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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650836/deep-art-neural-model-for-biologically-inspired-episodic-memory-and-its-application-to-task-performance-of-robots
#1
Gyeong-Moon Park, Yong-Ho Yoo, Deok-Hwa Kim, Jong-Hwan Kim
Robots are expected to perform smart services and to undertake various troublesome or difficult tasks in the place of humans. Since these human-scale tasks consist of a temporal sequence of events, robots need episodic memory to store and retrieve the sequences to perform the tasks autonomously in similar situations. As episodic memory, in this paper we propose a novel Deep adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural model and apply it to the task performance of the humanoid robot, Mybot, developed in the Robot Intelligence Technology Laboratory at KAIST...
June 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649380/gitr-ligand-fusion-protein-agonist-enhances-the-tumor-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cell-response-and-leads-to-long-lasting-memory
#2
Nick M Durham, Nick Holoweckyj, Randall S MacGill, Kelly McGlinchey, Ching Ching Leow, Scott H Robbins
BACKGROUND: The expansion of antigen-specific CD8 T cells is important in generating an effective and long-lasting immune response to tumors and viruses. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related receptor (GITR) is a co-stimulatory receptor that binds the GITR ligand (GITRL). Agonism of GITR can produce important signals that drive expansion of effector T cell populations. METHODS: We explored two separate murine tumor models, CT26 and TC-1, for responsiveness to GITR Ligand Fusion Protein(GITRL-FP) monotherapy...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649015/on-command-on-off-switching-of-progenitor-cell-and-cancer-cell-polarized-motility-and-aligned-morphology-via-a-cytocompatible-shape-memory-polymer-scaffold
#3
Jing Wang, Andy Quach, Megan E Brasch, Christopher E Turner, James H Henderson
In vitro biomaterial models have enabled advances in understanding the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture in the control of cell motility and polarity. Most models are, however, static and cannot mimic dynamic aspects of in vivo ECM remodeling and function. To address this limitation, we present an electrospun shape memory polymer scaffold that can change fiber alignment on command under cytocompatible conditions. Cellular response was studied using the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT-1080 and the murine mesenchymal stem cell line C3H/10T1/2...
June 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647542/parallel-interactive-retrieval-of-item-and-associative-information-from-event-memory
#4
Gregory E Cox, Amy H Criss
Memory contains information about individual events (items) and combinations of events (associations). Despite the fundamental importance of this distinction, it remains unclear exactly how these two kinds of information are stored and whether different processes are used to retrieve them. We use both model-independent qualitative properties of response dynamics and quantitative modeling of individuals to address these issues. Item and associative information are not independent and they are retrieved concurrently via interacting processes...
June 22, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647488/autoreactivity-to-malondialdehyde-modifications-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-linked-to-disease-activity-and-synovial-pathogenesis
#5
Caroline Grönwall, Khaled Amara, Uta Hardt, Akilan Krishnamurthy, Johanna Steen, Marianne Engström, Meng Sun, A Jimmy Ytterberg, Roman A Zubarev, Dagmar Scheel-Toellner, Jeffrey D Greenberg, Lars Klareskog, Anca I Catrina, Vivianne Malmström, Gregg J Silverman
Oxidation-associated malondialdehyde (MDA) modification of proteins can generate immunogenic neo-epitopes that are recognized by autoantibodies. In health, IgM antibodies to MDA-adducts are part of the natural antibody pool, while elevated levels of IgG anti-MDA antibodies are associated with inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Yet, in human autoimmune disease IgG anti-MDA responses have not been well characterized and their potential contribution to disease pathogenesis is not known. Here, we investigate MDA-modifications and anti-MDA-modified protein autoreactivity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647411/hippocampal-5-ht1a-receptor-expression-changes-in-prodromal-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-beneficial-or-deleterious
#6
REVIEW
M Verdurand, L Zimmer
There is increasing evidence that the serotonergic system is highly dysfunctional in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and this could be related to cognitive impairments associated with dementia. Of the various serotonin receptors, 5-HT1A receptors are relevant to AD as they are highly expressed in the human hippocampus and are known to be involved in the regulation of memory processes. This review will discuss the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in AD at several levels (post-mortem, in-vivo imaging, animal models)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646400/a-brief-assessment-tool-for-investigating-facets-of-moral-judgment-from-realistic-vignettes
#7
Michael Kruepke, Erin K Molloy, Konrad Bresin, Aron K Barbey, Edelyn Verona
Humans make moral judgments every day, and research demonstrates that these evaluations are based on a host of related event features (e.g., harm, legality). In order to acquire systematic data on how moral judgments are made, our assessments need to be expanded to include real-life, ecologically valid stimuli that take into account the numerous event features that are known to influence moral judgment. To facilitate this, Knutson et al. (in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(4), 378-384, 2010) developed vignettes based on real-life episodic memories rated concurrently on key moral features; however, the method is time intensive (~1...
