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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909133/tuberculin-skin-test-reaction-is-related-to-memory-but-not-naive-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-mycobacterial-stimuli-in-bcg-vaccinated-young-adults
#1
Magdalena Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Piotr Szpakowski, Camille Locht, Franck Biet, Paulina Kaplonek, Krzysztof T Krawczyk, Joël Pestel, Wieslawa Rudnicka
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis and the tuberculin skin test (TST) is the most widely used method to detect BCG take. However, subjects may remain TST-negative, even after several BCG administrations. To investigate some of the potential reasons underlying this inability of developing tuberculin sensitivity in response to BCG we compared the effect of different mycobacterial stimuli in the groups differently responding to tuberculin. TST was performed on 71 healthy adults aged 25-30 years, who had received BCG in their childhood, and considered TST-positive at ≥10 mm...
June 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908971/why-are-maternally-separated-females-inflexible-brain-activity-pattern-of-cox-and-c-fos
#2
María Banqueri, Marta Méndez, Jorge L Arias
Subjects' early life events will affect them later in life. When these events are stressful, such as child abuse in humans or repeated maternal separation in rodents, subjects can show some behavioral and brain alterations. This study used young adult female Wistar rats that were maternally raised (AFR), maternally separated from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND10 (MS10), or maternally separated from PND1 to PND21 (MS21), in order to assess the effects of maternal separation (MS) on spatial learning and memory, as well as cognitive flexibility, using the Morris Water Maze (MWM)...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908963/nonfunctional-mutant-wrn-protein-leads-to-neurological-deficits-neuronal-stress-microglial-alteration-and-immune-imbalance-in-a-mouse-model-of-werner-syndrome
#3
Chin Wai Hui, Marie-Kim St-Pierre, Jérôme Detuncq, Lucie Aumailley, Marie-Julie Dubois, Vanessa Couture, Daniel Skuk, André Marette, Jacques P Tremblay, Michel Lebel, Marie-Ève Tremblay
Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-family DNA helicase, WRN. Mice lacking part of the helicase domain of the WRN orthologue exhibit many phenotypic features of WS, including metabolic abnormalities and a shorter lifespan. Yet, little is known about the impact of WRN mutations on the central nervous system in both humans and mouse models of WS. In the current study, we have performed a longitudinal behavioral assessment on mice bearing a Wrn helicase deletion. Behavioral tests demonstrated a loss of motor activity and coordination, reduction in perception, increase in repetitive behavior, and deficits in both spatial and social novelty memories in Wrn mutant mice compared to age-matched wild type mice...
June 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908935/scale-invariant-rearrangement-of-resting-state-networks-in-the-human-brain-under-sustained-stimulation
#4
Silvia Tommasin, Daniele Mascali, Marta Moraschi, Tommaso Gili, Ibrahim Eid Assan, Michela Fratini, Mauro DiNuzzo, Richard G Wise, Silvia Mangia, Emiliano Macaluso, Federico Giove
Brain activity at rest is characterized by widely distributed and spatially specific patterns of synchronized low-frequency blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations, which correspond to physiologically relevant brain networks. This network behaviour is known to persist also during task execution, yet the details underlying task-associated modulations of within- and between-network connectivity are largely unknown. In this study we exploited a multi-parametric and multi-scale approach to investigate how low-frequency fluctuations adapt to a sustained n-back working memory task...
