pine, Argyris Stringaris
Reward Prediction Errors (RPEs), defined as the difference between the expected and received outcomes, are integral to reinforcement learning models and play an important role in development and psychopathology. In humans, RPE encoding can be estimated using fMRI recordings, however, a basic measurement property of RPE signals, their test-retest reliability across different time scales, remains an open question. In this paper, we examine the 3-month and 3-year reliability of RPE encoding in youth (mean age at baseline = 10...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777650/modeling-dengue-vector-population-using-remotely-sensed-data-and-machine-learning
#20
Juan M Scavuzzo, Francisco Trucco, Manuel Espinosa, Carolina B Tauro, Marcelo Abril, Carlos M Scavuzzo, Alejandro C Frery
Mosquitoes are vectors of many human diseases. In particular, Aedes ægypti (Linnaeus) is the main vector for Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika viruses in Latin America and it represents a global threat. Public health policies that aim at combating this vector require dependable and timely information, which is usually expensive to obtain with field campaigns. For this reason, several efforts have been done to use remote sensing due to its reduced cost. The present work includes the temporal modeling of the oviposition activity (measured weekly on 50 ovitraps in a north Argentinean city) of Aedes ægypti (Linnaeus), based on time series of data extracted from operational earth observation satellite images...
May 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
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