Read by QxMD icon Read

Human memory

Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Lee H Jeon, Eric W Sankey, Jennifer Lu, Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Joshua A Crawford, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Jiadi Xu, Ari Blitz, Daniel A Herzka, Barbara Crain, Alicia Hulbert, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez, James P McAllister, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, Daniele Rigamonti
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of adult chronic hydrocephalus is not fully understood, and the temporal relationship between development of the radiological changes and neurological deterioration is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the progression of radiological-histological changes and subsequent clinical manifestations of adult chronic hydrocephalus. METHODS: Kaolin was injected bilaterally into the subarachnoid space overlying the cranial convexities in 20 adult rats...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Harlene Hayne, Katja Jaeger, Trine Sonne, Julien Gross
The visual recognition memory (VRM) paradigm has been widely used to measure memory during infancy and early childhood; it has also been used to study memory in human and nonhuman adults. Typically, participants are familiarized with stimuli that have no special significance to them. Under these conditions, greater attention to the novel stimulus during the test (i.e., novelty preference) is used as the primary index of memory. Here, we took a novel approach to the VRM paradigm and tested 1-, 2-, and 3-year olds using photos of meaningful stimuli that were drawn from the participants' own environment (e...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Saurabh Khemka, Athina Tzovara, Samuel Gerster, Boris B Quednow, Dominik R Bach
Pavlovian fear conditioning is widely used as a laboratory model of associative learning in human and nonhuman species. In this model, an organism is trained to predict an aversive unconditioned stimulus from initially neutral events (conditioned stimuli, CS). In humans, fear memory is typically measured via conditioned autonomic responses or fear-potentiated startle. For the latter, various analysis approaches have been developed, but a systematic comparison of competing methodologies is lacking. Here, we investigate the suitability of a model-based approach to startle eyeblink analysis for assessment of fear memory, and compare this to extant analysis strategies...
October 18, 2016: Psychophysiology
Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Maria Malm, Kirsi Tamminen, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages worldwide. NoV-specific serum antibodies which block the binding of NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) to the cell receptors have been thoroughly investigated. In contrast, only a few publications are available on the NoV capsid VP1 protein-specific T cell responses in humans naturally infected with the virus. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight healthy adult human donors previously exposed to NoV were stimulated with purified VLPs derived from NoV GII...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sudhir Gupta, Sudhanshu Agrawal, Sastry Gollapudi, Hiromi Kubagawa
IgMFcR (FcμR) are expressed on B cell and B cell subsets. Mice deficient in secreted IgM and FcμR share properties of impaired specific antibody response and autoimmunity with patient with selective IgM deficiency (SIGMD). Intravenous immunoglobulin (IGIV) regulates immune response, including modulation of IgGFc receptors. However, there are no data on the expression of FcμR in patients with SIGMD, and the effects of IGIV on FcμR. In this study, we investigated FcμR expression in naïve marginal zone (MZ), IgM memory, and class-switched memory B cells in patients with selective IgM deficiency and healthy controls...
October 14, 2016: Human Immunology
Pravin Kesarwani, Paramita Chakraborty, Radhika Gudi, Shilpak Chatterjee, Gina Scurti, Kyle Toth, Patt Simms, Mahvash Husain, Kent Armeson, Shahid Husain, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Chethamarakshan Vasu, Michael I Nishimura, Shikhar Mehrotra
Advancements in adoptive cell transfer therapy (ACT) has led to the use of T cells engineered with tumor specific T cell receptors, which after rapid expansion can be obtained in sufficient numbers for treating patients. However, due to massive proliferation these cells are close to replicative senescence, exhibit exhausted phenotype, and also display increased susceptibility to activation induced cell death. We have previously shown that tumor reactive T cells undergo caspase-independent cell death upon TCR restimulation with cognate antigen, which involves reactive oxygen species and c-jun N-terminal kinase...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Natalia A Stefanova, Natalia A Muraleva, Kseniya Yi Maksimova, Ekaterina A Rudnitskaya, Elena Kiseleva, Darya V Telegina, Nataliya G Kolosova
Mitochondrial aberrations are observed in human Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in medical conditions that increase the risk of this disorder, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to pathophysiology of AD. Here, using OXYS rats that simulate key characteristics of sporadic AD, we set out to determine the role of mitochondria in the pathophysiology of this disorder. OXYS rats were treated with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 from age 12 to 18 months, that is, during active progression of AD-like pathology in these animals...