June 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908907/modulation-of-human-th17-cell-responses-through-complement-receptor-3-cd11-b-cd18-ligation-on-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#5
Johannes Nowatzky, Olivier Manches, Shaukat Ali Khan, Emmanuelle Godefroy, Nina Bhardwaj
OBJECTIVE: Apoptotic cell receptors contribute to the induction of tolerance by modulating dendritic cell function following the uptake of apoptotic cells or microparticles. Dendritic cells that have bound or ingested apoptotic cells produce only low amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fail to prime effector T cell responses. Specifically, ligation of the apoptotic cell receptor CR3 (CD11 b/CD18) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) down-modates proinflammatory cytokine secretion, but the consequences for human Th17 cell homeostasis and effector responses remain unknown...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907691/a-recessive-form-of-hyper-ige-syndrome-by-disruption-of-znf341-dependent-stat3-transcription-and-activity
#6
Vivien Béziat, Juan Li, Jian-Xin Lin, Cindy S Ma, Peng Li, Aziz Bousfiha, Isabelle Pellier, Samaneh Zoghi, Safa Baris, Sevgi Keles, Paul Gray, Ning Du, Yi Wang, Yoann Zerbib, Romain Lévy, Thibaut Leclercq, Frédégonde About, Ai Ing Lim, Geetha Rao, Kathryn Payne, Simon J Pelham, Danielle T Avery, Elissa K Deenick, Bethany Pillay, Janet Chou, Romain Guery, Aziz Belkadi, Antoine Guérin, Mélanie Migaud, Vimel Rattina, Fatima Ailal, Ibtihal Benhsaien, Matthieu Bouaziz, Tanwir Habib, Damien Chaussabel, Nico Marr, Jamel El-Benna, Bodo Grimbacher, Orli Wargon, Jacinta Bustamante, Bertrand Boisson, Ingrid Müller-Fleckenstein, Bernhard Fleckenstein, Marie-Olivia Chandesris, Matthias Titeux, Sylvie Fraitag, Marie-Alexandra Alyanakian, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Capucine Picard, Isabelle Meyts, James P Di Santo, Alain Hovnanian, Ayper Somer, Ahmet Ozen, Nima Rezaei, Talal A Chatila, Laurent Abel, Warren J Leonard, Stuart G Tangye, Anne Puel, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Heterozygosity for human signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 ( STAT3 ) dominant-negative (DN) mutations underlies an autosomal dominant form of hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES). We describe patients with an autosomal recessive form of HIES due to loss-of-function mutations of a previously uncharacterized gene, ZNF341 ZNF341 is a transcription factor that resides in the nucleus, where it binds a specific DNA motif present in various genes, including the STAT3 promoter. The patients' cells have low basal levels of STAT3 mRNA and protein...
June 15, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906635/learning-of-goal-relevant-and-irrelevant-complex-visual-sequences-in-human-v1
#7
Clive R Rosenthal, Indira Mallik, Cesar Caballero-Gaudes, Martin I Sereno, David Soto
Learning and memory are supported by a network involving the medial temporal lobe and linked neocortical regions. Emerging evidence indicates that primary visual cortex (i.e., V1) may contribute to recognition memory, but this has been tested only with a single visuospatial sequence as the target memorandum. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether human V1 can support the learning of multiple, concurrent, and complex visual sequences involving discontinous (second-order) associations...
June 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906551/lateral-inhibition-is-a-neural-mechanism-underlying-mismatch-negativity
#8
Feng Gu, Lena Wong, Fei Chen, Wan-Ting Huang, Lei Wang, A-Xu Hu
The human auditory change detection response known as mismatch negativity (MMN) is an auditory event-related potential that has been extensively used to investigate various aspects of human brain function and dysfunction. However, two competing views of the neural mechanism that underlie MMN have been a subject of debate for decades. The sensory memory hypothesis claims that the MMN reflects sensory memory-based change detection. The adaptation hypothesis argues that neural adaptation and lateral inhibition can fully explain the MMN...
June 12, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904929/role-of-first-year-maternal-employment-and-paternal-involvement-in-behavioral-and-cognitive-development-of-young-children
#9
Youngjo Im, Tyler J Vanderweele
Drawing on economic models of child development and attachment relationship perspectives, this study examined the effect of maternal employment in the first year after childbirth on subsequent behavioral and cognitive development in low-income children. Analyses of data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 411) revealed that despite the accompanying family income gains, maternal employment in the first year after childbirth adversely affected caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of Hispanic, Black, and White children at ages 3 and 5 years...
