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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244810/synaptic-augmentation-in-a-cortical-circuit-model-reproduces-serial-dependence-in-visual-working-memory
#1
Daniel P Bliss, Mark D'Esposito
Recent work has established that visual working memory is subject to serial dependence: current information in memory blends with that from the recent past as a function of their similarity. This tuned temporal smoothing likely promotes the stability of memory in the face of noise and occlusion. Serial dependence accumulates over several seconds in memory and deteriorates with increased separation between trials. While this phenomenon has been extensively characterized in behavior, its neural mechanism is unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243587/human-subthalamic-nucleus-activity-during-non-motor-decision-making
#2
Baltazar A Zavala, Anthony I Jang, Kareem A Zaghloul
Recent studies have implicated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in decisions that involve inhibiting movements. Many of the decisions that we make in our daily lives, however, do not involve any motor actions. We studied non-motor decision making by recording intraoperative STN and prefrontal cortex (PFC) electrophysiology as participants perform a novel task that required them to decide whether to encode items into working memory. During all encoding trials, beta band (15-30 Hz) activity decreased in the STN and PFC, and this decrease was progressively enhanced as more items were stored into working memory...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241652/acute-administration-of-roflumilast-enhances-immediate-recall-of-verbal-word-memory-in-healthy-young-adults
#3
M A Van Duinen, A Sambeth, P R A Heckman, S Smit, M Tsai, G Lahu, T Uz, A Blokland, J Prickaerts
The need for new and effective treatments for dementia remains indisputably high. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) have proven efficacy as cognitive enhancers based on their positive effects in numerous preclinical studies. Especially the PDE4 subfamily is of interest due to its expression in the hippocampus, the key structure for memory formation. The current study investigates the memory enhancing effects of the clinically approved PDE4-I roflumilast in a test battery including the Verbal Learning Task (VLT) combined with electroencephalography (EEG) recording...
December 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240758/increased-gamma-band-activity-for-lateral-interactions-in-humans
#4
Alon Shapira, Anna Sterkin, Moshe Fried, Oren Yehezkel, Zeev Zalevsky, Uri Polat
Collinear facilitation of contrast sensitivity supported by lateral interactions within primary visual cortex is implicated in contour and object perception, with neural correlates in several frequency bands. Although higher component of the ERP power spectrum, the gamma-band, is postulated to reflect object representation, attention and memory, its neuronal source has been questioned, suggesting it is an artifact reflecting saccadic eye movements. Here we explored the gamma-band activity during collinear facilitation with no saccade-related confounds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239625/adaptive-memory-is-there-a-reproduction-processing-effect
#5
Benjamin M Seitz, Cody W Polack, Ralph R Miller
Like all biological systems, human memory is likely to have been influenced by evolutionary processes, and its abilities have been subjected to selective mechanisms. Consequently, human memory should be primed to better remember information relevant to one's evolutionary fitness. Supporting this view, participants asked to rate words based on their relevance to an imaginary survival situation better recall those words (even the words rated low in relevancy) than the same words rated with respect to non-survival situations...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237776/human-naive-and-memory-t-cells-display-opposite-migratory-responses-to-sphingosine-1-phosphate
#6
Annabelle Drouillard, Antoinette Neyra, Anne-Laure Mathieu, Antoine Marçais, Mélanie Wencker, Jacqueline Marvel, Alexandre Belot, Thierry Walzer
The role of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) in leukocyte trafficking has been well deciphered in mice but remains largely unaddressed in humans. In this study, we assessed the ex vivo response to S1P of primary human T cell subsets. We found that tonsil but not blood leukocytes were responsive to S1P gradients, suggesting that T cell responsiveness is regulated during their recirculation in vivo. Tonsil naive T cells were readily chemoattracted by S1P in an FTY720-sensitive, S1PR1-dependent manner. Surprisingly, S1P had the opposite effect on effector memory T cells, resident memory T cells, and recently activated T cells, inhibiting their spontaneous or chemokine-induced migration...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237242/enhanced-cognition-and-dysregulated-hippocampal-synaptic-physiology-in-mice-with-a-heterozygous-deletion-of-psd-95
#7
Alexa E Horner, Catherine L McLaughlin, Nurudeen O Afinowi, Timothy J Bussey, Lisa M Saksida, Noboru H Komiyama, Seth G N Grant, Maksym V Kopanitsa
PSD-95 is one of the most abundant proteins of the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. It functions as the backbone of protein supercomplexes that mediate signalling between membrane glutamate receptors and intracellular pathways. Homozygous deletion of the Dlg4 gene encoding PSD-95 was previously found to cause a profound impairment in operant and Pavlovian conditioning in Dlg4-/- mice studied in touchscreen chambers that precluded evaluation of PSD-95's role in shaping more subtle forms of learning and memory...
