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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050906/hospital-readmissions-related-to-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-united-states
#1
Abhishek Deshpande, Chaitanya Pant, Mojtaba Olyaee, Curtis J Donskey
Using a national readmissions database, we report a significant burden of Clostridium difficile-associated readmissions in the United States manifested as a high rate of rehospitalizations and substantial hospital stays and costs.
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050666/the-contribution-of-bacteriophages-to-the-biology-and-virulence-of-pathogenic-clostridia
#2
Louis-Charles Fortier
Bacteriophages are key players in the evolution of most bacteria. Temperate phages have been associated with virulence of some of the deadliest pathogenic bacteria. Among the most notorious cases, the genes encoding the botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D and the α-toxin (TcnA) produced by Clostridium novyi are both encoded within prophage genomes. Clostridium difficile is another important human pathogen and the recent identification of a complete binary toxin locus (CdtLoc) carried on a C...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048477/the-role-of-toxins-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#3
Ramyavardhanee Chandrasekaran, D Borden Lacy
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis worldwide. The incidence, severity, mortality and healthcare costs associated with C. difficile infection (CDI) are rising, making C. difficile a major threat to public health. Traditional treatments for CDI involve use of antibiotics such as metronidazole and vancomycin, but disease recurrence occurs in about 30% of patients, highlighting the need for new therapies...
October 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045025/do-pre-operative-oral-antibiotics-increase-clostridium-difficile-infection-rates-an-analysis-of-13-959-colectomy-patients
#4
Muralidharan Parthasarathy, David Bowers, Thomas Groot-Wassink
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether or not preoperative oral antibiotic preparation (POAP) increases the rate of Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC) in patients undergoing colectomy. METHOD: In 2015, data for colectomies had been collected prospectively and recorded in the targeted colectomy option of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP). This was available for retrospective analysis. Data available for analysis included elective and emergency status, POAP, surgical approach, primary anastomosis and CDC status...
October 16, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044643/fidaxomicin-versus-vancomycin-as-a-first-line-treatment-for-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-cdad-in-specific-patient-populations-a-pharmacoeconomic-evaluation
#5
Kelly R Reveles, Jennifer L Backo, Frank A Corvino, Marko Zivkovic, Kelly C Broderick
OBJECTIVES: The reduction in recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) with fidaxomicin therapy may reduce hospital readmissions and lead to lower overall CDAD costs. However, studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin as first-line therapy from the United States (US) hospital perspective are lacking. This study evaluated the costs associated with utilizing fidaxomicin or vancomycin as a first-line therapy for CDAD in specific patient populations from a US hospital perspective...
October 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044436/preterm-infant-associated-clostridium-tertium-clostridium-cadaveris-and-clostridium-paraputrificum-strains-genomic-and-evolutionary-insights
#6
Raymond Kiu, Shabhonam Caim, Cristina Alcon-Giner, Gusztav Belteki, Paul Clarke, Derek Pickard, Gordon Dougan, Lindsay J Hall
Clostridium species (particularly Clostridium difficile, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens) are associated with a range of human and animal diseases. Several other species including Clostridium tertium, Clostridium cadaveris, and Clostridium paraputrificum have also been linked with sporadic human infections, however there is very limited, or in some cases, no genomic information publicly available. Thus, we isolated one C. tertium strain, one C. cadaveris strain and three C...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043783/marine-mammal-microbiota-yields-novel-antibiotic-with-potent-activity-against-clostridium-difficile
#7
Jessica L Ochoa, Laura M Sanchez, Byoung-Mo Koo, Jennifer S Doherty, Manohary Rajendram, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Carol A Gross, Roger G Linington
The recent explosion of research on the microbiota has highlighted the important interplay between commensal microorganisms and the health of their cognate hosts. Metabolites isolated from commensal bacteria have been demonstrated to possess a range of antimicrobial activities, and it is widely believed that some of these metabolites modulate host behavior, affecting predisposition to disease and pathogen invasion. Our access to the local marine mammal stranding network and previous successes in mining the fish microbiota poised us to test the hypothesis that the marine mammal microbiota is a novel source of commensal bacteria-produced bioactive metabolites...
