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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813164/pembrolizumab-in-patients-with-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-results-from-the-phase-ib-keynote-028-study
#1
Patrick A Ott, Elena Elez, Sandrine Hiret, Dong-Wan Kim, Anne Morosky, Sanatan Saraf, Bilal Piperdi, Janice M Mehnert
Purpose The safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death 1 (PD-1), were assessed in patients with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-expressing extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) in the multicohort, phase Ib open-label KEYNOTE-028 study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02054806). Methods Patients with SCLC received pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks for 24 months or until disease progression or intolerable toxicity occurred. PD-L1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811995/agreement-between-gamma-passing-rates-using-computed-tomography-in-radiotherapy-and-secondary-cancer-risk-prediction-from-more-advanced-dose-calculated-models
#2
Abdulhamid Chaikh, Jacques Balosso
BACKGROUND: During the past decades, in radiotherapy, the dose distributions were calculated using density correction methods with pencil beam as type 'a' algorithm. The objectives of this study are to assess and evaluate the impact of dose distribution shift on the predicted secondary cancer risk (SCR), using modern advanced dose calculation algorithms, point kernel, as type 'b', which consider change in lateral electrons transport. METHODS: Clinical examples of pediatric cranio-spinal irradiation patients were evaluated...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811522/the-lichen-secondary-metabolite-atranorin-suppresses-lung-cancer-cell-motility-and-tumorigenesis
#3
Rui Zhou, Yi Yang, So-Yeon Park, Thanh Thi Nguyen, Young-Woo Seo, Kyung Hwa Lee, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kyung Keun Kim, Jae-Seoun Hur, Hangun Kim
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that produce various secondary metabolites. Here, different lichen extracts were examined to identify secondary metabolites with anti-migratory activity against human lung cancer cells. Everniastrum vexans had the most potent inhibitory activity, and atranorin was identified as an active subcomponent of this extract. Atranorin suppressed β-catenin-mediated TOPFLASH activity by inhibiting the nuclear import of β-catenin and downregulating β-catenin/LEF and c-jun/AP-1 downstream target genes such as CD44, cyclin-D1 and c-myc...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810186/the-efficacy-of-lapatinib-and-capecitabine-in-her-2-positive-breast-cancer-with-brain-metastases-a-systematic-review-and-pooled-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Fausto Petrelli, Michele Ghidini, Veronica Lonati, Gianluca Tomasello, Karen Borgonovo, Mara Ghilardi, Mary Cabiddu, Sandro Barni
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer (BC) with HER-2/neu overexpression or amplification (HER-2+) is associated with a higher prevalence of brain metastases (BMs) when compared to other subtypes. Among approved drugs for HER-2+ BC, lapatinib (L) is associated with single agent activity toward BMs. We conducted a systematic review to determine the efficacy of L, singly or in combination with capecitabine (C), as a treatment for HER-2+ BMs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810153/evaluation-of-affibody-molecule-based-pna-mediated-radionuclide-pretargeting-development-of-an-optimized-conjugation-protocol-and-177-lu-labeling
#5
Mohamed Altai, Kristina Westerlund, Justin Velletta, Bogdan Mitran, Hadis Honarvar, Amelie Eriksson Karlström
INTRODUCTION: We have previously developed a pretargeting approach for affibody-mediated cancer therapy based on PNA-PNA hybridization. In this article we have further developed this approach by optimizing the production of the primary agent, ZHER2:342-SR-HP1, and labeling the secondary agent, HP2, with the therapeutic radionuclide (177)Lu. We also studied the biodistribution profile of (177)Lu-HP2 in mice, and evaluated pretargeting with (177)Lu-HP2 in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The biodistribution profile of (177)Lu-HP2 was evaluated in NMRI mice and compared to the previously studied (111)In-HP2...
July 12, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809761/the-t-12-21-p13-q22-in-pediatric-b-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-an-update
#6
Maximilian Becker, Kristie Liu, Carlos A Tirado
Pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is the most common hematological malignancy in children, and the t(12;21)(p13;q22) occurs in approximately 25% of these cases, making it is the most prevalent chromosomal abnormality. The t(12;21) which disrupts hematopoietic differentiation and proliferation, and can be present as a sole abnormality or within the context of a complex karyotype characterized by three or more chromosomal abnormalities. The prognosis of t(12;21) within a complex karyotype is extensively debated...
