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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691962/gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-children-primary-care-and-specialist-interface
#1
REVIEW
Valeria Dipasquale, Domenico Corica, Simone M C Gramaglia, Simona Valenti, Claudio Romano
AIMS: Gastrointestinal symptoms and diseases represent one of the major reasons for paediatricians' requests for specialist consultations and hospital admissions. One fourth of annual medical consultations for children younger than 6 years can be attributed to gastrointestinal symptoms. High-quality guidelines have been validated worldwide to provide clinical recommendations and support healthcare providers' practice. Nevertheless, overall compliance to standards of care is unsatisfactory, and children with gastrointestinal symptoms frequently undergo expensive, useless specialist consultations and laboratory evaluations...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691959/the-relationship-between-social-support-treatment-interruption-and-treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-china-a-mixed-methods-study
#2
Jia Yin, Xiaomeng Wang, Lin Zhou, Xiaolin Wei
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been a major threat for successful TB control. We examined the relationship between social support and treatment outcomes in MDR-TB patients and evaluated barriers to social support. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with MDR-TB patients enrolled in the Global Fund program between 1 January 2009 and 30 June 2014 in Zhejiang, China. We reviewed all MDR-TB patients' diagnoses and treatment outcomes. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 community health workers and 10 patients...
April 24, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691955/pharmacist-led-discharge-medication-counselling-a-scoping-review
#3
REVIEW
Aline F Bonetti, Wálleri C Reis, Natália Fracaro Lombardi, Antonio M Mendes, Harli Pasquini Netto, Inajara Rotta, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Roberto Pontarolo
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Discharge medication counselling has produced improved quality of care and health outcomes, especially by reducing medication errors and readmission rates, and improving medication adherence. However, no studies have assembled an evidence-based discharge counselling process for clinical pharmacists. Thus, the present study aims to map the components of the pharmacist-led discharge medication counselling process. METHODS: We performed a scoping review by searching electronic databases (Pubmed, Scopus, and DOAJ) and conducting a manual search to identify studies published up to July 2017...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691950/adapting-evidence-based-clinical-practice-guidelines-at-university-teaching-hospitals-a-model-for-the-eastern-mediterranean-region
#4
Yasser S Amer, Hayfaa A Wahabi, Manal M Abou Elkheir, Ghada A Bawazeer, Shaikh M Iqbal, Maher A Titi, Aishah Ekhzaimy, Khalid A Alswat, Rasmieh A Alzeidan, Lubna A Al-Ansary
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are significant tools for evidence-based health care quality improvement. The CPG program at King Saud University was launched as a quality improvement program to fulfil the international accreditation standards. This program was a collaboration between the Research Chair for Evidence-Based Healthcare and Knowledge Translation and the Quality Management Department. This study aims to develop a fast-track method for adaptation of evidence-based CPGs and describe results of the program...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691943/distinguishable-brain-networks-relate-disease-susceptibility-to-symptom-expression-in-schizophrenia
#5
Zhaowen Liu, Jie Zhang, Kai Zhang, Junying Zhang, Xiaojing Li, Wei Cheng, Mingli Li, Liansheng Zhao, Wei Deng, Wanjun Guo, Xiaohong Ma, Qiang Wang, Paul M Matthews, Jianfeng Feng, Tao Li
Disease association studies have characterized altered resting-state functional connectivities describing schizophrenia, but failed to model symptom expression well. We developed a model that could account for symptom severity and meanwhile relate this to disease-related functional pathology. We correlated BOLD signal across brain regions and tested separately for associations with disease (disease edges) and with symptom severity (symptom edges) in a prediction-based scheme. We then integrated them in an "edge bi-color" graph, and adopted mediation analysis to test for causality between the disease and symptom networks and symptom scores...