October 6, 2016: Aging
Aurélia Bugaiska, Alain Méot, Patrick Bonin
: Background/Study Context: It has been found that young adults remember animates better than inanimates. According to the adaptive view of human memory, this is due to the fact that animates are more important for fitness purposes than inanimates. This effect has been ascribed to episodic memory, where older people exhibit difficulties. METHODS: Here the authors investigated whether the animacy effect in memory also occurs for healthy older adults. Older and young adults categorized words for their animacy characteristics and were then given an unexpected recognition test on the words using the Remember/Know paradigm...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Qian Zhao, Xueqi Chen, Yun Zhou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, causing changes in memory, thinking, and other dysfunction of brain functions. More and more people are suffering from the disease. Early neuroimaging techniques of AD are needed to develop. This review provides a preliminary summary of the various neuroimaging techniques that have been explored for in vivo imaging of AD. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, such as functional MR imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, give opportunities to display not only anatomy and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, but also at microstructural alterations or perfusion disturbance within the AD lesions...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Shikha Jain Goodwin, Derek Dziobek
Ever since video games were available to the general public, they have intrigued brain researchers for many reasons. There is an enormous amount of diversity in the video game research, ranging from types of video games used, the amount of time spent playing video games, the definition of video gamer versus non-gamer to the results obtained after playing video games. In this paper, our goal is to provide a critical discussion of these issues, along with some steps towards generalization using the discussion of an article published by Clemenson and Stark (2005) as the starting point...
September 2016: Postdoc Journal: a Journal of Postdoctoral Research and Postdoctoral Affairs
Lynn M Grattan, Carol Boushey, Kate Tracy, Vera Trainer, Sparkle M Roberts, Nicolas Schluterman, J Glenn Morris
This study represents a preliminary effort to examine the possible impacts of chronic, low level Domoic Acid (DA) exposure on memory in the CoASTAL cohort. Five hundred thirteen men and women representing three Native American Tribes were studied with standard measures of cognition and razor clam consumption (a known vector of DA exposure) over a four year period. In addition, a pilot metric of DA concentration exposure was used which took into consideration average DA concentration levels in source beaches as well as consumption...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Shai S Shen-Orr, David Furman, Brian A Kidd, Francois Hadad, Patricia Lovelace, Ying-Wen Huang, Yael Rosenberg-Hasson, Sally Mackey, Fatemeh A Gomari Grisar, Yishai Pickman, Holden T Maecker, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, Cornelia L Dekker, Joseph C Wu, Atul J Butte, Mark M Davis
Chronic inflammation, a decline in immune responsiveness, and reduced cardiovascular function are all associated with aging, but the relationships among these phenomena remain unclear. Here, we longitudinally profiled a total of 84 signaling conditions in 91 young and older adults and observed an age-related reduction in cytokine responsiveness within four immune cell lineages, most prominently T cells. The phenotype can be partially explained by elevated baseline levels of phosphorylated STAT (pSTAT) proteins and a different response capacity of naive versus memory T cell subsets to interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon α (IFN-α), and, to a lesser extent, IL-21 and IFN-γ...