June 15, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904791/weighted-integration-of-short-term-memory-and-sensory-signals-in-the-oculomotor-system
#10
Nicolas Deravet, Gunnar Blohm, Jean-Jacques Orban de Xivry, Philippe Lefèvre
Oculomotor behaviors integrate sensory and prior information to overcome sensory-motor delays and noise. After much debate about this process, reliability-based integration has recently been proposed and several models of smooth pursuit now include recurrent Bayesian integration or Kalman filtering. However, there is a lack of behavioral evidence in humans supporting these theoretical predictions. Here, we independently manipulated the reliability of visual and prior information in a smooth pursuit task. Our results show that both smooth pursuit eye velocity and catch-up saccade amplitude were modulated by visual and prior information reliability...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904790/is-the-straddle-effect-in-contrast-perception-limited-to-second-order-spatial-vision
#11
Norma V Graham, S Sabina Wolfson
Previous work on the straddle effect in contrast perception (Foley, 2011; Graham & Wolfson, 2007; Wolfson & Graham, 2007, 2009) has used visual patterns and observer tasks of the type known as spatially second-order. After adaptation of about 1 s to a grid of Gabor patches all at one contrast, a second-order test pattern composed of two different test contrasts can be easy or difficult to perceive correctly. When the two test contrasts are both a bit less (or both a bit greater) than the adapt contrast, observers perform very well...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904345/a-larger-social-network-enhances-novel-object-location-memory-and-reduces-hippocampal-microgliosis-in-aged-mice
#12
Bryon M Smith, Xinyue Yao, Kelly S Chen, Elizabeth D Kirby
The mammalian hippocampus shows marked decline in function with aging across many species, including humans and laboratory rodent models. This decline frequently manifests in memory impairments that occur even in the absence of dementia pathology. In humans, a number of factors correlate with preserved hippocampal memory in aging, such as exercise, cognitive stimulation and number of social ties. While interventional studies and animal models clearly indicate that exercise and cognitive stimulation lead to hippocampal preservation, there is relatively little research on whether a decline in social ties leads to cognitive decline or vice versa...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902249/sex-differences-in-default-mode-and-dorsal-attention-network-engagement
#13
Kelly M Dumais, Sergey Chernyak, Lisa D Nickerson, Amy C Janes
Focusing on sex differences is necessary to fully understand basic neurobiological processes such as the engagement of large-scale brain networks involved in attention. Prior work suggests that women show enhanced attention during tasks of reward/punishment relative to men. Yet, sex differences in the engagement of neural networks sub serving internal and external focus has been unexplored in regard to reward and punishment. Using data from a large sample (n = 190) of healthy participants from the Human Connectome Project, we investigated sex differences in default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), and frontal parietal network (FPN) activation during exposure to reward and punishment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900481/histamine-h-3-receptor-density-is-negatively-correlated-with-neural-activity-related-to-working-memory-in-humans
#14
Takehito Ito, Yasuyuki Kimura, Chie Seki, Masanori Ichise, Keita Yokokawa, Kazunori Kawamura, Hidehiko Takahashi, Makoto Higuchi, Ming-Rong Zhang, Tetsuya Suhara, Makiko Yamada
BACKGROUND: The histamine H3 receptor is regarded as a drug target for cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders. H3 receptors are expressed in neocortical areas, including the prefrontal cortex, the key region of cognitive functions such as working memory. However, the role of prefrontal H3 receptors in working memory has not yet been clarified. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques, we aimed to investigate the association between the neural activity of working memory and the density of H3 receptors in the prefrontal cortex...
