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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469805/c-ebp%C3%AE-drives-interactions-between-human-mait-cells-and-endothelial-cells-that-are-important-for-extravasation
#1
Chang Hoon Lee, Hongwei H Zhang, Satya P Singh, Lily Koo, Juraj Kabat, Hsinyi Tsang, Tej Pratap Singh, Joshua M Farber
Many mediators and regulators of extravasation by bona fide human memory-phenotype T cells remain undefined. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like, anti-bacterial cells that we found excelled at crossing inflamed endothelium. They displayed abundant selectin ligands, with high expression of FUT7 and ST3GAL4 , and expressed CCR6, CCR5, and CCR2, which played non-redundant roles in trafficking on activated endothelial cells. MAIT cells selectively expressed CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPδ)...
February 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469093/multi-terminal-memtransistors-from-polycrystalline-monolayer-molybdenum-disulfide
#2
Vinod K Sangwan, Hong-Sub Lee, Hadallia Bergeron, Itamar Balla, Megan E Beck, Kan-Sheng Chen, Mark C Hersam
Memristors are two-terminal passive circuit elements that have been developed for use in non-volatile resistive random-access memory and may also be useful in neuromorphic computing. Memristors have higher endurance and faster read/write times than flash memory and can provide multi-bit data storage. However, although two-terminal memristors have demonstrated capacity for basic neural functions, synapses in the human brain outnumber neurons by more than a thousandfold, which implies that multi-terminal memristors are needed to perform complex functions such as heterosynaptic plasticity...
February 21, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468148/polyamines-bio-molecules-with-diverse-functions-in-plant-and-human-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Avtar K Handa, Tahira Fatima, Autar K Mattoo
Biogenic amines-polyamines (PAs), particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants-exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467614/safety-and-efficacy-of-scanning-ultrasound-treatment-of-aged-app23-mice
#4
Gerhard Leinenga, Jürgen Götz
Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide leads to amyloid plaques that together with tau deposits characterize the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In modeling this pathology, transgenic animals such as the APP23 strain, that expresses a mutant form of the amyloid precursor protein found in familial cases of AD, have been instrumental. In previous studies, we have shown that repeated treatments with ultrasound in a scanning mode (termed scanning ultrasound or SUS) were effective in removing Aβ and restoring memory functions, without the need for a therapeutic agent such as an Aβ antibody...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467613/exercise-mediated-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-via-bdnf
#5
REVIEW
Patrick Z Liu, Robin Nusslock
Exercise is known to have numerous neuroprotective and cognitive benefits, especially pertaining to memory and learning related processes. One potential link connecting them is exercise-mediated hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new neurons are generated and incorporated into hippocampal circuits. The present review synthesizes the extant literature detailing the relationship between exercise and hippocampal neurogenesis, and identifies a key molecule mediating this process, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467469/effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-consumption-on-the-brain-and-behaviour
#6
REVIEW
Linda P Spear
Per occasion, alcohol consumption is higher in adolescents than in adults in both humans and laboratory animals, with changes in the adolescent brain probably contributing to this elevated drinking. This Review examines the contributors to and consequences of the use of alcohol in adolescents. Human adolescents with a history of alcohol use differ neurally and cognitively from other adolescents; some of these differences predate the commencement of alcohol consumption and serve as potential risk factors for later alcohol use, whereas others emerge from its use...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467145/electrophysiological-signatures-of-spatial-boundaries-in-the-human-subiculum
#7
Sang Ah Lee, Jonathan F Miller, Andrew J Watrous, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Gregory A Worrell, Brent M Berry, Joshua P Aronson, Kathryn A Davis, Robert E Gross, Bradley Lega, Sameer Sheth, Sandhitsu R Das, Joel M Stein, Richard Gorniak, Daniel S Rizzuto, Joshua Jacobs
Environmental boundaries play a crucial role in spatial navigation and memory across a wide range of distantly-related species. In rodents, boundary representations have been identified at the single-cell level in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex of the hippocampal formation. While studies of hippocampal function and spatial behavior suggest that similar representations might exist in humans, boundary-related neural activity has not been identified electrophysiologically in humans until now. To address this gap in the literature, we analyzed intracranial recordings from the hippocampal formation of surgical epilepsy patients (of both sexes) while they performed a virtual spatial navigation task and compared the power in three frequency bands (1-4 Hz, 4-10 Hz, 30-90 Hz) for target locations near and far from the environmental boundaries...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465302/merits-and-complexities-of-modeling-multiple-sclerosis-in-non-human-primates-implications-for-drug-discovery
#8
Bert A 't Hart, Jon D Laman, Yolanda S Kap
The translation of scientific discoveries made in animal models into effective treatments for patients often fails, indicating that currently used disease models in preclinical research are insufficiently predictive for clinical success. An often-used model in the preclinical research of autoimmune neurological diseases, multiple sclerosis in particular, is experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Most EAE models are based on genetically susceptible inbred/SPF mouse strains used at adolescent age (10-12 weeks), which lack exposure to genetic and microbial factors which shape the human immune system...