June 23, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645698/radiological-studies-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-in-humans-and-animal-models-an-updated-comprehensive-review
#8
Van T Nguyen, Suyinn Chong, Quang M Tieng, Karine Mardon, Graham J Galloway, Nyoman D Kurniawan
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders encompass a wide range of birth defects in children born to mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Typical mental impairments in FASD include difficulties in life adaptation and learning and memory, deficits in attention, visuospatial skills, language and speech disabilities, mood disorders and motor disabilities. Multimodal imaging methods have enabled in vivo studies of the teratogenic effects of alcohol on the central nervous system, giving more insight into the FASD phenotype...
June 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643372/fine-tuning-perk-signaling-for-neuroprotection
#9
REVIEW
Mark Halliday, Daniel Hughes, Giovanna Mallucci
Protein translation and folding are tightly controlled processes in all cells, by proteostasis, an important component of which is the unfolded protein response (UPR). During periods of endoplasmic reticulum stress due to protein misfolding, the UPR activates a coordinated response in which the PERK branch activation restricts translation, while a variety of genes involved with protein folding, degradation, chaperone expression and stress responses are induced through signaling of the other branches. Chronic overactivation of the UPR, particularly the PERK branch is observed in the brains of patients in a number of protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases and the taopathies...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642806/the-efficacy-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-green-tea-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-pre-clinical-studies-and-translational-perspectives-in-clinical-practice
#10
REVIEW
Marco Cascella, Sabrina Bimonte, Maria Rosaria Muzio, Vincenzo Schiavone, Arturo Cuomo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia characterized by cognitive and memory impairment. One of the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of AD, is the oxidative stress being involved in AD's development and progression. In addition, several studies proved that chronic viral infections, mainly induced by Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2), and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) could be responsible for AD's neuropathology...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642803/transcriptomic-profiles-of-aging-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-memory-cd4-cells-from-mice
#11
Jackson Taylor, Lindsay Reynolds, Li Hou, Kurt Lohman, Wei Cui, Stephen Kritchevsky, Charles McCall, Yongmei Liu
BACKGROUND: CD4+ T cells can be broadly divided into naïve and memory subsets, each of which are differentially impaired by the aging process. It is unclear if and how these differences are reflected at the transcriptomic level. We performed microarray profiling on RNA derived from naïve (CD44(low)) and memory (CD44(high)) CD4+ T cells derived from young (2-3 month) and old (28 month) mice, in order to better understand the mechanisms of age-related functional alterations in both subsets...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642703/different-regulation-of-interleukin-1-production-and-activity-in-monocytes-and-macrophages-innate-memory-as-an-endogenous-mechanism-of-il-1-inhibition
#12
Mariusz P Madej, Elfi Töpfer, Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani
Production and activity of interleukin (IL)-1β are kept under strict control in our body, because of its powerful inflammation-promoting capacity. Control of IL-1β production and activity allows IL-1 to exert its defensive activities without causing extensive tissue damage. Monocytes are the major producers of IL-1β during inflammation, but they are also able to produce significant amounts of IL-1 inhibitors such as IL-1Ra and the soluble form of the decoy receptor IL-1R2, in an auto-regulatory feedback loop...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642081/tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-impairs-encoding-but-not-retrieval-of-verbal-information
#13
Mohini Ranganathan, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Peter H Addy, Ashley Schnakenberg, Ashley Williams, Michelle Carbuto, Jacqueline Elander, Brian Pittman, R Andrew Sewell, Patrick D Skosnik, Deepak Cyril D'Souza
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis and agonists of the brain cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) produce acute memory impairments in humans. However, the extent to which cannabinoids impair encoding and retrieval in humans has not been established. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the administration of Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis, impairs encoding and/or retrieval of verbal information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy subjects were recruited from the community...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642080/impact-of-juvenile-chronic-stress-on-adult-cortico-accumbal-function-implications-for-cognition-and-addiction
