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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236304/enterovirus-detection-in-patients-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-switzerland
#1
Rainer Gosert, Ulrich Heininger, Hans H Hirsch
Acute gastroenteritis (GE) has a major impact on morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet comprehensive data regarding infectious agents including enteroviruses are scarce. We hypothesized that enteroviruses constitute a significant cause of acute GE. We analyzed 677 stool samples from 504 patients, which had been submitted for suspected infectious GE. 0.2 ml of stool suspension was extracted using the Abbott m2000 sp robot and analysed by multiplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) using the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) as well as by specific NATs detecting enteroviruses and polioviruses...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235503/inactivation-of-the-dnak-gene-in-clostridium-difficile-630-%C3%AE-erm-yields-a-temperature-sensitive-phenotype-and-increases-biofilm-forming-ability
#2
Shailesh Jain, Deborah Smyth, Barry M G O'Hagan, John T Heap, Geoff McMullan, Nigel P Minton, Nigel G Ternan
Clostridium difficile infection is a growing problem in healthcare settings worldwide and results in a considerable socioeconomic impact. New hypervirulent strains and acquisition of antibiotic resistance exacerbates pathogenesis; however, the survival strategy of C. difficile in the challenging gut environment still remains incompletely understood. We previously reported that clinically relevant heat-stress (37-41 °C) resulted in a classical heat-stress response with up-regulation of cellular chaperones...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234211/bezlotoxumab-zinplava-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-the-first-monoclonal-antibody-approved-to-prevent-the-recurrence-of-a-bacterial-infection
#3
Yuman Lee, Wai I Lim, Caitlyn I Bloom, Samantha Moore, Elizabeth Chung, Nino Marzella
Bezlotoxumab (Zinplava) to prevent the recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection.
December 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230429/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-probiotic-use-to-prevent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-adults-receiving-antibiotics
#4
Nicole T Shen, Jared A Leff, Yecheskel Schneider, Carl V Crawford, Anna Maw, Brian Bosworth, Matthew S Simon
Background: Systematic reviews with meta-analyses and meta-regression suggest that timely probiotic use can prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized adults receiving antibiotics, but the cost effectiveness is unknown. We sought to evaluate the cost effectiveness of probiotic use for prevention of CDI versus no probiotic use in the United States. Methods: We programmed a decision analytic model using published literature and national databases with a 1-year time horizon...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229640/adverse-effects-of-intravenous-vancomycin-based-prophylaxis-during-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#5
Yilun Sun, Rachael L Huskey, Li Tang, Hiroto Inaba, Aditya H Gaur, Raul Ribeiro, Jeffrey E Rubnitz, Joshua Wolf
Background Children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at risk of life-threatening bacterial infection, especially with viridans group streptococci. Primary antibacterial prophylaxis with vancomycin-based regimens reduces this risk, but might increase risk of renal or liver toxicity, or Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).Methods A retrospective review was conducted of patients treated for newly diagnosed AML at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from 2002 to 2008. Nephrotoxicity was classified according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage Renal Disease (RIFLE) criteria, and hepatotoxicity according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229281/potential-of-real-time-pcr-threshold-cycle-ct-to-predict-presence-of-free-toxin-and-clinically-relevant-c-difficile-infection-cdi-in-patients-with-cancer
#6
Mini Kamboj, Jennifer Brite, Tracy McMillen, Elizabeth Robilotti, Alejandro Herrera, Kent Sepkowitz, N Esther Babady
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a toxin-mediated disease. Oncology patients are at increased risk for developing CDI. Diagnosis of CDI by PCR has led to misclassification of some C. difficile carriers as CDI cases. We determined if an optimized C. difficile PCR cycle threshold value (CT) could reliably predict presence of free toxin, and in turn improve the utility of PCR in detecting clinically relevant CDI in oncology patients. METHODS: 183 consecutive patients positive for C...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229019/clostridium-difficile-epidemiology-pathogenicity-and-an-update-on-the-limitations-of-and-challenges-in-its-diagnosis
#7
Abdullah A Alyousef
The bacterium originally named Bacillus difficilis was later renamed Clostridium difficile because of the difficulty associated with its isolation in the laboratory. C. difficile causes human-associated diarrhea, which is now known as C. difficile infection (CDI), a major cause of nosocomial infection mainly occurring in developed countries. Changes in antibiotic patterns in its strains produce toxins that are responsible for the high mortality rates associated with CDI; therefore, the epidemiology and severity of CDI have recently changed...
