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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677387/il13r%C3%AE-2-expression-identifies-tissue-resident-il-22-producing-plzf-innate-t-cells-in-the-human-liver
#1
Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Benjamin C Greenspun, Lise Pasquet, Benedikt Strunz, Soo Aleman, Karolin Falconer, Masaki Terabe, Jay A Berzofsky, Johan K Sandberg, Espen Melum, Douglas F Nixon, Niklas K Björkström
Innate lymphocytes are selectively enriched in the liver where they have important roles in liver immunology. Murine studies have shown that type I NKT cells can promote liver inflammation whereas type II NKT cells have an anti-inflammatory role. In humans, type II NKT cells were found to accumulate in the gut during inflammation and IL13Rα2 was proposed as a marker for these cells. In the human liver, less is known about type I and II NKT cells. Here, we studied the phenotype and function of human liver T cells expressing IL13Rα2...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674648/human-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#2
REVIEW
Toufic Mayassi, Bana Jabri
The location of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) between epithelial cells, their effector memory, cytolytic and inflammatory phenotype positions them to kill infected epithelial cells and protect the intestine against pathogens. Human TCRαβ+ CD8αβ+ IEL have the dual capacity to recognize modified self via natural killer (NK) receptors (autoreactivity) as well as foreign antigen via the T cell receptor (TCR), which is accomplished in mouse by two cell subsets, the naturally occurring TCRαβ+ CD8αα+ and adaptively induced TCRαβ+ CD8αβ+ IEL subsets, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674331/ono-8590580-a-novel-gaba-a-%C3%AE-5-negative-allosteric-modulator-enhances-long-term-potentiation-and-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-preclinical-models
#3
Soichi Kawaharada, Miki Nakanishi, Nobuto Nakanishi, Keisuke Hazama, Masato Higashino, Arwel Lewis, Gary S Clark, Mark S Chambers, Scott A Maidment, Tetsuya Yasuhiro, Seishi Katsumata, Shuji Kaneko
GABAA receptors containing α5 subunits (GABAA α5) are highly expressed in the hippocampus and negatively involved in memory processing, as shown by the fact that GABAA α5 deficient mice show higher hippocampus-dependent performance than wild type mice. Accordingly, small molecule GABAA α5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are known to enhance spatial learning and memory in rodents. Here we introduce a new, orally-available GABAA α5 NAM that improves hippocampal functions. ONO-8590580 binds to the benzodiazepine binding sites on recombinant human α5-containing GABAA receptors with a Ki of 7...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673581/hoping-for-more-how-cognitive-science-has-and-hasn-t-been-helpful-to-the-ocd-clinician
#4
REVIEW
Allison J Ouimet, Andrea R Ashbaugh, Adam S Radomsky
Cognitive-behavioural models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) stemmed from knowledge acquired from cognitive science. Researchers continue to apply basic cognitive-affective science methods to understanding OCD, with the overarching goal of improving and refining evidence-based treatments. However, the degree to which such research has contributed to this goal is unclear. We reviewed OCD research in the general areas that comprise basic cognitive science, and evaluated the degree to which it has contributed to our understanding of the development, maintenance, and treatment of OCD...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673365/human-central-nervous-system-astrocytes-support-survival-and-activation-of-b-cells-implications-for-ms-pathogenesis
#5
Hanane Touil, Antonia Kobert, Nathalie Lebeurrier, Aja Rieger, Philippe Saikali, Caroline Lambert, Lama Fawaz, Craig S Moore, Alexandre Prat, Jennifer Gommerman, Jack P Antel, Yasuto Itoyama, Ichiro Nakashima, Amit Bar-Or
BACKGROUND: The success of clinical trials of selective B cell depletion in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) indicates B cells are important contributors to peripheral immune responses involved in the development of new relapses. Such B cell contribution to peripheral inflammation likely involves antibody-independent mechanisms. Of growing interest is the potential that B cells, within the MS central nervous system (CNS), may also contribute to the propagation of CNS-compartmentalized inflammation in progressive (non-relapsing) disease...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672680/cognitive-correlates-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-mild-alzheimer-s-dementia
#6
Osama Sabri, Philipp M Meyer, Susanne Gräf, Swen Hesse, Stephan Wilke, Georg-Alexander Becker, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Julia Luthardt, Gudrun Wagenknecht, Alexander Hoepping, Rene Smits, Annegret Franke, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Steffen Fischer, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Ulrich Hegerl, Henryk Barthel, Peter Schönknecht, Peter Brust
In early Alzheimer's dementia, there is a need for PET biomarkers of disease progression with close associations to cognitive dysfunction that may aid to predict further cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Amyloid biomarkers are not suitable for that purpose. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) are widely abundant in the human brain. As neuromodulators they play an important role in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory. Post-mortem studies reported lower expression of α4β2-nAChRs in more advanced Alzheimer's dementia...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672569/on-ways-to-overcome-the-magical-capacity-limit-of-working-memory
#7
Zsolt Turi, Ivan Alekseichuk, Walter Paulus
The ability to simultaneously process and maintain multiple pieces of information is limited. Over the past 50 years, observational methods have provided a large amount of insight regarding the neural mechanisms that underpin the mental capacity that we refer to as "working memory." More than 20 years ago, a neural coding scheme was proposed for working memory. As a result of technological developments, we can now not only observe but can also influence brain rhythms in humans. Building on these novel developments, we have begun to externally control brain oscillations in order to extend the limits of working memory...
