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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092665/antibody-10-1074-suppresses-viremia-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#1
Marina Caskey, Till Schoofs, Henning Gruell, Allison Settler, Theodora Karagounis, Edward F Kreider, Ben Murrell, Nico Pfeifer, Lilian Nogueira, Thiago Y Oliveira, Gerald H Learn, Yehuda Z Cohen, Clara Lehmann, Daniel Gillor, Irina Shimeliovich, Cecilia Unson-O'Brien, Daniela Weiland, Alexander Robles, Tim Kümmerle, Christoph Wyen, Rebeka Levin, Maggi Witmer-Pack, Kemal Eren, Caroline Ignacio, Szilard Kiss, Anthony P West, Hugo Mouquet, Barry S Zingman, Roy M Gulick, Tibor Keler, Pamela J Bjorkman, Michael S Seaman, Beatrice H Hahn, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Sarah J Schlesinger, Michel C Nussenzweig, Florian Klein
Monoclonal antibody 10-1074 targets the V3 glycan supersite on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein. It is among the most potent anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies isolated so far. Here we report on its safety and activity in 33 individuals who received a single intravenous infusion of the antibody. 10-1074 was well tolerated and had a half-life of 24.0 d in participants without HIV-1 infection and 12.8 d in individuals with HIV-1 infection. Thirteen individuals with viremia received the highest dose of 30 mg/kg 10-1074...
January 16, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092572/pspel-in-silico-prediction-of-self-interacting-proteins-from-amino-acids-sequences-using-ensemble-learning
#2
Jian-Qiang Li, Zhu-Hong You, Xiao Li, Ming Zhong, Xing Chen
Self interacting proteins (SIPs) play an important role in various aspects of the structural and functional organization of the cell. Detecting SIPs is one of the most important issues in current molecular biology. Although a large number of SIPs data has been generated by experimental methods, wet laboratory approaches are both time-consuming and costly. In addition, they yield high false negative and positive rates. Thus, there is a great need for in silico methods to predict SIPs accurately and efficiently...
January 10, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092571/machine-learned-replacement-of-n-labels-for-basecalled-sequences-in-dna-barcoding
#3
Eddie Ma, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Stefan Kremer
This study presents a machine learning method that increases the number of identified bases in Sanger Sequencing. The system post-processes a KB basecalled chromatogram. It selects a recoverable subset of N-labels in the KB-called chromatogram to replace with basecalls (A,C,G,T). An N-label correction is defined given an additional read of the same sequence, and a human finished sequence. Corrections are added to the dataset when an alignment determines the additional read and human agree on the identity of the N-label...
August 11, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092555/progressive-shape-distribution-encoder-for-3d-shape-retrieval
#4
Jin Xie, Fan Zhu, Guoxian Dai, Ling Shao, Yi Fang
Since there are complex geometric variations with 3D shapes, extracting efficient 3D shape features is one of the most challenging tasks in shape matching and retrieval. In this paper, we propose a deep shape descriptor by learning shape distributions at different diffusion time via a progressive shape-distribution-encoder (PSDE). First, we develop a shape distribution representation with the kernel density estimator to characterize the intrinsic geometry structures of 3D shapes. Then, we propose to learn a deep shape feature through an unsupervised PSDE...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092553/deep-aesthetic-quality-assessment-with-semantic-information
#5
Yueying Kao, Ran He, Kaiqi Huang
Human beings often assess the aesthetic quality of an image coupled with the identification of the image's semantic content. This paper addresses the correlation issue between automatic aesthetic quality assessment and semantic recognition. We cast the assessment problem as the main task among a multitask deep model, and argue that semantic recognition task offers the key to address this problem. Based on convolutional neural networks, we employ a single and simple multi-task framework to efficiently utilize the supervision of aesthetic and semantic labels...
January 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092522/active-self-paced-learning-for-cost-effective-and-progressive-face-identification
#6
Liang Lin, Keze Wang, Deyu Meng, Wangmeng Zuo, Lei Zhang
This paper aims to develop a novel cost-effective framework for face identification, which progressively maintains a batch of classifiers with the increasing face images of different individuals. By naturally combining two recently rising techniques: active learning (AL) and self-paced learning (SPL), our framework is capable of automatically annotating new instances and incorporating them into training under weak expert recertification. We first initialize the classifier using a few annotated samples for each individual, and extract image features using the convolutional neural nets...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092323/brain-substrates-of-reward-processing-and-the-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-a-pathway-into-pain
#7
Frauke Nees, Susanne Becker, Sabina Millenet, Tobias Banaschewski, Luise Poustka, Arun Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Rob Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Herta Flor
The processing of reward and reinforcement learning seems to be important determinants of pain chronicity. However, reward processing is already altered early in life and if this is related to the development of pain symptoms later on is not known. The aim of this study was first to examine whether behavioural and brain-related indicators of reward processing at the age of 14 to 15 years are significant predictors of pain complaints 2 years later, at 16 to 17 years. Second, we investigated the contribution of genetic variations in the opioidergic system, which is linked to the processing of both, reward and pain, to this prediction...
February 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092029/an-efficient-semi-supervised-learning-approach-to-predict-sh2-domain-mediated-interactions
#8
Kousik Kundu, Rolf Backofen
Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is an important subclass of modular protein domains that plays an indispensable role in several biological processes in eukaryotes. SH2 domains specifically bind to the phosphotyrosine residue of their binding peptides to facilitate various molecular functions. For determining the subtle binding specificities of SH2 domains, it is very important to understand the intriguing mechanisms by which these domains recognize their target peptides in a complex cellular environment. There are several attempts have been made to predict SH2-peptide interactions using high-throughput data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091782/adaptation-perceptual-learning-and-plasticity-of-brain-functions
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan C Horton, Manfred Fahle, Theo Mulder, Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski
The capacity for functional restitution after brain damage is quite different in the sensory and motor systems. This series of presentations highlights the potential for adaptation, plasticity, and perceptual learning from an interdisciplinary perspective. The chances for restitution in the primary visual cortex are limited. Some patterns of visual field loss and recovery after stroke are common, whereas others are impossible, which can be explained by the arrangement and plasticity of the cortical map. On the other hand, compensatory mechanisms are effective, can occur spontaneously, and can be enhanced by training...
