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Alyshah Kaba, Andrea Baumann, Camille Kolotylo, Noori Akhtar-Danesh
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Clostridium difficile have increased in health care facilities worldwide. The complexity of caring for patients with infectious comorbidities has impacted nurses' daily work. A mixed-methods study at 1 community hospital in Ontario, Canada, demonstrated the cumulative effect of additional time spent on infection prevention and control measures resulted in trade-offs, cutting corners, and raised concerns about the quality and continuity of care...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
James Heng Chiak Sim, Cynthia Truong, Samuel S Minot, Nick Greenfield, Indre Budvytiene, Akshar Lohith, Victoria Anikst, Nader Pourmand, Niaz Banaei
Understanding the contribution of relapse and reinfection to recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has implications for therapy and infection prevention, respectively. We used whole genome sequencing to determine the relation of C. difficile strains isolated from patients with recurrent CDI at an academic medical center in the United States. Thirty-five toxigenic C. difficile isolates from 16 patients with 19 recurrent CDI episodes with median time of 53.5days (range, 13-362) between episodes were whole genome sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform...
October 5, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Mirjam Duijvestijn, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Nancy Schuurman, Wim Schijf, Jaap A Wagenaar, Herman Egberink
Laboratory confirmation of the causative agent(s) of diarrhoea in puppies may allow for appropriate treatment. The presence of potential pathogens however, does not prove a causal relationship with diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify specific enteropathogens in ≤12 month old puppies with and without acute diarrhoea and to assess their associations with clinical signs, putative risk factors and pathogen co-occurrence. Faecal samples from puppies with (n=113) and without (n=56) acute diarrhoea were collected and screened for Canine Parvovirus (CPV), Canine Coronavirus (CCoV), Salmonella spp...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Bao-Zhong Zhang, Jianpiao Cai, Bin Yu, Yanhong Hua, Candy Choiyi Lau, Richard Yi-Tsun Tsun Kao, Kong-Hung Sze, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Jian-Dong Huang
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) constitutes a great majority of hospital diarrhea cases in industrialized countries and is induced by two types of large toxin molecules: toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Development of immunotherapeutic approaches, either active or passive, has seen a resurgence in recent years. Studies have described vaccine plasmids that express either TcdA and/or TcdB receptor binding domain (RBD). However, the effectiveness of one vector encoding both toxin RBDs against CDAD has not been evaluated...
October 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
G Kamkamidze, I Migriauli, D Razmadze, M Kochlamazashvili, K Mulkijanyan, M Butsashvili
The main objective of this investigation was to develop and pilot a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) diagnostic system for rapid and simultaneous identification of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics. The diarrheal diseases were selected as a target for the pilot because they constitute a primary public health priority in Georgia and worldwide. The product developed by our research team "Neo_PCR_Diagnostics" represents an original system for the identification of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal tract infections and diarrhea...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Christoph Lübbert, Lisa Zimmermann, Julia Borchert, Bernd Hörner, Reinier Mutters, Arne C Rodloff
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of health-care-associated infectious diarrhea. Recurrence rates are as high as 20-30% after standard treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin, and appear to be reduced for patients treated with fidaxomicin. According to the literature, the risk of CDI recurrence increases after the second relapse to 30-65%. Accurate data for Germany are not yet available. METHODS: Based on the research database of arvato health analytics (Munich, Germany), a secondary data analysis for the incidence, treatment characteristics and course of CDI was performed...
October 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Brintha Parasumanna Girinathan, Sterling Braun, Apoorva Reddy Sirigireddy, Jose Espinola-Lopez, Revathi Govind
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160107.].
2016: PloS One
Vivian G Loo, Paul Brassard, Mark A Miller
OBJECTIVE To determine the risk of Clostridium difficile transmission from index cases with C. difficile infection (CDI) to their household contacts and domestic pets. DESIGN A prospective study from April 2011 to June 2013. SETTING Patients with CDI from Canadian tertiary care centers. PARTICIPANTS Patients with CDI, their household human contacts, and pets. METHODS Epidemiologic information and stool or rectal swabs were collected from participants at enrollment and monthly for up to 4 months. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on C...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Michelle T Hecker, Edith Ho, Curtis J Donskey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Orsolya Benedek, Andreas Podbielski, Philipp Warnke
BACKGROUND: Chemiluminescent or enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassays are commonly used to diagnose Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. METHODS: The LIAISON analyzer (DiaSorin, Italy) was compared to miniVIDAS (bioMérieux, France) and, furthermore, to culture of toxigenic strains. In total, 249 native stool samples were analyzed. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were investigated. Furthermore, performance under routine conditions was assessed...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Jennifer L Kuntz, Jennifer M Baker, Patricia Kipnis, Sherian Xu Li, Vincent Liu, Yang Xie, Stephen Marcella, Gabriel J Escobar
BACKGROUND Considerable efforts have been dedicated to developing strategies to prevent and treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI); however, evidence of the impact of rCDI on patient healthcare utilization and outcomes is limited. OBJECTIVE To compare healthcare utilization and 1-year mortality among adults who had rCDI, nonrecurrent CDI, or no CDI. METHODS We performed a nested case-control study among adult Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members from September 1, 2001, through December 31, 2013...