2017: Journal of the Association of Genetic Technologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809610/phase-iii-study-comparing-a-reduced-dose-of-cabazitaxel-20-mg-m-2-and-the-currently-approved-dose-25-mg-m-2-in-postdocetaxel-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-proselica
#7
Mario Eisenberger, Anne-Claire Hardy-Bessard, Choung Soo Kim, Lajos Géczi, Daniel Ford, Loïc Mourey, Joan Carles, Phillip Parente, Albert Font, Gabriel Kacso, Mustapha Chadjaa, Wenping Zhang, John Bernard, Johann de Bono
Purpose Cabazitaxel 25 mg/m(2) (C25) significantly improved overall survival (OS) versus mitoxantrone ( P < .001) in postdocetaxel patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the phase III TROPIC study. The phase III PROSELICA study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01308580) assessed the noninferiority of cabazitaxel 20 mg/m(2) (C20) versus C25 in postdocetaxel patients with mCRPC. Methods Patients were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, measurability of disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and region, and randomly assigned to receive C20 or C25...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808383/chemopreventive-potential-of-major-flavonoid-compound-of-methanolic-bark-extract-of-saraca-asoca-roxb-in-benzene-induced-toxicity-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-mice
#8
Manas Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Mithun Shaw, Debjani Nath
BACKGROUND: Saraca asoca (SA) (Roxb.) is one of the folk medicinal plants found in India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Its major biological activity appears due to the presence of flavonoid group of compounds in its bark extract. OBJECTIVE: In this study, our research aims to analyze the chemopreventive effect of flavonoids, especially a natural phenol catechin present in the bark methanolic extract of SA on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The total bark extract was partitioned and analyzed on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807701/late-life-suicide-in-terminal-cancer-a-rational-act-or-under-diagnosed-depression
#9
Gary Cheung, Gwendolyn Douwes, Frederick Sundram
CONTEXT: Previous studies have reported significantly elevated standardised mortality rates in older people with cancer. Terminally ill people represent a unique group where suicide may be considered as rational. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to (i) compare the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of older people with and without terminal cancer who died by suicide, and (ii) analyze the suicide motives of those with terminal cancer to determine whether they represent rational suicide...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807562/targeting-signal-transducers-and-activators-of-transcription-stat-in-human-cancer-by-dietary-polyphenolic-antioxidants
#10
REVIEW
Hamed Amani, Marjan Ajami, Solmaz Nasseri Maleki, Hamidreza Pazoki-Toroudi, Maria Daglia, Arold Jorel Tsetegho Sokeng, Arianna Di Lorenzo, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Kasi Pandima Devi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Over the course of the last three decades, a large body of evidence has shown that polyphenols, the secondary metabolites occurring in plant foods and beverages, exert protective effects due to their antioxidant activity mediated through different mechanisms ranging from direct radical scavenging and metal chelating activities, to the capacity to inhibit pro-oxidant enzymes and to target specific cell-signalling pathways. In the last decade, dietary components, and polyphenols in particular have gained considerable attention as chemopreventive agents against different types of cancer...
August 11, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807234/third-generation-egfr-tkis-in-egfr-mutated-nsclc-where-are-we-now-and-where-are-we-going
#11
REVIEW
A Russo, T Franchina, G R R Ricciardi, V Smiroldo, M Picciotto, M Zanghì, C Rolfo, V Adamo
The therapeutic landscape of Non Small Lung Cancer (NSCLC) has been profoundly changed over the last decade with the clinical introduction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and the discovery of EGFR activating mutations as the major predictive factor to these agents. Despite impressive clinical activity against EGFR-mutated NSCLCs, the benefit seen with 1st and 2nd generation EGFR TKIs is usually transient and virtually all patients become resistant. Several different mechanisms of acquired resistance have been reported to date, but the vast majority of patients develop a secondary exon 20 mutation in the ATP-binding site of EGFR, namely T790M...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807066/laser-assisted-management-of-a-symptomatic-anterior-pharyngeal-diverticulum
#12
K Pujary, A C Agarwal, R Balakrishnan, A Bhandarkar
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is a relatively common symptom following laryngectomy. An anterior pharyngeal diverticulum is a rare cause of post-laryngectomy dysphagia. However, it is often an incidental finding on rigid telescopic examination. METHODS AND RESULTS: This article describes two patients with a symptomatic anterior pharyngeal diverticulum. They were treated by transoral micro-endoscopic potassium titanyl phosphate 532 nm laser assisted resection. Both patients could take feeds orally after the procedure without any difficulty...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806822/-multiple-myeloma-current-status-in-diagnostic-testing-and-therapy
#13
Michael Kehrer, Sebastian Koob, Andreas Strauss, Dieter Christian Wirtz, Jan Schmolders
Background Multiple myeloma is a haematological blood cancer of the bone marrow and is classified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a plasma cell neoplasm. In multiple myeloma, normal plasma cells transform into malignant myeloma cells and produce large quantities of an abnormal immunoglobulin called monoclonal protein or M protein. This ultimately causes multiple myeloma symptoms such as bone damage or kidney problems. The annual worldwide incidence of multiple myeloma is estimated to be 6 - 7/100,000 and accounts for 1% of all cancer...
