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Takahide Haku, Yasushi Motoyama, Yoshiaki Takamura, Shuichi Yamada, Ichiro Nakagawa, Young-Su Park, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) often occurs in association with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia. Many cases with CSDH due to CSF hypovolemia and treated by burr-hole surgery have been reported to present with paradoxical deterioration. However, the mechanisms and pathology of deterioration after surgery for CSDH due to CSF hypovolemia remain obscure. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report herein a 62-year-old man with gait disturbance due to subdural fluid collection (SDFC) who underwent burr-hole irrigation and additional craniotomy, in which postoperative deterioration resulted from rapidly progressing central herniation with large amount of air accumulation...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Li Wen, Tanveer A Javed, Dean Yimlamai, Amitava Mukherjee, Xiangwei Xiao, Sohail Z Husain
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (PEP) is thought to be provoked by pancreatic ductal hypertension, via unknown mechanisms. We investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressures on the development of pancreatitis in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with Swiss Webster mice, B6129 mice (controls), and B6129 mice with disruption of the protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, beta isoform gene (Cnab-/- mice)...
June 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
S Gasparini, M R Melo, G M F Andrade-Franzé, J C Geerling, J V Menani, E Colombari
Aldosterone infusion into the 4th ventricle (4th V), upstream the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), produces strong 0.3 M NaCl intake. In the present study, we investigated whether aldosterone infusion into the 4th V activates HSD2 neurons, changes renal excretion, or alters blood pressure and cardiovascular reflexes. Chronic infusion of aldosterone (100 ng/h) into the 4th V increased daily 0.3 M NaCl intake (up to 44 ± 10, vs. vehicle: 5.6 ± 3.4 ml/24 h) and also c-Fos expression in HSD2 neurons in the NTS and in non-HSD2 neurons in the NTS...
June 18, 2018: Brain Research
Maria Antonietta Gambacorta, Antonino De Paoli, Marco Lupattelli, Giuditta Chiloiro, Angela Pia Solazzo, Brunella Barbaro, Sergio Alfieri, Fabio Maria Vecchio, Jacopo Lenkowicz, Francesco Navarria, Elisa Palazzari, Giulio Bertola, Alessandro Frattegiani, Bruce Minsky, Vincenzo Valentini
Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the long term survival of the addition of gefitinib to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and materials: This previously published multicentre, open-label, phase I-II study, enrolled patients (pts) with LARC to receive CRT with concurrent 5-fluorouracil continuous intravenous infusion and a dose escalation of orally administered gefitinib, followed 6-8 weeks later by surgery. An intra-operative radiotherapy boost of 10 Gy was planned...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Matthew McMillin, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Anca D Petrescu, Jessica Kain, Elaina Williams, Rebecca Haines, Lauren Canady, Sharon DeMorrow
Background & Aims: Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious neurologic complication of acute and chronic liver diseases. We previously showed that aberrant bile acid signaling contributes to the development of hepatic encephalopathy via farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated mechanisms in neurons. In the brain, a novel alternative bile acid synthesis pathway, catalyzed by cytochrome p450 46A1 (Cyp46A1), is the primary mechanism by which the brain regulates cholesterol homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine if FXR activation in the brain altered cholesterol homeostasis during hepatic encephalopathy...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Elena Cortés-Vicente, Ricard Rojas-Garcia, Jordi Díaz-Manera, Luis Querol, Carlos Casasnovas, Antonio Guerrero-Sola, José Luis Muñoz-Blanco, José Eulalio Bárcena-Llona, Celedonio Márquez-Infante, Julio Pardo, Eva María Martínez-Fernández, Mercedes Usón, Pedro Oliva-Nacarino, Teresa Sevilla, Isabel Illa