April 19, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672553/memory-deficits-for-facial-identity-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci
#8
Egemen Savaskan, Daniel Summermatter, Clemens Schroeder, Hartmut Schächinger
Faces are among the most relevant social stimuli revealing an encounter's identity and actual emotional state. Deficits in facial recognition may be an early sign of cognitive decline leading to social deficits. The main objective of the present study is to investigate if individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment show recognition deficits in facial identity. Thirty-seven individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, multiple-domain (15 female; age: 75±8 yrs.) and forty-one healthy volunteers (24 female; age 71±6 yrs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671746/spatio-temporal-attention-based-lstm-networks-for-3d-action-recognition-and-detection
#9
Sijie Song, Cuiling Lan, Junliang Xing, Wenjun Zeng, Jiaying Liu
Human action analytics has attracted a lot of attention for decades in computer vision. It is important to extract discriminative spatio-temporal features to model the spatial and temporal evolutions of different actions. In this paper, we propose a spatial and temporal attention model to explore the spatial and temporal discriminative features for human action recognition and detection from skeleton data. We build our networks based on the recurrent neural networks with long short-term memory units. The learned model is capable of selectively focusing on discriminative joints of skeletons within each input frame and paying different levels of attention to the outputs of different frames...
July 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671052/is-it-possible-to-modify-fear-memories-in-humans-with-extinction-training-within-a-single-day
#10
Jaime Redondo, Jose Fernandez-Rey, Daniel Gonzalez-Gonzalez
Extinction procedures have been used widely in the study of fear memories, and different positions have been adopted regarding the efficacy of such procedures and the mechanisms involved. It has been argued that extinction may interfere with the consolidation of the fear memory if the procedure is applied with the appropriate timing after acquisition. However, the opposite position is also held, that is, that the extinction does not achieve an elimination of the fear response. The aim of the present study is to test the short-term effects of immediate extinction in fear reduction when this extinction is preceded by a retrieval trial...
April 18, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670256/deviations-of-the-immune-cell-landscape-between-healthy-liver-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Nataliya Rohr-Udilova, Florian Klinglmüller, Rolf Schulte-Hermann, Judith Stift, Merima Herac, Martina Salzmann, Francesca Finotello, Gerald Timelthaler, Georg Oberhuber, Matthias Pinter, Thomas Reiberger, Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Robert Eferl, Michael Trauner
Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are highly relevant for prognosis and identification of immunotherapy targets in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The recently developed CIBERSORT method allows immune cell profiling by deconvolution of gene expression microarray data. By applying CIBERSORT, we assessed the relative proportions of immune cells in 41 healthy human livers, 305 HCC samples and 82 HCC adjacent tissues. The obtained immune cell profiles provided enumeration and activation status of 22 immune cell subtypes...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669283/induction-and-maintenance-of-cx3cr1-intermediate-peripheral-memory-cd8-t-cells-by-persistent-viruses-and-vaccines
#12
Claire Louse Gordon, Lian Ni Lee, Leo Swadling, Claire Hutchings, Madeleine Zinser, Andrew John Highton, Stefania Capone, Antonella Folgori, Eleanor Barnes, Paul Klenerman
The induction and maintenance of T cell memory is critical to the success of vaccines. A recently described subset of memory CD8+ T cells defined by intermediate expression of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 was shown to have self-renewal, proliferative, and tissue-surveillance properties relevant to vaccine-induced memory. We tracked these cells when memory is sustained at high levels: memory inflation induced by cytomegalovirus (CMV) and adenovirus-vectored vaccines. In mice, both CMV and vaccine-induced inflationary T cells showed sustained high levels of CX3R1int cells exhibiting an effector-memory phenotype, characteristic of inflationary pools, in early memory...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669253/an-antibody-targeting-the-fusion-machinery-neutralizes-dual-tropic-infection-and-defines-a-site-of-vulnerability-on-epstein-barr-virus
#13
Joost Snijder, Michael S Ortego, Connor Weidle, Andrew B Stuart, Matthew D Gray, M Juliana McElrath, Marie Pancera, David Veesler, Andrew T McGuire
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with 200,000 new cases of cancer and 140,000 deaths annually. Subunit vaccines against this pathogen have focused on the gp350 glycoprotein and remain unsuccessful. We isolated human antibodies recognizing the EBV fusion machinery (gH/gL and gB) from rare memory B cells. One anti-gH/gL antibody, AMMO1, potently neutralized infection of B cells and epithelial cells, the two major cell types targeted by EBV. We determined a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the gH/gL-gp42-AMMO1 complex and demonstrated that AMMO1 bound to a discontinuous epitope formed by both gH and gL at the Domain-I/Domain-II interface...