August 14, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806777/a-synthetic-sickness-screen-for-senescence-re-engagement-targets-in-mutant-cancer-backgrounds
#14
Claire J Cairney, Lauren S Godwin, Alan E Bilsland, Sharon Burns, Katrina H Stevenson, Lynn McGarry, John Revie, Jon D Moore, Ceri M Wiggins, Rebecca S Collinson, Clare Mudd, Elpida Tsonou, Mahito Sadaie, Dorothy C Bennett, Masashi Narita, Christopher J Torrance, W Nicol Keith
Senescence is a universal barrier to immortalisation and tumorigenesis. As such, interest in the use of senescence-induction in a therapeutic context has been gaining momentum in the past few years; however, senescence and immortalisation remain underserved areas for drug discovery owing to a lack of robust senescence inducing agents and an incomplete understanding of the signalling events underlying this complex process. In order to address this issue we undertook a large-scale morphological siRNA screen for inducers of senescence phenotypes in the human melanoma cell line A375P...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806753/accelerometer-derived-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-by-cancer-type-in-the-united-states
#15
Keith M Thraen-Borowski, Keith P Gennuso, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram
The 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were among the first population-level studies to incorporate objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior, allowing for greater understanding of these behaviors. However, there has yet to be a comprehensive examination of these data in cancer survivors, including short- and long-term survivors of all cancer types. Therefore, the purpose of this analysis was to use these data to describe activity behaviors in short- and long-term cancer survivors of various types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806117/postdiagnosis-statin-use-and-mortality-in-danish-patients-with-prostate-cancer
#16
Signe Benzon Larsen, Christian Dehlendorff, Charlotte Skriver, Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton, Christina Gade Jespersen, Michael Borre, Klaus Brasso, Mette Nørgaard, Christoffer Johansen, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Jesper Hallas, Søren Friis
Purpose Increasing evidence indicates that statin use may reduce mortality from prostate cancer. In this work, we examined whether postdiagnosis statin use was associated with reduced cancer-specific mortality or all-cause mortality among patients with prostate cancer in Denmark. Material and Methods From nationwide Danish registries, we identified all patients with incident prostate adenocarcinoma from 1998 to 2011 and retrieved data on tumor and patient characteristics, drug use, and primary treatment. We defined postdiagnosis use (two or more prescriptions) of statins as a time-varying covariate with 1-year lag...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805667/the-effect-of-a-standardized-ginger-extract-on-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-undergoing-moderately-or-highly-emetogenic-chemotherapy-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
Wolfgang Marx, Alexandra L McCarthy, Karin Ried, Dan McKavanagh, Luis Vitetta, Avni Sali, Anna Lohning, Elisabeth Isenring
Ginger supplementation could be an effective adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN). The aim of this clinical trial was to address significant methodological limitations in previous trials. Patients (N = 51) were randomly allocated to receive either 1.2 g of standardised ginger extract or placebo per day, in addition to standard anti-emetic therapy, during the first three cycles of chemotherapy. The primary outcome was CIN-related quality of life (QoL) measured with the Functional Living Index- Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire...
August 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805496/natural-antisense-transcripts-drive-a-regulatory-cascade-controlling-c-myc-transcription
#18
Sara Napoli, Valentina Piccinelli, Sarah Mapelli, Giuseppina Pisignano, Carlo V Catapano
Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are long noncoding RNAs transcribed from the opposite strand and overlapping coding and noncoding genes on the sense strand. cis-NATs are widely present in the human genome and can be involved in multiple mechanisms of gene regulation. Here, we describe the presence of cis-NATs in the 3' distal region of the c-MYC locus and investigate their impact on transcriptional regulation of this key oncogene in human cancers. We found that cis-NATs are produced as consequence of the activation of cryptic transcription initiation sites in the 3' distal region downstream of the c-MYC 3'UTR...
August 14, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804945/nanoscale-metal-organic-layers-for-deeply-penetrating-x-ray-induced-photodynamic-therapy
#19
Guangxu Lan, Kaiyuan Ni, Ruoyu Xu, Kuangda Lu, Zekai Lin, Christina Chan, Wenbin Lin
We report the rational design of metal-organic layers (MOLs) that are built from [Hf6O4(OH)4(HCO2)6] secondary building units (SBUs) and Ir[bpy(ppy)2]+- or Ru(bpy)32+-derived tricarboxylate ligands (Hf-BPY-Ir or Hf-BPY-Ru; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, ppy = 2-phenyl-pyridine) and their applications in deeply penetrating X-ray induced photodynamic therapy (X-PDT) of colon cancer. Heavy Hf atoms in the SBUs efficiently absorb X-rays and transfer energy to Ir[bpy(ppy)2]+ or Ru(bpy)32+ moieties to induce PDT by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
August 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804801/pancreatic-enzyme-supplementation-after-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Marco Catarci, Manuele Berlanda, Giovanni Battista Grassi, Francesco Masedu, Stefano Guadagni
BACKGROUND: Gastrectomy for gastric cancer is a significant cause of secondary exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy may influence nutritional status and quality of life after gastrectomy, but the pertinent clinical research to date remains controversial. A randomized controlled trial to test this hypothesis was carried out. METHODS: After gastrectomy, 43 patients with gastric cancer were randomly assigned to a normal diet (Normal-d; n = 21) or to a pancreatic enzyme supplementation diet (PES-d; n = 22) and were followed up during a 12-month period, assessing nutritional status and quality of life through body mass index (BMI), instant nutritional assessment (INA) class status, serum pre-albumin (SPA) values, and GastroiIntestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI)...
August 14, 2017: Gastric Cancer
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