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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775808/phase-ii-study-of-maintenance-pembrolizumab-in-patients-with-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-sclc
#1
Shirish M Gadgeel, Nathan A Pennell, Mary Jo Fidler, Balazs Halmos, Philip Bonomi, James Stevenson, Bryan Schneider, Ammar Sukari, Jaclyn Ventimiglia, Wei Chen, Cathy Galasso, Antoinette Wozniak, Julie Boerner, Gregory P Kalemkerian
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of maintenance pembrolizumab in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, after treatment with platinum/etoposide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Extensive-stage SCLC patients with a response or stable disease following induction chemotherapy were eligible. Pembrolizumab at a dose of 200 mg IV every 3 weeks was initiated within 8 weeks of the last cycle of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of the study was progression-free survival (PFS) from study registration, with overall survival (OS) as a key secondary endpoint...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775807/fir-efficacy-safety-and-biomarker-analysis-of-a-phase-ii-open-label-study-of-atezolizumab-in-pd-l1-selected-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
David R Spigel, Jamie E Chaft, Scott Gettinger, Bo H Chao, Luc Dirix, Peter Schmid, Laura Q M Chow, Rodney J Hicks, Larry Leon, Jill Fredrickson, Marcin Kowanetz, Alan Sandler, Roel Funke, Naiyer A Rizvi
INTRODUCTION: The FIR phase II study (NCT01846416) evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) atezolizumab in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) selected by tumor cell (TC) or tumor-infiltrating immune cell (IC) PD-L1 expression. METHODS: Patients with PD-L1 TC2/3 (PD-L1 staining on ≥5% of TC) or IC2/3 tumors (PD-L1 staining on ≥5% of IC; determined by SP142 PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assay) with paired fresh and archival histology samples were recruited into Cohort 1 (chemotherapy-naïve/>6 months between adjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence), Cohort 2 (≥ second-line without brain metastases), or Cohort 3 (≥ second-line with treated brain metastases)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775456/maternal-obesogenic-diet-induces-endometrial-hyperplasia-an-early-hallmark-of-endometrial-cancer-in-a-diethylstilbestrol-mouse-model
#3
Theresa O Owuor, Michaela Reid, Lauren Reschke, Ian Hagemann, Suellen Greco, Zeel Modi, Kelle H Moley
Thirty-eight percent of US adult women are obese, meaning that more children are now born of overweight and obese mothers, leading to an increase in predisposition to several adult onset diseases. To explore this phenomenon, we developed a maternal obesity animal model by feeding mice a diet composed of high fat/ high sugar (HF/HS) and assessed both maternal diet and offspring diet on the development of endometrial cancer (ECa). We show that maternal diet by itself did not lead to ECa initiation in wildtype offspring of the C57Bl/6J mouse strain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774608/virion-like-membrane-breaking-nanoparticles-with-tumor-activated-cell-and-tissue-dual-penetration-conquer-impermeable-cancer
#4
Xiao Zhang, Xianghui Xu, Yachao Li, Cheng Hu, Zhijun Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
Poor drug penetration into tumor cells and tissues is a worldwide difficulty in cancer therapy. A strategy is developed for virion-like membrane-breaking nanoparticles (MBNs) to smoothly accomplish tumor-activated cell-and-tissue dual-penetration for surmounting impermeable drug-resistant cancer. Tailor-made dendritic arginine-rich peptide prodrugs are designed to mimic viral protein transduction domains and globular protein architectures. Attractively, these protein mimics self-assemble into virion-like nanoparticles in aqueous solution, having highly ordered secondary structure...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774117/investigation-of-tumor-tumor-interactions-in-a-double-human-cervical-carcinoma-xenograft-model-in-nude-mice
#5
Barbara Mertens, Tatiane Cristina de Araujo Nogueira, Dimitrios Topalis, Ruzena Stranska, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei
Tumor-tumor distant interactions within one organism are of major clinical relevance determining clinical outcome. To investigate this poorly understood phenomenon, a double human cervical xenograft model in nude mice was developed. A first tumor was induced subcutaneously by injection of human papillomavirus positive cervical carcinoma cells into the mouse lower right flank and 3 weeks later, animals were challenged with the same tumor cell line injected subcutaneously into the upper left flank. These tumors had no direct physical contact and we found no systemic changes induced by the primary tumor affecting the growth of a secondary tumor...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774114/breast-cancer-and-cervical-cancer-prevention-programmes-carried-out-by-local-government-units-in-poland-in-2009-2014
#6
Anna Augustynowicz, Aleksandra Czerw, Mariola Borowska, Adam Fronczak, Andrzej Deptała
Background: In 2014 the standardised incidence rate for breast cancer in Poland reached 51.6/100,000, while the mortality rate reached 14.8/100,000. The incidence rate for breast cancer in the EU was 106.6/100,000, the mortality rate - 22.4/100,000. In 2014 the incidence rate for cervical cancer in Poland was 8.8/100,000, the mortality rate - 4.5/100,000. The incidence rate in the EU was 11.3/100,000 and the mortality rate - 3.7/100,000. Objective: The aim of the paper was to establish the number of health policy programmes concerned with breast cancer and cervical cancer in women carried out in 2009-2014 by local government units, with specification of the type of programme, type of local government units that carried out the programmes and the costs of implementation of the programmes...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774063/dual-target-gene-therapy-to-eml4-alk-nsclc-by-a-gold-nanoshell-based-system