December 12, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227855/a-case-report-of-successful-management-of-clostridium-difficile-colitis-with-antegrade-fidaxomicin-through-a-mucous-fistula-obviating-the-need-for-subtotal-colectomy
#8
Suzanne Arnott, Matthew Skancke, Sheena Chen, Bruce Abell
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections and can have devastating morbidity and mortality. Traditional treatment algorithms involve intravenous metronidazole and enteric metronidazole or vancomycin. Fidaxomicin (DificidR) targets "switch regions" within RNA polymerases and effectively kills clostridium difficile bacteria and is typically administered orally primarily or through a naso/oro-gastric conduit. PRESENTATION OF CASE: 55-year-old with a recent elective surgical procedure was hospitalized with multifocal pneumonia and subsequently developed clostridium difficile colitis...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227201/early-rescue-from-acute-severe-clostridium-difficile-a-novel-treatment-strategy
#9
Biniam Kidane, Kalvin Lung, Greig McCreery, Chadia El-Khatib, Michael C Ott, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, Chris Vinden, Daryl Gray, Neil G Parry, Kenneth A Leslie, Tina S Mele
BACKGROUND: Severe Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) can lead to significant impediments to effective treatment. We developed a novel treatment protocol utilizing bedside gastrointestinal lavage (GIL) for the management of patients with severe, complicated CDI. We describe the development and early outcomes of non-operative bedside GIL in hospitalized patients with severe, complicated CDI following the Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long Term Study (IDEAL) framework at the Idea stage...
December 11, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226561/the-long-term-effects-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-general-health-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
J Jalanka, A Hillamaa, R Satokari, E Mattila, V-J Anttila, P Arkkila
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. In short-term the treatment has been shown to be safe, however, there are no large, long-term follow-up studies looking into the potential adverse effects. AIM: To analyse the long-term effect of FMT treatment in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection and to compare the outcome to antibiotic treated patients. METHODS: Altogether 84 patients of which 45 received a FMT treatment and 39 served as controls receiving antibiotics for the infection were followed on average for 3...
December 11, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225756/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-and-its-toxigenic-genotype-in-beef-samples-in-west-of-iran
#11
Malihe Kheradmand, Somayeh Jalilian, Amirhooshang Alvandi, Ramin Abiri
Background and Objectives: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The prevalence of C. difficile infection differs in various geographical areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile isolates and the prevalence of cdd3, tcdA and tcdB genes in beef samples in Kermanshah Province. Materials and Methods: One hundred ground beef samples were randomly collected from the butchers of Kermanshah province during March 2014 to March 2015...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#12
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222426/surveillance-of-antibiotic-resistance-among-common-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-in-hong-kong
#13
Viola C Y Chow, Thomas N Y Kwong, Erica W M So, Yolanda I I Ho, Sunny H Wong, Raymond W M Lai, Raphael C Y Chan
Incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is rapidly increasing and it poses a major health burden globally. However, data regarding the epidemiology of CDI in Asia are limited. We aimed to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common ribotypes of toxigenic C. difficile in Hong Kong. Fifty-three PCR ribotypes were identified among 284 toxigenic C. difficile clinical isolates. The five most prevalent ribotypes were 002 (13%), 017 (12%), 014 (10%), 012 (9.2%), and 020 (9.5%). All tested C...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221987/hierarchical-recognition-of-amino-acid-co-germinants-during-clostridioides-difficile-spore-germination
#14
Ritu Shrestha, Joseph A Sorg
Bile acids are an important signal for germination of Clostridioides difficile spores; however, the bile acid signal alone is not sufficient. Amino acids, such as glycine, are another signal necessary for germination by C. difficile spores. Prior studies on the amino acid signal required for germination have shown that there is a preference for the amino acid used as a signal for germination. Previously we found that d-alanine can function as a co-germinant for C. difficile spores at 37 °C but not at 25 °C...