April 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691928/circadian-rhythms-refractive-development-and-myopia
#6
Ranjay Chakraborty, Lisa A Ostrin, Debora L Nickla, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue, Richard A Stone
PURPOSE: Despite extensive research, mechanisms regulating postnatal eye growth and those responsible for ametropias are poorly understood. With the marked recent increases in myopia prevalence, robust and biologically-based clinical therapies to normalize refractive development in childhood are needed. Here, we review classic and contemporary literature about how circadian biology might provide clues to develop a framework to improve the understanding of myopia etiology, and possibly lead to rational approaches to ameliorate refractive errors developing in children...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691927/safety-and-efficacy-following-10-years-of-overnight-orthokeratology-for-myopia-control
#7
Takahiro Hiraoka, Yasuo Sekine, Fumiki Okamoto, Toshifumi Mihashi, Tetsuro Oshika
PURPOSE: To compare rates of myopia progression and adverse events between orthokeratology (OK) and soft contact lens (SCL) wearers over a 10-year period in schoolchildren. METHODS: Medical records of consecutive patients (≤16 years of age at baseline) who started OK for myopia correction and continued the treatment for 10 years were retrospectively reviewed. For the control group, patients who started using soft contact lenses (SCLs) for myopia correction and continued to use them for 10 years were also reviewed...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691902/3d-printed-functional-and-biological-materials-on-moving-freeform-surfaces
#8
Zhijie Zhu, Shuang-Zhuang Guo, Tessa Hirdler, Cindy Eide, Xiaoxiao Fan, Jakub Tolar, Michael C McAlpine
Conventional 3D printing technologies typically rely on open-loop, calibrate-then-print operation procedures. An alternative approach is adaptive 3D printing, which is a closed-loop method that combines real-time feedback control and direct ink writing of functional materials in order to fabricate devices on moving freeform surfaces. Here, it is demonstrated that the changes of states in the 3D printing workspace in terms of the geometries and motions of target surfaces can be perceived by an integrated robotic system aided by computer vision...
April 25, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691843/a-systems-approach-to-identify-factors-influencing-adverse-drug-events-in-nursing-homes
#9
Ali Azeez Al-Jumaili, William R Doucette
The objectives of the study were to identify the incidence rate and characteristics of adverse drug events (ADEs) in nursing homes (NHs) using the ADE trigger tool and to evaluate the relationships between resident and facility work system factors and incidence of ADEs using the System Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model. The study used 2 observational quantitative methods, retrospective resident chart extraction, and surveys. The participating staff included Directors of nursing, registered nurses, certified nurse assistants (CNAs)...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691835/rufinamide-add-on-therapy-for-refractory-epilepsy
#10
REVIEW
Mariangela Panebianco, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder). Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell electrical activity in the brain. Despite the development of more than 10 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) since the early 2000s, approximately a third of people with epilepsy remain resistant to pharmacotherapy, often requiring treatment with a combination of AEDs. In this review, we summarised the current evidence regarding rufinamide, a novel anticonvulsant medication, which, as a triazole derivative, is structurally unrelated to any other currently used anticonvulsant medication, when used as an add-on treatment for refractory epilepsy...
April 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691833/commercial-products-for-osteochondral-tissue-repair-and-regeneration
#11
Diana Bicho, Sandra Pina, Rui L Reis, J Miguel Oliveira
The osteochondral tissue represents a complex structure composed of four interconnected structures, namely hyaline cartilage, a thin layer of calcified cartilage, subchondral bone, and cancellous bone. Due to the several difficulties associated with its repair and regeneration, researchers have developed several studies aiming to restore the native tissue, some of which had led to tissue-engineered commercial products. In this sense, this chapter discusses the good manufacturing practices, regulatory medical conditions and challenges on clinical translations that should be fulfilled regarding the safety and efficacy of the new commercialized products...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691829/in-situ-cross-linkable-polymer-systems-and-composites-for-osteochondral-regeneration
#12
María Puertas-Bartolomé, Lorena Benito-Garzón, Marta Olmeda-Lozano
Injectable hydrogels have demonstrated being a promising strategy for cartilage and bone tissue engineering applications, owing to their minimal invasive injection procedure, easy incorporation of cells and bioactive molecules, improved contact with the surrounding tissues and ability to match defects with complex irregular shapes, characteristics of osteoarthritic pathology. These unique properties make them highly suitable bioscaffolds for treating defects which are otherwise not easily accessible without and invasive surgical procedure...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691801/a-brief-history-of-the-opioid-epidemic-and-strategies-for-pain-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Mark R Jones, Omar Viswanath, Jacquelin Peck, Alan D Kaye, Jatinder S Gill, Thomas T Simopoulos
The opioid epidemic has resulted from myriad causes and will not be solved by any simple solution. Consequent to a staggering increase in opioid-related deaths in the USA, various governmental inputs and stakeholder strategies have been proposed and implemented with varying success. This article summarizes the history of opioid use and explores the causes for the present day epidemic. Recent trends in opioid-related data demonstrate an almost fourfold increase in overdose deaths from 1999 to 2008. Tragically, opioids claimed over 64,000 lives just last year...
April 24, 2018: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691797/designing-a-score-based-method-for-the-evaluation-of-the-nutritional-quality-of-the-gluten-free-bakery-products-and-their-gluten-containing-counterparts
#14
Federico Morreale, Donato Angelino, Nicoletta Pellegrini
Gluten-free (GF) products are consumed both by individuals with celiac disease and by an increasing number of people with no specific medical needs. Although the technological quality of GF products has been recently improved, their nutritional quality is still scarcely addressed. Moreover, the few published studies report conflicting results, mostly because the information from product nutrition facts is the only considered factor. The aim of the present study was to develop a score-based method for the nutritional evaluation of 134 packaged Italian GF bakery products and to compare it with that of 162 matched gluten-containing (GC) food items...