June 14, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900173/a-perspective-on-the-interplay-of-ultraviolet-radiation-skin-microbiome-and-skin-resident-memory-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-cells
#15
VijayKumar Patra, Léo Laoubi, Jean-François Nicolas, Marc Vocanson, Peter Wolf
The human skin is known to be inhabited by diverse microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and mites. This microbiome exerts a protective role against infections by promoting immune development and inhibiting pathogenic microbes to colonize skin. One of the factors having an intense effect on the skin and its resident microbes is ultraviolet-radiation (UV-R). UV-R can promote or inhibit the growth of microbes on the skin and modulate the immune system which can be either favorable or harmful...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900048/vaccination-induced-skin-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells-mediate-strong-protection-against-cutaneous-melanoma
#16
Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, Ernesto López, Evelyn Menares, Ximena Díaz, Camila Flores, Pablo Cáceres, Sofía Hidalgo, Ornella Chovar, Marcela Alcántara-Hernández, Vincenzo Borgna, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Flavio Salazar-Onfray, Juliana Idoyaga, Alvaro Lladser
Memory CD8+ T cell responses have the potential to mediate long-lasting protection against cancers. Resident memory CD8+ T (Trm) cells stably reside in non-lymphoid tissues and mediate superior innate and adaptive immunity against pathogens. Emerging evidence indicates that Trm cells develop in human solid cancers and play a key role in controlling tumor growth. However, the specific contribution of Trm cells to anti-tumor immunity is incompletely understood. Moreover, clinically applicable vaccination strategies that efficiently establish Trm cell responses remain largely unexplored and are expected to strongly protect against tumors...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899533/chronic-infection-with-mycobacterium-lepraemurium-induces-alterations-in-the-hippocampus-associated-with-memory-loss
#17
Enrique Becerril-Villanueva, María Dolores Ponce-Regalado, Gilberto Pérez-Sánchez, Alberto Salazar-Juárez, Rodrigo Arreola, María Elizbeth Álvarez-Sánchez, Mario Juárez-Ortega, Ramcés Falfán-Valencia, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Jorge Morales-Montor, Lenin Pavón, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa
Murine leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM), is a chronic disease that closely resembles human leprosy. Even though this disease does not directly involve the nervous system, we investigated a possible effect on working memory during this chronic infection in Balb/c mice. We evaluated alterations in the dorsal region of the hippocampus and measured peripheral levels of cytokines at 40, 80, and 120 days post-infection. To evaluate working memory, we used the T-maze while a morphometric analysis was conducted in the hippocampus regions CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) to measure morphological changes...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899094/cross-reactivity-against-multiple-hiv-1-epitopes-is-characteristic-of-hiv-1-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-clones
#18
Arumugam Balamurugan, Hwee L Ng, Otto O Yang
Although a high level of promiscuity for heterologous epitopes is believed to exist for cellular immunity, limited data explore this issue for Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Here we found an unexpected degree of heterologous cross-reactivity against HIV-1 epitopes in addition to the targeted index epitope. Most CTL clones screened cross-reacted against other known HIV-1 epitopes of the same major histocompatibility type I (MHC-I) restriction, up to 40% of tested non-index epitopes in some cases...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899027/single-trial-phase-entrainment-of-theta-oscillations-in-sensory-regions-predicts-human-associative-memory-performance
#19
Danying Wang, Andrew Clouter, Qiaoyu Chen, Kimron L Shapiro, Simon Hanslmayr
Episodic memories are rich in sensory information and often contain integrated information from different sensory modalities. For instance, we can store memories of a recent concert with visual and auditory impressions being integrated in one episode. Theta oscillations have recently been implicated in playing a causal role synchronizing and effectively binding the different modalities together in memory. However, an open question is whether momentary fluctuations in theta synchronization predict the likelihood of associative memory formation for multisensory events...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897851/clinical-trial-of-fluid-infusion-rates-for-pediatric-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#20
Nathan Kuppermann, Simona Ghetti, Jeff E Schunk, Michael J Stoner, Arleta Rewers, Julie K McManemy, Sage R Myers, Lise E Nigrovic, Aris Garro, Kathleen M Brown, Kimberly S Quayle, Jennifer L Trainor, Leah Tzimenatos, Jonathan E Bennett, Andrew D DePiero, Maria Y Kwok, Clinton S Perry, Cody S Olsen, T Charles Casper, J Michael Dean, Nicole S Glaser
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis in children may cause brain injuries ranging from mild to severe. Whether intravenous fluids contribute to these injuries has been debated for decades. METHODS: We conducted a 13-center, randomized, controlled trial that examined the effects of the rate of administration and the sodium chloride content of intravenous fluids on neurologic outcomes in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. Children were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups in a 2-by-2 factorial design (0...
June 14, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
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