Objective: To evaluate whether the clinical benefit and relapse rates in anti-muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) myasthenia gravis (MG) differ depending on the protocol of rituximab followed. Methods: This retrospective multicentre study in patients with MuSK MG compared three rituximab protocols in terms of clinical status, relapse, changes in treatment, and adverse side effects. The primary effectiveness endpoint was clinical relapse requiring a further infusion of rituximab...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Xiaofei Wu, Yan Tang, Xiaohua Zhang, Chenchen Wu, Lingti Kong
Objective: We investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters of linezolid in patients who had suffered cerebral hemorrhage after lateral ventricular drainage. Materials and methods: Ten patients with cerebral hemorrhage after lateral ventricular drainage with stroke-associated pneumonia who were given linezolid were enrolled. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were taken at appropriate intervals after the first administration of linezolid and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
E N Yakusheva, P Yu Mylnikov, I V Chernykh, A V Shchulkin
AIM: To study an effect of the antioxidant and antihypoxant mexidol (ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate) on the transcription factor Nrf2 expression in neuronal nucleis of frontal cortex cells autor the common carotid artery unilateral occlusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed on 64 male Wistar rats. The Nrf2 expression was determined immunohistochemically. RESULTS: Single intraperitoneal mexidol (120 mg/kg b.w.) infusion and oral (100 mg/kg p...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Hernando Lopez-Bertoni, Kristen Kozielski, Yuan Rui, Bachchu Lal, Hannah Vaughan, David Wilson, Nicole Mihelson, Charles Eberhart, John Laterra, Jordan J Green
Despite our growing molecular understanding of glioblastoma (GBM), treatment modalities remain limited. Recent developments in mechanisms of cell fate regulation and nanomedicine provide new avenues to treat and manage brain tumors via delivery of molecular therapeutics. Here we have developed bioreducible poly(beta-amino ester) nanoparticles that demonstrate high intracellular delivery efficacy, low cytotoxicity, escape from endosomes, and promotion of cytosol-targeted environmentally-triggered cargo release for miRNA delivery to tumor-propagating human cancer stem cells...
June 21, 2018: Nano Letters
M Fredholm, K Jörgensen, E Houltz, S-E Ricksten
BACKGROUND: We compared the direct inotropic and lusitropic effects of two inodilators, milrinone and levosimendan in patients after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis. METHODS: In this randomised, blinded study, 31 patients with normal LV function, were randomised to either levosimendan (0.1 and 0.2 μg/kg/min, n = 15) or milrinone (0.4 and 0.8 μg/kg/min, n = 16) after aortic valve replacement. The effects on LV performance, LV strain, systolic (SR-S) and early diastolic (SR-E) strain rate were assessed by a pulmonary artery catheter and transoesophageal two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography of the LV inferior wall...
June 21, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Serena L Orr, Marielle A Kabbouche, Paul S Horn, Hope L O'Brien, Joanne Kacperski, Susan LeCates, Shannon White, Jessica Weberding, Mimi N Miller, Scott W Powers, Andrew D Hershey
OBJECTIVES: To characterize a population of pediatric patients visiting an infusion center for acute migraine and determine predictors of first-line treatment success in this population. BACKGROUND: Though migraine is common in the pediatric emergency department and specialized infusion centers, little is known about this patient population and whether or not clinical data can be used to predict treatment response. METHODS: This was an observational study involving a retrospective analysis of data from visits to the Cincinnati Children's Hospital infusion center for treatment of an acute migraine...