October 20, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Xia Wu, Elena E Paskaleva, Krunal K Mehta, Jonathan S Dordick, Ravi S Kane
Bacterial lysins are potent antibacterial enzymes with potential applications in the treatment of bacterial infections. Some lysins lose activity in the growth media of target bacteria, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we use CD11, an autolysin of Clostridium difficile, as a model lysin to demonstrate that the inability of this enzyme to kill C. difficile in growth medium is not associated with inhibition of the enzyme activity by medium, or the modification of the cell wall peptidoglycan...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Laura Bouché, Maria Panico, Paul Hitchen, Daniel Binet, Federico Sastre, Alexandra Faulds-Pain, Esmeralda Valiente, Evgeny Vinogradov, Annie Aubry, Kelly Fulton, Susan Twine, Susan M Logan, Brendan W Wren, Anne Dell, Howard R Morris
Glycosylation of flagellins is a well recognized property of many bacterial species. In this study we describe the structural characterization of novel flagellar glycans from a number of hypervirulent strains of C. difficile. We used mass spectrometry (nano LC- MS and MS/MS analysis) to identify a number of putative glycopeptides which carried a variety of glycoform substitutions each of which was linked through an initial HexNAc residue to Ser or Thr. Detailed analysis of a LLDGSSTEIR glycopeptide released by tryptic digestion, which carried two variant structures, revealed that the glycopeptide contained, in addition to carbohydrate moieties, a novel structural entity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mária Džunková, Giuseppe D'Auria, Hua Xu, Jun Huang, Yinghua Duan, Andrés Moya, Ciarán P Kelly, Xinhua Chen
Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab) to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alessandro Cassini, Diamantis Plachouras, Tim Eckmanns, Muna Abu Sin, Hans-Peter Blank, Tanja Ducomble, Sebastian Haller, Thomas Harder, Anja Klingeberg, Madlen Sixtensson, Edward Velasco, Bettina Weiß, Piotr Kramarz, Dominique L Monnet, Mirjam E Kretzschmar, Carl Suetens
BACKGROUND: Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011-2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Robert J Gianotti, Alan C Moss
Clostridium difficile (CD) is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for a spectrum of gastrointestinal illness ranging from asymptomatic carriage to toxic megacolon and death. The prevalence of CD infection is increasing in both hospitalized and community-based inflammatory bowel disease populations. Standard antibiotic therapy fails to cure or prevent recurrence in more than 50% of patients, thus increasing the need for alternative therapies. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation has received renewed attention as a therapy for refractory or recurrent CD infection...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Jeffrey D McCurdy, Felicity T Enders, Sahil Khanna, David H Bruining, Andrea Jones, Jill M Killian, Raseen Tariq, Thomas C Smyrk, Edward V Loftus
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation are associated with disease exacerbations and poor outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we assessed the association between these organisms in patients with IBD and the impact on colectomy. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to assess CDI prevalence in patients with IBD with a tissue diagnosis of CMV compared with matched IBD controls without CMV from 2005 to 2011...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Jessica Martin, Mark Wilcox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridium difficile infection has attained high prominence given its prevalence and impacts on patients and healthcare institutions. Multiple new approaches to the prevention and treatment of C. difficile infection (CDI) are undergoing clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Bezlotoxumab is a monoclonal antibody against toxin B that has successfully completed phase III studies, demonstrating a significant reduction in recurrent CDI when given with standard of care antibiotics...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
H Harvala, E Alm, T Åkerlund, K Rizzardi
An aggregation of moxifloxacin-resistant Clostridium difficile ribotype 231 (RT231) isolates was first identified in the county of Stockholm in 2008, and by the end of 2015 isolates of RT231 had spread to 13 of 21 Swedish counties. We investigated the epidemiology of C. difficile RT231 in Sweden between 2006 and 2015 using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and evaluated whether its emergence could be associated with extended moxifloxacin use. We performed WGS and phylogenetic analysis of 51 C. difficile RT231 strains isolated in Sweden over a 10-year period...
November 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
Maja Rupnik, Arjana Tambic Andrasevic, Elena Trajkovska Dokic, Ivanka Matas, Milica Jovanovic, Selma Pasic, Aleksander Kocuvan, Sandra Janezic
While Clostridium difficile epidemiology is well documented in many European countries, data are largely missing for South Eastern European region. Here we report the PCR ribotype distribution of 249 C. difficile isolates received for typing from six hospital settings from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Macedonia and Serbia in time period from 2008 to 2015. Twenty-four PCR ribotypes were detected. The majority of strains from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia belonged to PCR ribotype 027 (65...
October 15, 2016: Anaerobe
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