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Samar Sheriff, Hassan J Zawahrah, Lenisa V Chang, Sonay Beyatli, Haithem M Elhadi Babiker, Ashton L Roach, Natalyia Biskup, John A van Aalst
BACKGROUND: This project explores the costs of cleft lip and/or palate surgeries in Palestine and Sudan, two low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), in the Middle East. Our purpose is to examine the veracity of advertisements from international cleft organizations claiming that "250 US dollars (USD) covers the cost of a single cleft surgery." We hypothesize that the actual cost of surgery is greater than 250 USD. METHODS: Costs for each cleft surgery were organized broadly into 5 categories: hospital charges, personnel (time and money spent for health professionals to travel to LMIC, including lost wages), tests, consumables, and reusables...
October 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
Claudia Oellig, Jessica Radovanovic
16-O-Methylcafestol (16-OMC), the characteristic diterpene exclusively present in Coffea canephora, is an excellent marker for Coffea canephora admixtures to Coffea arabica. Here we show a straightforward, selective and sensitive screening method for the determination of 16-OMC in roasted coffee by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD). As internal standard, Sudan IV was used, and a direct saponification with 10% ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution was followed by solid supported liquid extraction with petroleum ether...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ersin Kılınç, Kadir Serdar Çelik, Havin Bilgetekin
Hybrid nanostructures composed of γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) and carboxylated-multi walled carbon nanotube (cMWCNT) were used for the magnetic solid phase extractions and determination of Sudan I, II, III, IV, Para Red, Sudan Black B and Sudan Red 7B in chili products. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for the measurements. Limit of quantification (LOQ) values were found in the range 0.44-2.82ngmL(-1) for analytes. The best extraction parameters were determined as pH 8.0, 40mg of magnetic nanoparticle, 4...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Fengyan He, Yi He, Xiaowei Zheng, Ruizhong Wang, Jing Lu, Zhong Dai, Shuangcheng Ma
It has been uncovered that chemical dyes are illegally used in traditional Chinese medicines to brighten colorand cover up inferiority, which threaten the safety of patients. In the present study, an HPTLC-MS method was developed for the effective screening of 11 chemical dyes (Sudan I, II, III, and IV; 808 Scarlet; Sudan Red 7B; malachite green; Basic Orange 2; auramine; Orange II; and erythrosine) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) raw materials and Chinese patent medicines. Firstly, unwashed HPTLC plates were chosen by comparing the background signals of the TLC plates used directly and prewashed with analytical grade and HPLC grade solvents...
October 17, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
David M Pigott, Aniruddha Deshpande, Ian Letourneau, Chloe Morozoff, Robert C Reiner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Shannon E Brent, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, Molly H Biehl, Roy Burstein, Lucas Earl, Nancy Fullman, Jane P Messina, Adrian Q N Mylne, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Samir Bhatt, Oliver J Brady, Peter W Gething, Daniel J Weiss, Andrew J Tatem, Luke Caley, Tom De Groeve, Luca Vernaccini, Nick Golding, Peter Horby, Jens H Kuhn, Sandra J Laney, Edmond Ng, Peter Piot, Osman Sankoh, Christopher J L Murray, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: Predicting when and where pathogens will emerge is difficult, yet, as shown by the recent Ebola and Zika epidemics, effective and timely responses are key. It is therefore crucial to transition from reactive to proactive responses for these pathogens. To better identify priorities for outbreak mitigation and prevention, we developed a cohesive framework combining disparate methods and data sources, and assessed subnational pandemic potential for four viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, and Marburg virus disease...