December 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220796/purine-analogs-targeting-the-guanine-riboswitch-as-potential-antibiotics-against-clostridioides-difficile
#15
Lok-Hang Yan, Antoine Le Roux, Kumaraswamy Boyapelly, Anne-Marie Lamontagne, Marie-Ann Archambault, Frédéric Picard-Jean, David Lalonde-Seguin, Emilie St-Pierre, Rafael J Najmanovich, Louis-Charles Fortier, Daniel Lafontaine, Éric Marsault
Riboswitches recently emerged as possible targets for the development of alternative antimicrobial approaches. Guanine-sensing riboswitches in the bacterial pathogen Clostridioides difficile (formerly known as Clostridium difficile) constitute potential targets based on their involvement in the regulation of basal metabolic control of purine compounds. In this study, we deciphered the structure-activity relationship of several guanine derivatives on the guanine riboswitch and determined their antimicrobial activity...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218569/toxin-positivity-and-tcdb-gene-load-in-broad-spectrum-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
Hyeong Nyeon Kim, Hanah Kim, Hee-Won Moon, Mina Hur, Yeo-Min Yun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of toxin positivity and toxin gene load, and the relation between them in the broad spectrum of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) including colonization, significant diarrhea, and severe disease. METHODS: We included 2671 fecal samples submitted for CDI diagnosis and 180 samples from healthy individuals. The clinical spectrum was categorized as category I (toxigenic C. difficile positive without clinical CDI criteria), category II (mild CDI), and category III (severe CDI)...
December 7, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216276/national-epidemiology-of-initial-and-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-veterans-health-administration-from-2003-to-2014
#17
Kelly R Reveles, Kenneth A Lawson, Eric M Mortensen, Mary Jo V Pugh, Jim M Koeller, Jacqueline R Argamany, Christopher R Frei
INTRODUCTION: Prior studies demonstrated marked increases in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the United States (U.S.) in recent years. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of initial and recurrent CDI in a national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) cohort over a 12-year period. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult VHA beneficiaries with CDI (ICD-9-CM code 008.45) plus a positive CDI stool test between October 1, 2002 and September 30, 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215630/continuing-medical-education-questions-december-2017-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-celiac-disease-a-population-based-study
#18
Steven L Carpenter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215629/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-dementia-deciphering-the-data
#19
Paul Moayyedi, Maxine A Lewis
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective and suppressing acid, and therefore have efficacy against gastric acid-related disorders. The long-term safety of PPIs is less clear and there have been a number of studies raising concerns regarding risk of pneumonia, fracture, Clostridium difficile, chronic renal failure, and dementia. This latter concern is addressed by a study in this issue of AJG using health care registry data and found there was no association between PPI use and Alzheimer's dementia. Furthermore, there was no increased risk of dementia with long-term use of PPIs or higher doses of PPIs...
December 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214047/high-resolution-profiling-of-the-gut-microbiome-reveals-the-extent-of-clostridium-difficile-burden
#20
Ninalynn Daquigan, Anna Maria Seekatz, K Leigh Greathouse, Vincent B Young, James Robert White
Microbiome profiling through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis has proven to be a useful research tool in the study of C. difficile infection (CDI); however, CDI microbiome studies typically report results at the genus level or higher, thus precluding identification of this pathogen relative to other members of the gut microbiota. Accurate identification of C. difficile relative to the overall gut microbiome may be useful in assessments of colonization in research studies or as a prognostic indicator for patients with CDI...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
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