April 17, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668310/human-splice-site-prediction-with-deep-neural-networks
#14
Tatsuhiko Naito
Accurate splice-site prediction is essential to delineate gene structures from sequence data. Several computational techniques have been applied to create a system to predict canonical splice sites. For classification tasks, deep neural networks (DNNs) have achieved record-breaking results and often outperformed other supervised learning techniques. In this study, a new method of splice-site prediction using DNNs was proposed. The proposed system receives an input sequence data and returns an answer as to whether it is splice site...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668290/synaptic-computation-enabled-by-joule-heating-of-single-layered-semiconductors-for-sound-localization
#15
Linfeng Sun, Yishu Zhang, Geunwoo Hwang, Jinbao Jiang, Dohyun Kim, Yonas Eshete, Rong Zhao, Heejun Yang
Synaptic computation, which is vital for information processing and decision making in neural networks, has remained technically challenging to be demonstrated without using numerous transistors and capacitors, though significant efforts have been made to emulate the biological synaptic transmission such as short-term and long-term plasticity and memory. Here, we report synaptic computation based on Joule heating and versatile doping induced metal-insulator transition in a scalable monolayer-molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) device with a biologically comparable energy consumption (~ 10 fJ)...
April 18, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668250/the-effects-of-baicalein-on-cortical-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8
#16
Li Gao, Jia-Qi Li, Yu-Zhi Zhou, Xudong Huang, Xue-Mei Qin, Guan-Hua Du
Baicalein, a flavonoid derived from the roots of Scutellariae baicalensis Georgi, has shown health benefits for an array of human diseases including dementia. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) strain is extensively used as a senile dementia model. To further investigate the effects of baicalein in SAMP8 mice, behavioral testing, biochemical detection and gut microbiota analysis were performed. The results demonstrated that treatment with baicalein ameliorated the senescence status of the SAMP8 mice, as manifested by reducing the grading score of senescence...
April 18, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#17
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667132/obesity-and-episodic-memory-function
#18
REVIEW
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
Obesity-related lifestyle factors, such as physical activity behavior and dietary intake, have been shown to be associated with episodic memory function. From animal work, there is considerable biological plausibility linking obesity with worse memory function. There are no published systematic reviews evaluating the effects of obesity on episodic memory function among humans, and examining whether physical activity and diet influences this obesity-memory link. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the totality of research examining whether obesity is associated with episodic memory function, and whether physical activity and dietary behavior confounds this relationship...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666262/spatial-and-temporal-heterogeneity-of-neural-responses-in-human-posteromedial-cortex
#19
Amy L Daitch, Josef Parvizi
Neuroimaging evidence supports a role of the default mode network (DMN) in spontaneous thought and goal-driven internally oriented processes, such as recalling an autobiographical event, and has demonstrated its deactivation during focused, externally oriented attention. Recent work suggests that the DMN is not a homogeneous network but rather is composed of at least several subnetworks, which are engaged in distinct functions; however, it is still unclear if these different functions rely on the same neuronal populations...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665205/characterization-of-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-properties-of-cfz533-a-blocking-and-non-depleting-anti-cd40-monoclonal-antibody
#20
Jacinda Ristov, Pascal Espie, Peter Ulrich, Denise Sickert, Thierry Flandre, Mirela Dimitrova, Dorothee Müller-Ristig, Doris Weider, Gautier Robert, Patrick Schmutz, Barbara Greutmann, Francisco Cordoba-Castro, Martin A Schneider, Max Warncke, Frank Kolbinger, Serge Cote, Christoph Heusser, Christian Bruns, James S Rush
The CD40-CD154 co-stimulatory pathway is essential for T cell-dependent immune responses, development of humoral memory and antigen presenting cell function. These immune functions have been implicated in the pathology of multiple autoimmune diseases as well as allograft rejection. We have generated CFZ533, a fully human, pathway blocking anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody that has been modified with a N297A mutation to render it unable to mediate Fcγ-dependent effector functions. CFZ533 inhibited CD154-induced activation of human leukocytes in vitro, but failed to induce human leukocyte activation...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
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