October 11, 2017: Lancet
Murad A Bein, Dogan Unlucan, Gbolahan Olowu, Wagdi Kalifa
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, total healthcare expenditures, comprised of both public and private healthcare expenditures, have increased in most East African countries. At the same time, health outcomes such as infant mortality rates, life expectancy at birth and other health outcome indicators have improved. OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the association between healthcare expenditures and health outcomes for eight East African countries: Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
Surona Visagie, Arne H Eide, Karin Dyrstad, Hasheem Mannan, Leslie Swartz, Marguerite Schneider, Gubela Mji, Alister Munthali, Mustafa Khogali, Gert van Rooy, Karl-Gerhard Hem, Malcolm MacLachlan
This paper explores differences in experienced environmental barriers between individuals with and without disabilities and the impact of additional factors on experienced environmental barriers. Data was collected in 2011-2012 by means of a two-stage cluster sampling and comprised 400-500 households in different sites in South Africa, Sudan Malawi and Namibia. Data were collected through self-report survey questionnaires. In addition to descriptive statistics and simple statistical tests a structural equation model was developed and tested...
2017: PloS One
Hina Sarwath, Devendra Bansal, Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Mahmoud Mohamed, Ali A Sultan, Shahinaz Bedri
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with highest incidence reported in Eastern Africa in 2012. The primary goal of this study was to study the expression of p16(INK4a) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and determine relation with clinico-pathological parameters. This study further explored the correlation of p16(INK4a) immunostaining with another proliferation marker, Ki-67 and to study if human papillomavirus (HPV) IHC can be used as a marker for detection of virus in high-grade dysplasia...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Matthew Gumbleton, Raki Sudan, Sandra Fernandes, Robert W Engelman, Christopher M Russo, John D Chisholm, William G Kerr
The success of immunotherapy in some cancer patients has revealed the profound capacity for cytotoxic lymphocytes to eradicate malignancies. Various immunotherapies work by blocking key checkpoint proteins that suppress immune cell activity. The phosphatase SHIP1 (SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase) limits signaling from receptors that activate natural killer (NK) cells and T cells. However, unexpectedly, genetic ablation studies have shown that the effector functions of SHIP1-deficient NK and T cells are compromised in vivo...
October 10, 2017: Science Signaling
Abhijnan Ray Choudhury, Madhu Sudan Manna, Santanu Mukherjee
A formal umpolung strategy is presented for the enantioselective installation of an alkenyl group with a terminal double bond at a tertiary center. This one-pot two-step sequence relies on the unique features of the nitro group, which after inverting the polarity of the alkenylating agent toward the desired bond formation, itself serves as a leaving group. The application of this protocol to cyclic β-ketoesters results in densely functionalized products, bearing an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter including an alkenyl substituent with a terminal double bond, in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Mohamed Gamaleldin Elsadig Karar, Nikolai Kuhnert
Sudan folklore medicine is characterized by a unique combination of Islamic, Arabic, and African cultures. In poor communities, traditional medicine has remained as the most reasonable source of treatment of several diseases and microbial infections. Although the traditional medicine is accepted in Sudan, to date there is no updated review available, which focuses on most effective and frequently used Sudanese medicinal plants. Thus, this review aims to summarize the published information on the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants from Sudan, preparation methods, phytochemistry, and ethnopharmacology...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Harold J Leraas, Morgan L Cox, Victoria A Bendersky, Shanna S Sprinkle, Brian F Gilmore, Rathnayaka M Gunasingha, Elisabeth T Tracy, Ranjan Sudan
INTRODUCTION: Surgical skills training varies greatly between institutions and is often left to students to approach independently. Although many studies have examined single interventions of skills training, no data currently exists about the implementation of surgical skills assessment as a component of the medical student surgical curriculum. We created a technical skills competition and evaluated its effect on student surgical skill development. METHODS: Second-year medical students enrolled in the surgery clerkship voluntarily participated in a surgical skills competition consisting of knot tying, laparoscopic peg transfer, and laparoscopic pattern cut...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
Gary Wong, Yuhai Bi, Gary Kobinger, George F Gao, Xiangguo Qiu
Hemorrhagic fever viruses are among the deadliest pathogens known to humans, and often, licensed medical countermeasures are unavailable to prevent or treat infections. Guinea pigs are a commonly used animal for the preclinical development of any experimental candidates, typically to confirm data generated in mice and as a way to validate and support further testing in nonhuman primates. In this chapter, we use Sudan virus (SUDV), a lethal filovirus closely related to Ebola virus, as an example of the steps required for generating a guinea pig-adapted isolate that is used to test a monoclonal antibody-based therapy against viral hemorrhagic fevers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yanran Liang, Tianen Zhou, Ying Chen, Danyu Lin, Xiuna Jing, Sudan Peng, Dezhi Zheng, Zhifen Zeng, Ming Lei, Xia Wu, Kaixun Huang, Lianhong Yang, Songhua Xiao, Jun Liu, Enxiang Tao
Mitochondrial and autophagic dysfunction, as well as neuroinflammation, are associated with the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, has been associated as an environmental neurotoxin related to PD. Our previous studies reported that rifampicin inhibited microglia activation and production of proinflammatory mediators induced by rotenone, but the precise mechanism has not been completely elucidated. BV2 cells were pretreated for 2h with rifampicin followed by 0...
