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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642743/hiv-1-nef-signaling-in-intestinal-mucosa-epithelium-suggests-the-existence-of-an-active-inter-kingdom-crosstalk-mediated-by-exosomes
#1
REVIEW
Cristina Felli, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Silano, Andrea Masotti
The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. ECs act as sensors of luminal stimuli and interact with the immune cells through signal-transduction pathways, thus representing the first barrier that HIV-1 virus encounters during infection. In particular, the HIV-1 Nef protein plays a crucial role in viral invasion and replication. Nef is expressed early during viral infection and interacts with numerous cellular proteins as a scaffold/adaptor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639098/a-head-to-head-comparison-of-xinsorb-bioresorbable-sirolimus-eluting-scaffold-versus-metallic-sirolimus-eluting-stent-180-days-follow-up-in-a-porcine-model
#2
Li Shen, Yizhe Wu, Lei Ge, Yaojun Zhang, Qibing Wang, Juying Qian, Zhifen Qiu, Junbo Ge
We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of XINSORB bioresorbable sirolimus-eluting scaffold in porcine model. XINSORB scaffolds and metallic Firebird2™ stents were randomly implanted into minipigs' coronary arteries. Angiography, optical coherent tomography (OCT) and histopathological analyses were performed at post-procedure and 14-, 28-, 90-, 180-day follow-up. Thirty-two minipigs were enrolled. Eight XINSORB scaffolds and 8 Firebird2 stents were examined at each time point. Quantitative coronary angiography showed that in-scaffold late luminal loss (LLL) of XINSORB scaffold was 0...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638951/isoflurane-and-ketamine-xylazine-differentially-affect-intraocular-pressure-associated-scotopic-threshold-responses-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
Vivian Choh, Akshay Gurdita, Bingyao Tan, Yunwei Feng, Kostadinka Bizheva, Daphne L McCulloch, Karen M Joos
PURPOSE: Amplitudes of electroretinograms (ERG) are enhanced during acute, moderate elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in rats anaesthetised with isoflurane. As anaesthetics alone are known to affect ERG amplitudes, the present study compares the effects of inhalant isoflurane and injected ketamine:xylazine on the scotopic threshold response (STR) in rats with moderate IOP elevation. METHODS: Isoflurane-anaesthetised (n = 9) and ketamine:xylazine-anaesthetised (n = 6) rats underwent acute unilateral IOP elevation using a vascular loop anterior to the equator of the right eye...
June 21, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638222/corticotropin-releasing-factor-stimulates-colonic-motility-via-muscarinic-receptors-in-the-rat
#4
Kyung-Jo Kim, Ki Bae Kim, Soon Man Yoon, Joung-Ho Han, Hee Bok Chae, Seon Mee Park, Sei Jin Youn
AIM: To measure exogenous corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced motility of the isolated rat colon and to demonstrate the effect of pharmacologic inhibition on CRF-induced motility. METHODS: The isolated vascularly-perfused rat colon was used. Luminal pressure was monitored via microtip catheter pressure transducers in the proximal and distal colon. At first, exogenous CRF was administered in a stepwise manner and the concentration of CRF yielding maximal colonic motility was selected...
June 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637960/pacemaker-induced-metallic-artifacts-in-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-clinical-feasibility-of-single-energy-metal-artifact-reduction-technique
#5
Tomoya Takayanagi, Takehiro Arai, Makoto Amanuma, Tomonari Sano, Masato Ichiba, Kazumasa Ishizaka, Takako Sekine, Hideyuki Matsutani, Hitomi Morita, Shinichi Takase
BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with pacemaker suffers from metallic lead-induced artifacts, which often interfere with accurate assessment of coronary luminal stenosis. The purpose of this study was to assess a frequency of the lead-induced artifacts and artifact-suppression effect by the single energy metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) technique. METHODS: Forty-one patients with a dual-chamber pacemaker were evaluated using a 320 multi-detector row CT (MDCT)...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637955/fine-structure-of-human-thoracic-duct-as-revealed-by-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#6
Tomohiro Chiba, Hirokazu Narita, Hiroshi Shimoda
Little information has been available regarding microanatomy of human thoracic duct in spite of the importance for an understanding of pathophysiology in clinical medicine. The present study demonstrated a fine structure of human thoracic duct system by light and scanning electron microscopy. A number of longitudinal or spiral ridges and grooves were formed on luminal surfaces of the lymphangia and lymph sac, it likely facilitating fluent lymph flow. The endothelial cells displayed various cell shapes in compliance with their distributed regions...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637237/long-term-evolutionary-change-in-the-lumen-of-intracranial-atherosclerotic-stenosis-following-angioplasty-and-stenting
#7
Simon C H Yu, Tiffany W W Lau, Simon S M Wong, Kwok T Lee, Lawrence K S Wong, Thomas W H Leung
BACKGROUND: Angioplasty and stenting is a recognized treatment option for patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term evolutionary luminal changes of intracranial atherosclerosis after angioplasty and stenting. METHODS: This was a retrospective study with patient consent. Eighty-two patients presenting with acute and minor cerebral ischemia due to stenosis ≥70%, who had received medical therapy with or without stenting (Wingspan), were invited...