January 14, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091578/temporal-dynamics-of-cerebellar-and-motor-cortex-physiological-processes-during-motor-skill-learning
#10
D Spampinato, P Celnik
Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091348/effects-of-intermittent-fasting-on-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#11
Rona Antoni, Kelly L Johnston, Adam L Collins, M Denise Robertson
Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism...
January 16, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090084/limiting-parental-feedback-disrupts-vocal-development-in-marmoset-monkeys
#12
Yasemin B Gultekin, Steffen R Hage
Vocalizations of human infants undergo dramatic changes across the first year by becoming increasingly mature and speech-like. Human vocal development is partially dependent on learning by imitation through social feedback between infants and caregivers. Recent studies revealed similar developmental processes being influenced by parental feedback in marmoset monkeys for apparently innate vocalizations. Marmosets produce infant-specific vocalizations that disappear after the first postnatal months. However, it is yet unclear whether parental feedback is an obligate requirement for proper vocal development...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089846/modulation-of-neuroinflammation-and-pathology-in-the-5xfad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-a-biased-and-selective-beta-1-adrenergic-receptor-partial-agonist
#13
Pooneh Memar Ardestani, Andrew K Evans, Bitna Yi, Tiffany Nguyen, Laurence Coutellier, Mehrdad Shamloo
Degeneration of noradrenergic neurons occurs at an early stage of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The noradrenergic system regulates arousal and learning and memory, and has been implicated in regulating neuroinflammation. Loss of noradrenergic tone may underlie AD progression at many levels. We have previously shown that acute administration of a partial agonist of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1), xamoterol, restores behavioral deficits in a mouse model of AD. The current studies examined the effects of chronic low dose xamoterol on neuroinflammation, pathology, and behavior in the pathologically aggressive 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of AD...
January 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089707/understanding-infant-eating-behaviour-lessons-learned-from-observation
#14
REVIEW
Marion M Hetherington
Observations of human infants during feeding presents a rich source of data to identify the ways in which hunger, appetite and satiety are communicated in early life. Infants signal appetite through their interest or disinterest in food using a series of communication cues from rapid and transient facial expressions to subtle or potent gestures and bodily movements through to vocalisations and eventually speech. Even in the first days of life facial expressions in response to basic tastes are clearly demonstrated and shared between human infants, other primates and the rat...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#15
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088534/the-social-transmission-of-metacontrol-policies-mechanisms-underlying-the-interpersonal-transfer-of-persistence-and-flexibility
#16
REVIEW
Bernhard Hommel, Lorenza S Colzato
Humans often face binary cognitive-control dilemmas, with the choice between persistence and flexibility being a crucial one. Tackling these dilemmas requires metacontrol, i.e., the control of the current cognitive-control policy. As predicted from functional, psychometric, neuroscientific, and modeling approaches, interindividual variability in metacontrol biases towards persistence or flexibility could be demonstrated in metacontrol-sensitive tasks. These biases covary systematically with genetic predispositions regarding mesofrontal and nigrostriatal dopaminergic functioning and the individualistic or collectivistic nature of the cultural background...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087940/the-memory-immune-response-to-tuberculosis
#17
Joanna R Kirman, Marcela I Henao-Tamayo, Else Marie Agger
Immunological memory is a central feature of the adaptive immune system and a prerequisite for generating effective vaccines. Understanding long-term memory responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis will thus provide us with valuable insights that can guide us in the search for a novel vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). For many years, triggering CD4 T cells and, in particular, those secreting interferon-γ has been the goal of most TB vaccine research, and numerous data from animals and humans support the key role of this subset in protective immunity...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#18
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086982/reproductive-factors-and-the-risk-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-in-white-women-and-african-american-women-a-pooled-analysis
#19
Huiyan Ma, Giske Ursin, Xinxin Xu, Eunjung Lee, Kayo Togawa, Lei Duan, Yani Lu, Kathleen E Malone, Polly A Marchbanks, Jill A McDonald, Michael S Simon, Suzanne G Folger, Jane Sullivan-Halley, Dennis M Deapen, Michael F Press, Leslie Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Early age at menarche, nulliparity, late age at first completed pregnancy, and never having breastfed, are established breast cancer risk factors. However, among breast cancer subtypes, it remains unclear whether all of these are risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). METHODS: We evaluated the associations of these reproductive factors with TNBC, in 2658 patients with breast cancer (including 554 with TNBC) and 2448 controls aged 20-64 years, who participated in one of the three population-based case-control studies: the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study, the Women's Breast Carcinoma in situ Study, or the Women's Learning the Influence of Family and Environment Study...
January 13, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080077/dogs-canis-familiaris-attention-to-human-perception-influence-of-breed-groups-and-life-experiences
#20
Marianne T E Heberlein, Dennis C Turner, Marta B Manser
Attending to the perception of others may help individuals gaining information from conspecifics, or help in competitive situations. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are attentive to humans' signals and their attentional state. We investigated whether dogs of different breed groups differ in their ability to pay attention to human's perception, first according to the genetic relatedness between dog breeds, and second according to working style differences. Once dogs had learned to leave forbidden food on the floor, they were confronted with 2 food items to which only they had unrestricted visual access...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
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