December 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236685/origin-and-differentiation-of-human-memory-cd8-t-cells-after-vaccination
#8
Rama S Akondy, Mark Fitch, Srilatha Edupuganti, Shu Yang, Haydn T Kissick, Kelvin W Li, Ben A Youngblood, Hossam A Abdelsamed, Donald J McGuire, Kristen W Cohen, Gabriela Alexe, Shashi Nagar, Megan M McCausland, Satish Gupta, Pramila Tata, W Nicholas Haining, M Juliana McElrath, David Zhang, Bin Hu, William J Greenleaf, Jorg J Goronzy, Mark J Mulligan, Marc Hellerstein, Rafi Ahmed
The differentiation of human memory CD8 T cells is not well understood. Here we address this issue using the live yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine, which induces long-term immunity in humans. We used in vivo deuterium labelling to mark CD8 T cells that proliferated in response to the virus and then assessed cellular turnover and longevity by quantifying deuterium dilution kinetics in YFV-specific CD8 T cells using mass spectrometry. This longitudinal analysis showed that the memory pool originates from CD8 T cells that divided extensively during the first two weeks after infection and is maintained by quiescent cells that divide less than once every year (doubling time of over 450 days)...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235395/adjuvant-activity-of-ethanol-extract-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-leaves-with-inactivated-rabies-virus-antigen
#9
D Singh, B Jayashankar, K P Mishra, H Tanwar, S N Madhusudana, A Y Belludi, R Tulsawani, S B Singh, L Ganju
CONTEXT: Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae), commonly known as seabuckthorn (SBT), is known for its medicinal and nutritional properties. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of in vivo adjuvant activity of SBT leaf extract (SBTE) with inactivated rabies virus antigen (Rb). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Swiss albino mice were immunized with aqueous-alcoholic SBTE (100 mg/kg body weight) or algel (aluminium hydroxide gel) with or without Rb (5% v/v). After priming, booster was administered on day 14...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235036/expression-of-dha-metabolizing-enzyme-alox15-is-regulated-by-selective-histone-acetylation-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#10
Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Claire Poh-Ee Bon, Yee-Kong Ng, Deron R Herr, Jui-Sheng Wu, Teng-Nan Lin, Wei-Yi Ong
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in neural membranes of the CNS, and recent studies have shown a role of DHA metabolism by 15-lipoxygenase-1 (Alox15) in prefrontal cortex resolvin D1 formation, hippocampo-prefrontal cortical long-term-potentiation, spatial working memory, and anti-nociception/anxiety. In this study, we elucidated epigenetic regulation of Alox15 via histone modifications in neuron-like cells. Treatment of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate significantly increased Alox15 mRNA expression...
December 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234084/nonvolatile-bio-memristor-based-on-silkworm-hemolymph-proteins
#11
Lu Wang, Dianzhong Wen
This paper reports the first successful fabrication of an ITO/silkworm hemolymph/Al bio-memristor using silkworm hemolymph as the active layer. Experiments demonstrate that the silkworm hemolymph bio-memristor is a nonvolatile rewritable bipolar memory device with a current switching ratio exceeding 103. The state of the bio-memristor can be retained for more than 104 seconds and remains stable for at least 500 cycles. Tests of 1/f noise have shown that the resistance switching characteristics of the silkworm hemolymph bio-memristor are related to the formation and breaking of conductive filaments, which result from the migration of oxygen ions and the oxidation and reduction of metal cations in the silkworm hemolymph film...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234075/replay-of-large-scale-spatio-temporal-patterns-from-waking-during-subsequent-nrem-sleep-in-human-cortex
#12
Xi Jiang, Isaac Shamie, Werner K Doyle, Daniel Friedman, Patricia Dugan, Orrin Devinsky, Emad Eskandar, Sydney S Cash, Thomas Thesen, Eric Halgren
Animal studies support the hypothesis that in slow-wave sleep, replay of waking neocortical activity under hippocampal guidance leads to memory consolidation. However, no intracranial electrophysiological evidence for replay exists in humans. We identified consistent sequences of population firing peaks across widespread cortical regions during complete waking periods. The occurrence of these "Motifs" were compared between sleeps preceding the waking period ("Sleep-Pre") when the Motifs were identified, and those following ("Sleep-Post")...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232932/adjuvant-probiotics-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-enhancing-vaccines-and-immunotherapy-outcomes
#13
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Tessa Nikov, Sean Hall
Immune defence against pathogenic agents comprises the basic premise for the administration of vaccines. Vaccinations have hence prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality. Acquired immunity comprises antibody and cell mediated responses and is characterized by its specificity and memory. Along a similar congruent yet diverse mode of disease prevention, the human host has negotiated from in utero and at birth with the intestinal commensal bacterial cohort to maintain local homeostasis in order to achieve immunological tolerance in the new born...
December 11, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232617/shared-reality-in-interpersonal-relationships
#14
REVIEW
Susan M Andersen, Elizabeth Przybylinski
Close relationships afford us opportunities to create and maintain meaning systems as shared perceptions of ourselves and the world. Establishing a sense of mutual understanding allows for creating and maintaining lasting social bonds, and as such, is important in human relations. In a related vein, it has long been known that knowledge of significant others in one's life is stored in memory and evoked with new persons-in the social-cognitive process of 'transference'-imbuing new encounters with significance and leading to predictable cognitive, evaluative, motivational, and behavioral consequences, as well as shifts in the self and self-regulation, depending on the particular significant other evoked...