April 25, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691788/tissue-identification-in-a-porcine-model-by-differential-ion-mobility-spectrometry-analysis-of-surgical-smoke
#15
Anton Kontunen, Markus Karjalainen, Jukka Lekkala, Antti Roine, Niku Oksala
Electrosurgery is widely used in various surgical operations. When tissue is cut with high-frequency current, the cell contents at the incision area evaporate and together with water and possible soot particles, form surgical smoke. The smoke contains cell metabolites, and therefore, possible biomarkers for cancer or bacterial infection. Thus, the analysis of surgical smoke could be used in intraoperative medical diagnostics. We present a method that can be used to detect the characteristics of various tissue types by means of differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) analysis of surgical smoke...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691787/the-role-of-circle-of-willis-anatomy-variations-in-cardio-embolic-stroke-a-patient-specific-simulation-based-study
#16
Debanjan Mukherjee, Neel D Jani, Jared Narvid, Shawn C Shadden
We describe a patient-specific simulation based investigation on the role of Circle of Willis anatomy in cardioembolic stroke. Our simulation framework consists of medical image-driven modeling of patient anatomy including the Circle, 3D blood flow simulation through patient vasculature, embolus transport modeling using a discrete particle dynamics technique, and a sampling based approach to incorporate parametric variations. A total of 24 (four patients and six Circle anatomies including the complete Circle) models were considered, with cardiogenic emboli of varying sizes and compositions released virtually and tracked to compute distribution to the brain...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691786/mechanical-and-clinical-evaluation-of-a-shape-memory-alloy-and-conventional-struts-in-a-flexible-scoliotic-brace
#17
Wing-Yu Chan, Joanne Yip, Kit-Lun Yick, Sun-Pui Ng, Lu Lu, Kenneth Man-Chee Cheung, Kenny Yat-Hong Kwan, Jason Pui-Yin Cheung, Kelvin Wai-Kwok Yeung, Chi-Yung Tse
Smart materials have attracted considerable attention in the medical field. In particular, shape memory alloys (SMAs) are most commonly utilized for their superelasticity (SE) in orthopaedic treatment. In this study, the resin struts of a flexible brace for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are replaced with different conventional materials and an SMA. The corrective mechanism mainly depends on the compressive force applied by the brace at the desired location. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the materials used and the interface pressure are both critical factors that influence the treatment effectiveness...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691769/long-term-effects-of-chemical-warfare-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-depression-and-chronic-medical-conditions-in-veterans
#18
Hamideh Safi-Aghdam, Mehrzad Shafie, Alireza Khoshdel, Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh, Farhad Avakh, Arash Rahmani
We investigated the association between exposure to chemical warfare and chronic mental/physical conditions. This was a secondary analysis of data from a case-control study on Iranian male veterans. Participants with neuropsychiatric disorders other than depressive/anxiety disorders, anatomical defects, or malignancies were excluded. Compared to non-exposed veterans, exposed veterans demonstrated significantly higher odds of PTSD [OR (95% CI) = 5.23 (1.98-13.85)], hypertension [OR (95% CI) = 5.57 (1.68-18...
April 24, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691768/skin-cancer-following-solid-organ-transplantation-a-review-of-risk-factors-and-models-of-care
#19
REVIEW
Matthew D Howard, John C Su, Alvin H Chong
The number of solid organ transplants has been increasing annually worldwide. Advances in transplantation surgery and community awareness of organ donation have been key contributors. Combined with increased understanding of immunosuppression, there are a growing number of solid organ transplant recipients in the community as a result of improved long-term outcomes. There remains a high incidence of deaths worldwide post-transplant due to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), which has greater morbidity and mortality in this population than in the general community...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691756/prospective-evaluation-of-cardiac-ultrasound-performance-by-general-internal-medicine-physicians-during-a-6-month-faculty-development-curriculum
#20
Christopher J Smith, Abdulrahman Morad, Christopher Balwanz, Elizabeth Lyden, Tabatha Matthias
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POCUS) education is rapidly expanding within medical schools and internal medicine residency programs, but lack of trained faculty is a major barrier. While POCUS training can improve short-term outcomes, knowledge and skills rapidly decay without deliberate practice and feedback. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) by volunteer general internal medicine (GIM) faculty participating in a longitudinal POCUS curriculum...
April 24, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
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