February 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464443/a-visual-familiarity-account-of-evidence-for-orthographic-processing-in-pigeons-columbia-livia-a-reply-to-scarf-corballis-g%C3%A3-nt%C3%A3-rk%C3%A3-n-and-colombo-2017
#9
John R Vokey, Randall K Jamieson, Jason M Tangen, Rachel A Searston, Scott W Allen
Scarf et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci 113(40):11272-11276, 2016) demonstrated that pigeons, as with baboons (Grainger et al. in Science 336(6078):245-248, 2012; Ziegler in Psychol Sci. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612474322 , 2013), can be trained to display several behavioural hallmarks of human orthographic processing. But, Vokey and Jamieson (Psychol Sci 25(4):991-996, 2014) demonstrated that a standard, autoassociative neural network model of memory applied to pixel maps of the words and nonwords reproduces all of those results...
February 20, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464194/identification-of-two-distinct-working-memory-related-brain-networks-in-healthy-young-adults
#10
Tobias Egli, David Coynel, Klara Spalek, Matthias Fastenrath, Virginie Freytag, Angela Heck, Eva Loos, Bianca Auschra, Andreas Papassotiropoulos, Dominique J-F de Quervain, Annette Milnik
Working memory (WM) is an important cognitive domain for everyday life functioning and is often disturbed in neuropsychiatric disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans show that distributed brain areas typically described as fronto-parietal regions are implicated in WM tasks. Based on data from a large sample of healthy young adults ( N = 1369), we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to the WM-fMRI signal and identified two distinct networks that were relevant for differences in individual WM task performance...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463751/within-and-across-trial-dynamics-of-human-eeg-reveal-cooperative-interplay-between-reinforcement-learning-and-working-memory
#11
Anne G E Collins, Michael J Frank
Learning from rewards and punishments is essential to survival and facilitates flexible human behavior. It is widely appreciated that multiple cognitive and reinforcement learning systems contribute to decision-making, but the nature of their interactions is elusive. Here, we leverage methods for extracting trial-by-trial indices of reinforcement learning (RL) and working memory (WM) in human electro-encephalography to reveal single-trial computations beyond that afforded by behavior alone. Neural dynamics confirmed that increases in neural expectation were predictive of reduced neural surprise in the following feedback period, supporting central tenets of RL models...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463072/the-effects-of-donepezil-an-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-on-impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rodents
#12
Chang Yell Shin, Hae-Sun Kim, Kwang-Ho Cha, Dong Han Won, Ji-Yun Lee, Sun Woo Jang, Uy Dong Sohn
A previous study in humans demonstrated the sustained inhibitory effects of donepezil on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity; however, the effective concentration of donepezil in humans and animals is unclear. This study aimed to characterize the effective concentration of donepezil on AChE inhibition and impaired learning and memory in rodents. A pharmacokinetic study of donepezil showed a mean peak plasma concentration of donepezil after oral treatment (3 and 10 mg/kg) of approximately 1.2 ± 0.4 h and 1...
February 21, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462997/effect-of-a-fibroin-enzymatic-hydrolysate-on-memory-improvement-a-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#13
Yong Koo Kang, Boo Yong Lee, Luke R Bucci, Sidney J Stohs
The consumption of a specifically prepared silk fibroin protein enzymatic hydrolysate (FPEH) has been reported to improve cognitive function in healthy humans. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of the FPEH on memory. Healthy adults with an average age of approximately 55 years were administered doses of 0, 280, 400 and 600 mg of FPEH per day in two divided doses for 3 weeks. The Rey-Kim Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Rey-Kim Complex Figure Test of the Rey-Kim Memory Test were used to evaluate memory at baseline and after 3 weeks...
February 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461714/failures-due-to-interruptions-or-distractions-a-review-and-a-new-framework
#14
Cyril Couffe, George A Michael
Interruptions of ongoing activities have spread since the development of and global increase in technology use and the general speeding in pace we all experience every day. Their negative effects are well known: decline in performance and emotional distress. However, the literature still needs to shed light on the exact cognitive mechanisms involved in the way users decide to reply to an interruption, on the effects of interruptions of different durations, and on factors influencing reactivation of task schemata and goals at resumption...