June 21, 2018: Headache
Adriana Octaviana Dulamea, Ioana Gabriela Lupescu
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is widely performed for neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. HCT involves intravenous infusion of hematopoietic progenitor cells from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor (allogeneic) or from the patient (autologous). Before HCT, the patient is prepared with high dose chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to destroy residual malignant cells and to reduce immunologic resistance. After HCT, chemotherapy is used to prevent graft rejection and graft versus host disease (GvHD)...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Cornelius F Waller, Apinya Vutikullird, Tracey E Lawrence, Andrew Shaw, Mark Shiyao Liu, Mark Baczkowski, Rajiv Sharma, Abhijit Barve, Parag Goyal, Charles Donnelly, Nilanjan Sengupta, Eduardo J Pennella
AIMS: Trastuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncoprotein and is an effective therapy for HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. MYL-1401O is a trastuzumab biosimilar. Here, we report results from a phase 1 study that investigated bioequivalence among MYL-1401O, reference EU-trastuzumab, and US-trastuzumab. METHODS: This single-center, randomized, double-blind, three-arm, parallel-group, phase 1 study was conducted in healthy adult male volunteers...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Erica J Weinstein, Jacob L Levene, Marc S Cohen, Doerthe A Andreae, Jerry Y Chao, Matthew Johnson, Charles B Hall, Michael H Andreae
BACKGROUND: Regional anaesthesia may reduce the rate of persistent postoperative pain (PPP), a frequent and debilitating condition. This review was originally published in 2012 and updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To compare local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia versus conventional analgesia for the prevention of PPP beyond three months in adults and children undergoing elective surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase to December 2016 without any language restriction...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shuki Oya, Tsuyoshi Muta
We experienced a breakthrough fungal infection caused by Geotrichum capitatum during empirical therapy with caspofungin. A 68-year-old male patient with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia had received umbilical cord blood transplantation after two courses of induction therapy. Empirical therapy with caspofungin was initiated 5 days before transplantation. Tacrolimus was continuously infused to prevent graft-versus-host disease. A minidose of methotrexate was intravenously administered on days 1 and 3 post-transplantation, which was changed to prednisolone from day 7 due to severe mucositis...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
I Karalis, J W Jukema
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize and discuss the recent findings in the field of using HDL mimetics for the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Following the largely disappointing results with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, focus moved to HDL functionality rather than absolute HDL cholesterol values. A number of HDL/apoA-I mimicking molecules were developed, aiming to enhance reverse cholesterol transport that has been associated with an atheroprotective effect...
June 21, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Go Makimoto, Eiki Ichihara, Katsuyuki Hotta, Kiichiro Ninomiya, Isao Oze, Daisuke Minami, Takashi Ninomiya, Toshio Kubo, Kadoaki Ohashi, Masahiro Tabata, Yoshinobu Maeda, Katsuyuki Kiura
Although cisplatin-based chemotherapy shows a survival advantage compared to carboplatin for treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer, high-volume hydration and a long infusion time are necessary to avoid nephrotoxicity, and cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been difficult to administer in outpatient settings. A low-volume hydration method using mannitol or furosemide as forced diuresis was recently introduced, but there are no clear conclusions regarding which agent should be used. We describe our ongoing randomized phase II trial (the OLCSG1406 Study) evaluating the efficacy of forced diuresis...
June 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
Noriaki Miyaji, Kazuki Motegi, Shohei Fukai, Naoki Shimada, Kenta Miwa, Shuto Nakazawa, Takuro Umeda, Tomohiro Takiguchi, Takashi Terauchi, Mitsuru Koizumi
PURPOSE: The AI-300 automated infusion device (Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) is subject to administration error as a function of smaller volumes of 18 F-FDG dispensed via a three-way cock supplied with a disposable kit. The present study aimed to validate the administration accuracy of the AI-300 using an improved disposable kit for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) assessment. METHODS: We determined administration accuracy between the improved and previous disposable kits by measuring variations in dispensed volumes and radioactive concentrations of 18 F-FDG according to the criteria of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine...
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Soichi Hirashima, Akihiko Miyawaki, Kotaro Oho, Yawaka Shitozawa, Motohiro Arai, Norihiko Furuta, Ryoichi Oya
Peritoneal dialysis can be performed at home, and the transfer of solutes in the blood and other body fluids is slow compared to hemodialysis, reducing the load on the circulatory organs and lessening the frequency of hospital visits. We encountered a male patient in his 70s on peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal failure who developed obsolete mandibular fracture-associated pseudarthrosis accompanied by osteomyelitis, which was treated with noninvasive reduction and fixation using circumferential wiring after the resolution of inflammation...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Guadalupe Navarro, Camille Allard, Jamie J Morford, Weiwei Xu, Suhuan Liu, Adrien Jr Molinas, Sierra M Butcher, Nicholas Hf Fine, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Venkata N Sure, Sangho Yu, Rui Zhang, Heike Münzberg, David A Jacobson, Prasad V Katakam, David J Hodson, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi, Andrea Zsombok, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
Androgen excess predisposes women to type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the mechanism of this is poorly understood. We report that female mice fed a Western diet and exposed to chronic androgen excess using dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exhibit hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance associated with secondary pancreatic β cell failure, leading to hyperglycemia. These abnormalities are not observed in mice lacking the androgen receptor (AR) in β cells and partially in neurons of the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) as well as in mice lacking AR selectively in neurons...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
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