June 14, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636607/three-dimensional-cell-shapes-and-arrangements-in-human-sweat-glands-as-revealed-by-whole-mount-immunostaining
#8
Ryuichiro Kurata, Sugiko Futaki, Itsuko Nakano, Fumitaka Fujita, Atsushi Tanemura, Hiroyuki Murota, Ichiro Katayama, Fumihiro Okada, Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi
Because sweat secretion is facilitated by mechanical contraction of sweat gland structures, understanding their structure-function relationship could lead to more effective treatments for patients with sweat gland disorders such as heat stroke. Conventional histological studies have shown that sweat glands are three-dimensionally coiled tubular structures consisting of ducts and secretory portions, although their detailed structural anatomy remains unclear. To better understand the details of the three-dimensional (3D) coiled structures of sweat glands, a whole-mount staining method was employed to visualize 3D coiled gland structures with sweat gland markers for ductal luminal, ductal basal, secretory luminal, and myoepithelial cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636450/impact-of-mycotoxins-on-the-intestine-are-mucus-and-microbiota-new-targets
#9
Hervé Robert, Delphine Payros, Philippe Pinton, Vassilia Théodorou, Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Isabelle P Oswald
There is an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects attributed to mycotoxins during their fate within the gut, particularly for deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and patulin (PAT). Evidence indicates that disruption of the epithelial barrier is well established. However, intestinal barrier function on its luminal side involves two other partners, mucus and microbiota, which have rarely been considered in the context of mycotoxin exposure...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636192/intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-stem-cell-based-approaches-to-regenerate-the-barrier
#10
REVIEW
Fredrik E O Holmberg, Jannie Pedersen, Peter Jørgensen, Christoffer Soendergaard, Kim B Jensen, Ole H Nielsen
Disruption of normal barrier function is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, which includes increased epithelial cell death, modified mucus configuration, altered expression and distribution of tight junction-proteins, along with a decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with life-long morbidity for affected patients, and both the incidence and prevalence is increasing globally, resulting in substantial economic strain for society...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634010/lamp-1-chimeric-dna-vaccines-enhance-the-antibody-response-in-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#11
Iang Rondón-Barragán, Reiko Nozaki, Ikuo Hirono, Hidehiro Kondo
DNA vaccination is one method to protect farmed fish from viral and bacterial diseases. Chimeric antigens encoded by DNA vaccines have been shown to increase the resistance to viral diseases. Here, we sequenced the gene encoding lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, (JfLAMP-1) and assessed its use in a chimeric DNA vaccine fused with the major capsule protein (MCP) from red seabream iridovirus (RSIV). JfLAMP-1 cDNA has a length of 1248 bp encoding 415 aa, which contains transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains...
June 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633304/molecular-aspects-of-the-biophysical-co2-concentrating-mechanism-and-its-regulation-in-marine-diatoms
#12
Yoshinori Tsuji, Kensuke Nakajima, Yusuke Matsuda
Diatoms operate a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that drives upwards of 20% of annual global primary production. Recent progress in CCM research in the marine pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum revealed that this diatom directly takes up HCO3- from seawater through low-CO2-inducible plasma membrane HCO3- transporters, which belong to the solute carrier (SLC) 4 family. Apart from this, studies of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in diatoms have revealed considerable diversity in classes and localization among species...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633153/association-between-visual-function-and-subretinal-drusenoid-deposits-in-normal-and-early-age-related-macular-degeneration-eyes
#13
David Neely, Anna V Zarubina, Mark E Clark, Carrie E Huisingh, Gregory R Jackson, Yuhua Zhang, Gerald McGwin, Christine A Curcio, Cynthia Owsley
PURPOSE: To examine the association between subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDDs) identified by multimodal retinal imaging and visual function in older eyes with normal macular health or in the earliest phases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Age-related macular degeneration status for each eye was defined according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) 9-step classification system (normal = Step 1, early AMD = Steps 2-4) based on color fundus photographs...