October 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology
Puneet Gandhi, Richa Khare
OBJECTIVE: Autofluorescence induced interference is one of the major drawbacks in immunofluorescence analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as it decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of specific labeling. Apart from aldehyde-fixation induced artifacts; collagen and elastin, red blood cells and endogenous fluorescent pigment lipofuscin are prime sources of autofluorescence in vascular and aging tissues. We describe herein, an optimized indirect-immunofluorescence method for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues tissues and cryo sections, using a combination of 3-reagents in a specific order, to achieve optimal fluorescence signals and imaging...
October 6, 2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
Chengkui Yang, Jun Li, Lu Yu, Zili Zhang, Feng Xu, Lang Jiang, Xiuxia Zhou, Sudan He
Receptor-interacting kinase-3 (RIP3) is a key regulator of necroptosis. It has been shown that the expression of RIP3 is silenced in most cancer cells and tissues due to genomic methylation. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling RIP3 expression in cancer cells have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that Sp1, a well-characterized zinc-finger transcription factor, directly regulates RIP3 expression in cancer cells. Knockdown of endogenous Sp1 significantly decreases the transcription of Rip3, thereby further inhibiting necroptosis...
October 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Heyam S Mohammed, Marmar A El Siddig, Adil A El Hussein, Jesús Navas-Castillo, Elvira Fiallo-Olivé
Several species in the genus Datura (family Solanaceae) are hosts for begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae), both in the New World and the Old World. Here, we report the genome characterization of two isolates of a novel Old World monopartite begomovirus infecting Datura innoxia in Sudan, which we propose to be named "datura leaf curl virus" (DaLCV). Pairwise sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis showed that DaLCV isolates are related to begomoviruses causing tomato yellow leaf curl disease, a global menace for tomato crops...
October 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
Mohammad Ebrahimipour, Seyed Mahmoud Sadjjadi, Hossein Yousofi Darani, Mohsen Najjari
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important zoonotic diseases; caused by different genotypes of Echinococcus spp. Camels have an important role in transmission cycle of E. granulosus especially, in desert areas. This study aimed to investigate molecular characterization of hydatid cysts isolates from one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and to show its molecular and phylogenic status in this important CE host in the central part of Iran. METHODS: Twenty hydatid cyst samples (14 fertile and 6 calcified) were collected from 56 slaughtered camels in Central part of Iran...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Dong-Yang Chen, Hao Zhang, Jia-Li Feng, Dong Zeng, Li Ding, Xian-Jun Liu, Bang-Rui Li
An efficient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 industrial dyes (basic orange 2, basic orange 21, basic orange 22, acid orange II, auramine, basic rhodamine B and Sudan I-IV) in the foodstuffs using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up on a solid phase extraction cartridge using HLB. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of methanol and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate with 0...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Abdelmoneim E M Kheir, Salah A Ibrahim, Azza Abdelsatir, Mustafa E Bahar
BACKGROUND: The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, which is used for the prevention of tuberculosis, is considered protective against the severe forms of childhood tuberculosis. However, some serious adverse reactions including osteitis of the long bones can occur. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of an 18-month-old Sudanese girl who presented at the age of 3 months with swelling of her left forearm following Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination administered at birth...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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