October 18, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040788/familial-mediterranean-fever-mutations-are-hypermorphic-mutations-that-specifically-decrease-the-activation-threshold-of-the-pyrin-inflammasome
#8
Yvan Jamilloux, Lucie Lefeuvre, Flora Magnotti, Amandine Martin, Sarah Benezech, Omran Allatif, Mathilde Penel-Page, Véronique Hentgen, Pascal Sève, Mathieu Gerfaud-Valentin, Agnès Duquesne, Marine Desjonquères, Audrey Laurent, Vanessa Rémy-Piccolo, Rolando Cimaz, Luca Cantarini, Emilie Bourdonnay, Thierry Walzer, Bénédicte F Py, Alexandre Belot, Thomas Henry
Objectives: FMF is the most frequent autoinflammatory disease and is associated in most patients with bi-allelic MEFV mutations. MEFV encodes Pyrin, an inflammasome sensor activated following RhoGTPase inhibition. The functional consequences of MEFV mutations on the ability of Pyrin variants to act as inflammasome sensors are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether MEFV mutations affect the ability of Pyrin to detect RhoGTPase inhibition and other inflammasome stimuli...
October 12, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040661/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#9
Hira Bluestone, Matthew P Kronman, David L Suskind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039846/gut-bacterial-communities-of-diarrheic-patients-with-indications-of-clostridioides-difficile-infection
#10
Dominik Schneider, Andrea Thürmer, Kathleen Gollnow, Raimond Lugert, Katrin Gunka, Uwe Groß, Rolf Daniel
We present bacterial 16S rRNA gene datasets derived from stool samples of 44 patients with diarrhea indicative of a Clostridioides difficile infection. For 20 of these patients, C. difficile infection was confirmed by clinical evidence. Stool samples from patients originating from Germany, Ghana, and Indonesia were taken and subjected to DNA isolation. DNA isolations of stool samples from 35 asymptomatic control individuals were performed. The bacterial community structure was assessed by 16S rRNA gene analysis (V3-V4 region)...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038278/fidaxomicin-and-op-1118-inhibit-c-difficile-toxin-a-and-b-mediated-inflammatory-responses-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity
#11
Hon Wai Koon, Jiani Wang, Caroline C Mussatto, Christina Ortiz, Elaine C Lee, Diana Hoang-Ngoc Tran, Xinhua Chen, Ciaran P Kelly, Charalabos Pothoulakis
Objective:Clostridium difficile causes diarrhea and colitis by releasing toxin A and toxin B. In the human colon, both toxins cause intestinal inflammation and stimulate TNFα expression via activation of NF-κB. It is well established that the macrolide antibiotic fidaxomicin is associated with reduced relapses of C. difficile infection. We showed that fidaxomicin and its primary metabolite, OP-1118, significantly inhibited toxin A-mediated intestinal inflammation in mice in vivo and toxin A-induced cell rounding in vitro We aim to determine whether fidaxomicin and OP-1118 possess anti-inflammatory effects against toxin A and toxin B in the human colon and examine the mechanism of this response...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037938/non-clostridium-difficile-bacterial-infections-are-rare-in-patients-with-flares-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Yuri Hanada, Sahil Khanna, Edward V Loftus, Laura E Raffals, Darrell S Pardi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes flares in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated the frequency and outcomes of non-CDI bacterial enteric infections in symptomatic patients with IBD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) from whom stool samples were collected and analyzed by PCR or culture for bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni or C coli, Salmonella species, Shigella species, entero-invasive Escherichia coli, shiga toxin-producing E coli, or Yersinia species) from November 19, 2011, through June 30, 2014...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032373/differentiating-clostridium-difficile-colitis-from-clostridium-difficile-colonization-in-ulcerative-colitis-a-role-for-procalcitonin
#13
Andrew R Reinink, Julajak Limsrivilai, Bethany A Reutemann, Tristan Feierabend, Emily Briggs, Krishna Rao, Peter D R Higgins
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) frequently complicates ulcerative colitis (UC) and can mimic disease flare. Differentiating UC flare from CDI remains a clinical challenge, particularly due to C. difficile colonization. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a serum biomarker for bacterial infections. We hypothesized that PCT would differentiate acute CDI from UC flare and C. difficile colonization. METHODS: A single-center prospective cohort study was conducted from 2013 to 2016...