#14
REVIEW
Michael J Watt, Matthew A Weber, Shaydel R Davies, Gina L Forster
Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641965/animal-models-of-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction-present-problems-and-future-needs-for-translational-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Christian P Müller
Drug addiction is a psychiatric disorder based on a dysfunction of the brain. It frequently develops from a controlled drug consumption and drug instrumentalization (DI). Thereby, DI is the use of a drug to improve specific non-drug related behaviors, beyond the drug's direct positive or negative reinforcing effects. Currently available pharmacotherapies for drug addiction show low effect size and rather limited long-term efficacy, which suggests that current theories on addiction are still insufficient in how they capture the phenomenon and how they allow predictions for highly efficient treatments...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641539/role-of-host-factors-on-the-regulation-of-tat-mediated-hiv-1-transcription
#16
Guillaume Mousseau, Susana T Valente
BACKGROUND: The viral transactivator Tat protein is a key modulator of HIV-1 replication, as it regulates transcriptional elongation from the integrated proviral genome. Tat recruits the human transcription elongation factor b, and other host proteins, such as the super elongation complex, to activate the cellular RNA polymerase II, normally stalled shortly after transcription initiation at the HIV promoter. By means of a complex set of interactions with host cellular factors, Tat determines the fate of viral activity within the infected cell...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641521/lncrna-hotair-polymorphisms-association-with-cancer-susceptibility-in-different-tumor-types
#17
Gerardo Botti, Francesca Collina, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Gabriella Aquino, Margherita Cerrone, Giuseppina Liguori, Vincenzo Gigantino, Maria Gabriella Malzone, Monica Cantile
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non coding RNAs (ncRNA) molecules affect gene and protein expression and generate genetic variability influencing the risk of tumor diseases. HOTAIR is locates at the heart of the cell memory gene program and represents a prototype of long non coding RNA (LncRNA) due to its capacity to regulate in-trans a distant chromosome landscape. Aberrant expression of HOTAIR is frequently associated with pathogenesis and mostly with metastatic progression of several human cancers...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641496/guanfacine-attenuates-adverse-effects-of-dronabinol-thc-on-working-memory-in-adolescent-onset-heavy-cannabis-users-a-pilot-study
#18
David S Mathai, Manuela Holst, Christopher Rodgman, Colin N Haile, Jake Keller, Mariyah Z Hussain, Thomas R Kosten, Thomas F Newton, Christopher D Verrico
The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, adversely effects working memory performance in humans. The α2A-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist guanfacine improves working memory performance in humans. The authors aimed to determine the effects of short-term (6 days) treatment with guanfacine on adverse cognitive effects produced by THC. Employing a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, the cognitive, subjective, and cardiovascular effects produced by oral THC (20 mg) administration were determined twice in the same cannabis users: once after treatment with placebo and once after treatment with guanfacine (3 mg/day)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641214/motor-system-dysfunction-in-the-schizophrenia-diathesis-neural-systems-to-neurotransmitters
#19
R Abboud, C Noronha, V A Diwadkar
Motor control is a ubiquitous aspect of human function, and from its earliest origins, abnormal motor control has been proposed as being central to schizophrenia. The neurobiological architecture of the motor system is well understood in primates and involves cortical and sub-cortical components including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Notably all of these regions are associated in some manner to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641164/protective-effects-of-flavonoids-against-alzheimer-s-disease-related-neural-dysfunctions
#20
REVIEW
Mahsa Bakhtiari, Yunes Panahi, Javad Ameli, Behrad Darvishi
Senile ages of human life is mostly associated with developmental of several neurological complicated conditions including decreased cognition and reasoning, increased memory loss and impaired language performance. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neural disorder associated with dementia, consisting of about 70% of dementia reported cases. Failure of currently approved chemical anti-AD therapeutic agents has once again brought up the idea of administering naturally occurring compounds as effective alternative and/or complementary regimens in AD treatment...
June 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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