July 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632777/immunohistochemiocal-subtyping-using-ck20-and-ck5-can-identify-urothelial-carcinomas-of-the-upper-urinary-tract-with-a-poor-prognosis
#14
Danijel Sikic, Bastian Keck, Sven Wach, Helge Taubert, Bernd Wullich, Peter J Goebell, Andreas Kahlmeyer, Peter Olbert, Philipp Isfort, Wilhelm Nimphius, Arndt Hartmann, Johannes Giedl
PURPOSE: Genome-wide analyses revealed basal and luminal subtypes of urothelial carcinomas of the bladder. It is unknown if this subtyping can also be applied to upper tract urothelial carcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor samples from 222 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinomas who were treated with radical nephroureterectomy were analyzed for the expression of seven basal/luminal immunohistochemical markers (CK5, EGFR, CD44, CK20, p63, GATA3, FOXA1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632769/combining-omics-and-microscopy-to-visualize-interactions-between-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-vector-and-the-huanglongbing-pathogen-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-in-the-insect-gut
#15
Angela Kruse, Somayeh Fattah-Hosseini, Surya Saha, Richard Johnson, EricaRose Warwick, Kasie Sturgeon, Lukas Mueller, Michael J MacCoss, Robert G Shatters, Michelle Cilia Heck
Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is an economically devastating bacterial disease of citrus. It is associated with infection by the gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). CLas is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). For insect transmission to occur, CLas must be ingested during feeding on infected phloem sap and cross the gut barrier to gain entry into the insect vector. To investigate the effects of CLas exposure at the gut-pathogen interface, we performed RNAseq and mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze the transcriptome and proteome, respectively, of ACP gut tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631622/highly-flexible-ultra-thin-and-transparent-single-layer-graphene-silver-composite-electrodes-for-organic-light-emitting-diodes
#16
Kun Li, Hu Wang, Huiying Li, Ye Li, Guangyong Jin, LanLan Gao, Mazzeo Marco, Yu Duan
Transparent conductive electrode (TCE) platforms are required in many optoelectronic devices, including organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). To date, Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) based electrodes are widely used in TCEs but they still have few limitations in term of achieving flexible OLEDs and display techniques. In this paper, highly-flexible and ultra-thin TCEs were fabricated for use in OLEDs by combining single-layer graphene (SLG) with thin silver layers of only several nanometers in thickness. The as-prepared SLG+Ag (8nm) composite electrodes showed low sheet resistances of 9Ω/sq, high stability over 500 bending cycles, and 74% transmittance at 550nm wavelength...
June 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631264/targeted-use-of-leds-in-improvement-of-production-efficiency-through-phytochemical-enrichment
#17
REVIEW
E Taulavuori, K Taulavuori, J K Holopainen, R Julkunen-Tiitto, C Acar, I Dincer
Based on available literature, ecology and economy of LED (light emitting diode) lights in plant foods production were assessed and compared to HPS (high pressure sodium) and CFL (compact fluorescent light) lamps. The assessment summarises that LEDs are superior compared to other lamp types. LEDs are ideal in luminous efficiency, life span and electricity usage. Mercury, carbon dioxide and heat emissions are also lowest in comparison to HPS and CFL lamps. This indicates that LEDs are indeed economic and eco-friendly lighting devices...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630707/evidence-of-endometrial-amino-acid-metabolism-and-transport-modulation-by-peri-ovulatory-endocrine-profiles-driving-uterine-receptivity
#18
Moana Rodrigues França, Maressa Izabel Santos da Silva, Guilherme Pugliesi, Veerle Van Hoeck, Mario Binelli
BACKGROUND: In beef cattle, changes in the periovulatory endocrine milieu are associated with fertility and conceptus growth. A large preovulatory follicle (POF) and the resulting elevated concentrations of progesterone (P4) during diestrus positively affect pregnancy rates. Amino acids (AA) are important components of maternally derived secretions that are crucial for embryonic survival before implantation. The hypothesis is that the size of the POF and the concentration of P4 in early diestrus modulate the endometrial abundance of SLC transcripts related to AA transport and metabolism and subsequently impact luminal concentrations of AA...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630279/obesity-and-p16-ink4a-down-regulation-activate-breast-adipocytes-and-promote-their-pro-tumorigenicity
#19
Huda H Al-Khalaf, Mrad Amir, Falah Al-Mohanna, Asma Tulbah, Adher Al-Sayed, Abdelilah Aboussekhra
Obesity is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer development. However, the molecular basis of obesity-related breast carcinogenesis remains elusive. In this study, we have shown that obesity reduces the level of the tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) protein in breast adipocytes, which showed active features and strong pro-carcinogenic potential both in vitro and in orthotopic tumor xenografts, as compared to mature adipocytes from lean women. Furthermore, obesity triggered epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast ductal epithelial cells...
June 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630260/cholesterol-auxotrophy-and-intolerance-to-ezetimibe-in-mice-with-srebp-2-deficiency-in-the-intestine
#20
Shunxing Rong, Jeffrey McDonald, Luke Engelking
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) activates transcription of all genes needed for cholesterol biosynthesis. To study SREBP-2 function in intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-BP2(-/-) ) in which Cre recombinase ablates SREBP-2 in intestinal epithelia. Intestines of Vil-BP2(-/-) mice had reduced expression of genes required for sterol synthesis, in vivo sterol synthesis rates, and epithelial cholesterol contents. On a cholesterol-free diet, they displayed chronic enteropathy with histological abnormalities of both villi and crypts, growth restriction, and reduced survival that was prevented by supplementation of cholesterol in the diet...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
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