October 14, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031928/the-role-of-purified-clostridium-difficile-glucosylating-toxins-in-disease-pathogenesis-utilizing-a-murine-cecum-injection-model
#14
Yongrong Zhang, Zhiyong Yang, Si Gao, Therwa Hamza, Harris G Yfantis, Michael Lipsky, Hanping Feng
Most pathogenic Clostridium difficile produce two major exotoxins TcdA and TcdB, in the absence of which the bacterium is non-pathogenic. While it is important to investigate the role of each toxin in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) using isogenic strains, it is impossible to precisely control the expression levels of individual toxins and exclude bacterial factors that may contribute to the toxins' effects during infection. In this study, we utilized an acute intestinal disease model by injecting purified toxins directly into mouse cecum after a midline laparotomy...
October 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031432/discontinuing-contact-precautions-for-multidrug-resistant-organisms-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Alexandre R Marra, Michael B Edmond, Marin L Schweizer, Grace W Ryan, Daniel J Diekema
BACKGROUND: Several single-center studies have suggested that eliminating contact precautions (CPs) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) control in nonoutbreak settings has no impact on infection rates. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of discontinuing contact precautions in the acute care setting. METHODS: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Embase through December 2016 for studies evaluating discontinuation of contact precautions for multidrug-resistant organisms...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029255/plasmids-can-transfer-to-clostridium-difficile-cd37-and-630%C3%AE-erm-both-by-a-dnase-resistant-conjugation-like-mechanism-and-a-dnase-sensitive-mechanism
#16
Ladan Khodadoost, Haitham Hussain, Peter Mullany
Broad host range conjugative plasmids that replicate in Escherichia coli have been widely used to mobilise smaller replicons, bearing their cognate origin of transfer (oriT) into a variety of organisms that are less tractable genetically, such as Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile. In this work we demonstrated that the oriT region of pMTL9301 (derived from RK2) is not required for transfer between E. coli and C. difficile strains 630Δerm and CD37 and that this oriT-independent transfer is abolished in the presence of DNase when CD37 is the recipient...
October 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029221/analysis-of-clostridium-difficile-biofilms-imaging-and-antimicrobial-treatment
#17
Garth A James, Laurent Chesnel, Laura Boegli, Elinor deLancey Pulcini, Steve Fisher, Philip S Stewart
Background: Clostridium difficile, a spore-forming Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus, is the most common causative agent of healthcare-associated diarrhoea. Formation of biofilms may protect C. difficile against antibiotics, potentially leading to treatment failure. Furthermore, bacterial spores or vegetative cells may linger in biofilms in the gut causing C. difficile infection recurrence. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of four antibiotics (fidaxomicin, surotomycin, vancomycin and metronidazole) in penetrating C...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028276/enhancing-antibiotic-stewardship-by-tackling-spurious-penicillin-allergy
#18
Mamidipudi Thirumala Krishna, Aarnoud P Huissoon, Mark Li, Alex Richter, Devadas Ganesh Pillay, Dhinakaran Sambanthan, Sumanth C Raman, Shuaib Nasser, Siraj A Misbah
Approximately 90-99% of patients with a label of penicillin allergy (PenA) are not allergic when comprehensively investigated. An inaccurate label of PenA has major public health implications - longer hospital stay, more frequent hospital admissions, greater use of fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides, cephalosporins and other expensive antibiotics resulting in significantly higher costs to the health service and predisposing to Clostridium difficile, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections and vancomycin resistant enterococcus...
October 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026601/complications-effectiveness-and-long-term-follow-up-of-fecal-microbiota-transfer-by-nasoduodenal-tube-for-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
Yvette H van Beurden, Pieter F de Groot, Els van Nood, Max Nieuwdorp, Josbert J Keller, Abraham Goorhuis
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but data on procedure-related complications and long-term outcome are scarce. METHODS: All patients treated with FMT for recurrent CDI at the Academic Medical Center between July 2010 and January 2016 were included. FMT was performed according to the FECAL trial protocol: administration of fresh donor feces (related or unrelated donor) through a duodenal tube after pre-treatment with vancomycin and bowel lavage...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025123/comparative-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-england-and-the-usa
#20
Alice King, Benjamin H Mullish, Horace R T Williams, Paul Aylin
Objective: To examine whether there is an epidemiological difference between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) inpatient populations in England and the United States. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: National administrative inpatient discharge data from England (Hospital Episode Statistics) and the USA (National Inpatient Sample) in 2012. Participants: De-identifiable non-obstetric inpatient discharges from the national datasets were used to estimate national CDI incidence in the United States and England using ICD9-CM(008...
September 11, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
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