July 2017: American Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461069/testing-principal-versus-medial-axis-accounts-of-global-spatial-reorientation
#15
Kent D Bodily, D Gregory Sullens, Spencer J Price, Bradley R Sturz
Determination of a direction of travel is a necessary component of successful navigation, and various species appear to use the geometric shape (global geometric cues) of an environment to determine direction. Yet, debate remains concerning which objective shape parameter is responsible for spatial reorientation via global geometric cues. For example, the principal axis of space, which runs through the centroid and approximate length of the space, and the medial axis of space, a trunk and branch system that fills the shape, have each been suggested as a basis to explain global spatial reorientation...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460861/immunogenicity-of-ompa-and-ompb-antigens-from-rickettsia-rickettsii-on-mononuclear-cells-from-rickettsia-positive-mexican-patients
#16
Dzul-Rosado Karla, Balam-Romero Javier, Valencia-Pacheco Guillermo, Lugo-Caballero Cesar, Arias-Leon Juan Jose, Peniche-Lara Gaspar, Zavala-Castro Jorge
Background & objectives: The nature of the rickettsial antigens and the immune response generated by them, have been the subject of exhaustive research so that a suitable vaccine can be developed. Till date evaluations of Rickettsia rickettsii antigens that induce both humoral and cellular responses in animal models have only shown partial protection and short-term immunological memory. This study was aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by DNA plasmids generated from the OmpA and OmpB genes of R...
October 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459374/rescue-of-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-the-human-non-syndromic-intellectual-disability-cereblon-knockout-mouse-model-by-targeting-the-ampk-mtorc1-translational-pathway
#17
Charlotte C Bavley, Richard C Rice, Delaney K Fischer, Amanda K Fakira, Maureen Byrne, Maria Kosovsky, Bryant K Rizzo, Dolores Del Prete, Armin Alaedini, Jose A Morón, Joseph J Higgins, Luciano D'Adamio, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
A homozygous nonsense mutation in the cereblon ( CRBN ) gene results in autosomal recessive, non-syndromic intellectual disability (ARNSID) that is devoid of other phenotypic features, suggesting a critical role of CRBN in mediating learning and memory. In this study, we demonstrate that adult male Crbn knockout ( Crbn KO ) mice exhibit deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks that are recapitulated by focal knockout of Crbn in the adult dorsal hippocampus, with no changes in social or repetitive behavior...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459370/visual-working-memory-is-independent-of-the-cortical-spacing-between-memoranda
#18
William J Harrison, Paul M Bays
The sensory recruitment hypothesis states that visual short term memory is maintained in the same visual cortical areas that initially encode a stimulus' features. Although it is well established that the distance between features in visual cortex determines their visibility, a limitation known as crowding, it is unknown whether short term memory is similarly constrained by the cortical spacing of memory items. Here we investigated whether the cortical spacing between sequentially presented memoranda affects the fidelity of memory in humans (of both sexes)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459237/post-encoding-control-of-working-memory-enhances-processing-of-relevant-information-in-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#19
Ryan J Brady, Robert R Hampton
Working memory is a system by which a limited amount of information can be kept available for processing after the cessation of sensory input. Because working memory resources are limited, it is adaptive to focus processing on the most relevant information. We used a retro-cue paradigm to determine the extent to which monkey working memory possesses control mechanisms that focus processing on the most relevant representations. Monkeys saw a sample array of images, and shortly after the array disappeared, they were visually cued to a location that had been occupied by one of the sample images...
February 16, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458418/amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-impairments-on-mitochondrial-dynamics-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-memory-are-restored-by-phosphodiesterase-7-inhibition
#20
Fernando Bartolome, Macarena de la Cueva, Consuelo Pascual, Desiree Antequera, Tamara Fernandez, Carmen Gil, Ana Martinez, Eva Carro
BACKGROUND: The phosphodiesterase (PDE) 7 inhibitor S14 is a cell-permeable small heterocyclic molecule that is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. We previously found that intraperitoneal treatment with S14 exerted neuroprotection in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) model (in APP/PS1 mice). The objective of this study was to investigate the neurogenic and cellular effects of oral administration of S14 on amyloid β (Aβ) overload. METHODS: We orally administered the PDE7 inhibitor S14 (15 mg/kg/day) or vehicle in 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice...
February 20, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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