November 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232494/reconstructing-relational-information
#15
Kevin M Horecka, Michael Dulas, Hillary Schwarb, Heather Lucas, Melissa Duff, Neal J Cohen
Hippocampal involvement in learning and remembering relational information has an extensive history, often focusing specifically on spatial information. In humans, spatial reconstruction (SR) paradigms are a powerful tool for evaluating an individuals' spatial-relational memory. In SR tasks, participants study locations of items in space and subsequently reconstruct the studied display after a short delay. Previous work has revealed that patients with hippocampal damage are impaired both in overall placement accuracy as well as on a specific measure of relational memory efficacy, "swaps" (i...
December 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229413/constant-light-environment-suppresses-maturation-and-reduces-complexity-of-new-born-neuron-processes-in-the-hippocampus-and-caudal-nidopallium-of-a-diurnal-corvid-implication-for-impairment-of-the-learning-and-cognitive-performance
#16
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Periodic day-night environment shapes the temporal pattern in the behaviour and physiology (e.g. 24-h activity-rest and sleep-wake cycles) and the advanced brain function, such as learning, memory and decision making. In a previous study, we showed the abolition of 24-h rhythm in the activity-rest pattern, and an attenuated cognitive performance in diurnal Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) under constant light (no-night; LL) environment. Present study extended this, and investigated LL-induced effects on the neurogenesis (birth, maturation and neurite complexity of new born neurons) in the hippocampus and caudal nidopallium, the brain regions directly associated with learning and cognition in birds...
December 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228451/rg108-induces-the-apoptosis-of-endometrial-cancer-ishikawa-cell-lines-by-inhibiting-the-expression-of-dnmt3b-and-demethylation-of-hmlh1
#17
L Yang, J Hou, X-H Cui, L-N Suo, Y-W Lv
OBJECTIVE: The effects of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor RG108 on the proliferation and apoptosis of endometrial cancer was investigated, and whether its mechanism was related to the inhibition of DNMT3B, thereby affecting the human mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) methylation status and its expression, was further studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Culture of human endometrial cancer Ishikawa cell lines: cells grew adhering to the wall in Roswell Park Memorial Institute-1640 (RPMI-1640) medium (supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 2 mM L-glutamic acid)...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228376/effects-of-cyclophosphamide-cyp-and-or-doxorubicin-dox-in-a-murine-model-of-post-chemotherapy-cognitive-impairment
#18
Timothy J Flanigan, Julie E Anderson, Ikram Elayan, Antiño R Allen, Sherry A Ferguson
Post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment, or PCCI, is a common complaint, particularly among breast cancer patients. However, the exact nature of PCCI appears complex. To model the human condition, ovariectomized C57BL/6J mice were treated iv weekly for 4 weeks with saline, 2 mg/kg doxorubicin (DOX), 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CYP), or DOX+CYP. For the subsequent 10 weeks, mice were assessed on several behavioral tests, including those measuring spatial learning and memory. After sacrifice, hippocampal spine density and morphology in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 regions were measured...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227583/single-point-mutation-on-the-gene-encoding-dysbindin-results-in-recognition-deficits
#19
Eric H Chang, Kayla Fernando, Lok Wan E Yeung, Kristina Barbari, Toni-Shay S Chandon, Anil K Malhotra
The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene is a candidate risk factor for schizophrenia and has been associated with cognitive ability in both patient populations and healthy controls. DTNBP1 encodes dysbindin protein, which is localized to synaptic sites and is reduced in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia, indicating a potential role in schizophrenia etiology. Most studies of dysbindin function have focused on the sandy (sdy) mice that lack dysbindin protein and have a wide range of abnormalities...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227101/the-magic-of-crystal-structure-based-inhibitor-optimization-development-of-a-butyrylcholinesterase-inhibitor-with-picomolar-affinity-and-in-vivo-activity
#20
Urban Košak, Boris Brus, Damijan Knez, Simon Žakelj, Jurij Trontelj, Anja Pišlar, Roman Šink, Marko Jukič, Marko Živin, Adrian Podkowa, Florian Nachon, Xavier Brazzolotto, Jure Stojan, Janko Kos, Nicolas Coquelle, Kinga Salat, Jacques-Philippe Colletier, Stanislav Gobec
The enzymatic activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in the brain increases with the progression of Alzheimer's disease, thus classifying BChE as a promising drug target in advanced Alzheimer's disease. We used structure-based drug-discovery approaches to develop potent, selective and reversible human BChE inhibitors. The most potent, compound 3, had a picomolar inhibition constant versus BChE due to strong cation-π interactions, as revealed by the solved crystal structure of its complex with human BChE...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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