October 12, 2016: Cell Systems
Roger Geiger, Jan C Rieckmann, Tobias Wolf, Camilla Basso, Yuehan Feng, Tobias Fuhrer, Maria Kogadeeva, Paola Picotti, Felix Meissner, Matthias Mann, Nicola Zamboni, Federica Sallusto, Antonio Lanzavecchia
Metabolic activity is intimately linked to T cell fate and function. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we generated dynamic metabolome and proteome profiles of human primary naive T cells following activation. We discovered critical changes in the arginine metabolism that led to a drop in intracellular L-arginine concentration. Elevating L-arginine levels induced global metabolic changes including a shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in activated T cells and promoted the generation of central memory-like cells endowed with higher survival capacity and, in a mouse model, anti-tumor activity...
October 13, 2016: Cell
Kathleen B McDermott, Adrian W Gilmore, Steven M Nelson, Jason M Watson, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Neuroimaging investigations of human memory encoding and retrieval have revealed that multiple regions of parietal cortex contribute to memory. Recently, a sparse network of regions within parietal cortex has been identified using resting state functional connectivity (MRI techniques). The regions within this network exhibit consistent task-related responses during memory formation and retrieval, leading to its being called the parietal memory network (PMN). Among its signature patterns are: deactivation during initial experience with an item (e...
September 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Martina Starc, John D Murray, Nicole Santamauro, Aleksandar Savic, Caroline Diehl, Youngsun T Cho, Vinod Srihari, Peter T Morgan, John H Krystal, Xiao-Jing Wang, Grega Repovs, Alan Anticevic
Schizophrenia is associated with severe cognitive deficits, including impaired working memory (WM). A neural mechanism that may contribute to WM impairment is the disruption in excitation-inhibition (E/I) balance in cortical microcircuits. It remains unknown, however, how these alterations map onto quantifiable behavioral deficits in patients. Based on predictions from a validated microcircuit model of spatial WM, we hypothesized two key behavioral consequences: i) increased variability of WM traces over time, reducing performance precision; and ii) decreased ability to filter out distractors that overlap with WM representations...
October 10, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Emma C Tecwyn, Stephanie Denison, Emily J E Messer, Daphna Buchsbaum
The ability to reason about probabilities has ecological relevance for many species. Recent research has shown that both preverbal infants and non-human great apes can make predictions about single-item samples randomly drawn from populations by reasoning about proportions. To further explore the evolutionary origins of this ability, we conducted the first investigation of probabilistic inference in a monkey species (capuchins; Sapajus spp.). Across four experiments, capuchins (N = 19) were presented with two populations of food items that differed in their relative distribution of preferred and non-preferred items, such that one population was more likely to yield a preferred item...
October 15, 2016: Animal Cognition
David C Cappadocia, Simona Monaco, Ying Chen, Gunnar Blohm, J Douglas Crawford
The cortical mechanisms for reach have been studied extensively, but directionally selective mechanisms for visuospatial target memory, movement planning, and movement execution have not been clearly differentiated in the human. We used an event-related fMRI design with a visuospatial memory delay, followed by a pro-/anti-reach instruction, a planning delay, and finally a "go" instruction for movement. This sequence yielded temporally separable preparatory responses that expanded from modest parieto-frontal activation for visual target memory to broad occipital-parietal-frontal activation during planning and execution...
October 15, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Rene Seiger, Andreas Hahn, Allan Hummer, Georg S Kranz, Sebastian Ganger, Michael Woletz, Christoph Kraus, Ronald Sladky, Alexander Kautzky, Siegfried Kasper, Christian Windischberger, Rupert Lanzenberger
Sex-steroid hormones are primarily involved in sexual differentiation and development and are thought to underlie processes related to cognition and emotion. However, divergent results have been reported concerning the effects of hormone administration on brain structure including side effects like brain atrophy and dementia. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender subjects offers a unique model for studying the effects of sex hormones on the living human brain. In this study, 25 Female-to-Male (FtM) and 14 Male-to-Female (MtF) subjects underwent MRI examinations at baseline and after a period of at least 4-months of continuous cross-sex hormone administration...
October 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"