#7
Siwen Li, Yuxi Liu, Yalan Rui, Liping Tang, Samuel Achilefu, Yueqing Gu
Although EML4-ALK transforming fusion gene is represented in only 8% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, its expression is partly responsive for the failure of current NSCLC treatments. Preventing secondary mutation of the ALK protein through direct gene manipulation could overcome NSCLC drug resistance. Method: In this study, we developed a gold nanoshell (HAuNs) drug carrier for delivery and selective photo-thermal release of genes that target ALK and microRNA-301 in NSCLC. Additionally, the densely-coated nanoshell adsorbed high amounts of the positively-charged anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), generating an exciting multidimensional treatment strategy that includes gene-, thermal- and chemo- therapy...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773570/hdna2-nuclease-helicase-promotes-centromeric-dna-replication-and-genome-stability
#8
Zhengke Li, Bochao Liu, Weiwei Jin, Xiwei Wu, Mian Zhou, Vincent Wenzhe Liu, Ajay Goel, Zhiyuan Shen, Li Zheng, Binghui Shen
DNA2 is a nuclease/helicase that is involved in Okazaki fragment maturation, replication fork processing, and end resection of DNA double-strand breaks. Similar such helicase activity for resolving secondary structures and structure-specific nuclease activity are needed during DNA replication to process the chromosome-specific higher order repeat units present in the centromeres of human chromosomes. Here, we show that DNA2 binds preferentially to centromeric DNA The nuclease and helicase activities of DNA2 are both essential for resolution of DNA structural obstacles to facilitate DNA replication fork movement...
May 17, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772645/anticancer-activity-of-euplotin-c-isolated-from-the-marine-ciliate-euplotes-crassus-against-human-melanoma-cells
#9
Sara Carpi, Beatrice Polini, Giulio Poli, Gabriela Alcantara Barata, Stefano Fogli, Antonella Romanini, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Graziano Guella, Francesco Paolo Frontini, Paola Nieri, Graziano Di Giuseppe
Cutaneous melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer, so new cytotoxic weapons against novel targets in melanoma are of great interest. Euplotin C (EC), a cytotoxic secondary metabolite of the marine ciliate Euplotes crassus , was evaluated in the present study on human cutaneous melanoma cells to explore its anti-melanoma activity and to gain more insight into its mechanism of action. EC exerted a marked cytotoxic effect against three different human melanoma cell lines (A375, 501Mel and MeWo) with a potency about 30-fold higher than that observed in non-cancer cells (HDFa cells)...
May 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772118/proms-for-pain-in-adult-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review-of-measurement-properties
#10
REVIEW
Asma A Abahussin, Robert M West, David C Wong, Lucy E Ziegler
CONTEXT: Pain is one of the most devastating symptoms for cancer patients. One-third of patients who experience pain do not receive effective treatment. A key barrier to effective pain management is lack of routine measurement and monitoring of pain. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) are recommended for measuring cancer pain. However, evidence to guide the selection of the most appropriate measure to identify and monitor cancer pain is limited. A systematic review of measurement properties of PROMs for pain in cancer patients is needed to identify the best validated measure for adoption to an electronic platform...
May 17, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772085/ligand-induced-conformational-changes-in-hsp90-monitored-time-resolved-and-label-free-towards-a-conformational-activity-screening-for-drug-discovery
#11
Jörn Güldenhaupt, Marta Amaral, Carsten Kötting, Djordje Musil, Jonas Schartner, Matthias Frech, Klaus Gerwert
A detailed investigation of protein-ligand interactions is crucial during the early drug discovery process. However, most available techniques lack either structural or temporal resolution. In contrast, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy can monitor protein-ligand interactions label-free with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here we immobilize as example the heat shock protein HSP90 on an ATR-crystal. This protein is an important molecular target for drugs against several diseases including cancer. With our novel approach we investigated a ligand induced secondary structural change...
May 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771903/incidence-demographics-and-surgical-outcomes-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-diagnosed-in-northland-new-zealand
#12
Brodie M Elliott, Benjamin R Douglass, Daniel McConnell, Blair Johnson, Christopher Harmston
AIM: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most commonly diagnosed and most costly cancer in Australasia. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) accounts for approximately 25% of NMSC. Despite this, reporting of cSCC is not mandatory in Australasia. This creates difficulties in planning, resourcing and improving outcomes in cSCC. Previous studies in New Zealand have lacked data on ethnicity. The aim of this study was to define the incidence and demographics of cSCC diagnosed in Northland, New Zealand, including data on ethnicity...
May 18, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771723/comparing-short-term-and-oncologic-outcomes-of-minimally-invasive-versus-open-pancreaticoduodenectomy-across-low-and-high-volume-centers
#13
Robert J Torphy, Chloe Friedman, Alison Halpern, Brandon C Chapman, Steven S Ahrendt, Martin M McCarter, Barish H Edil, Richard D Schulick, Ana Gleisner
OBJECTIVE: To compare short-term and oncologic outcomes of patients with cancer who underwent open pancreaticoduodenectomy (OPD) versus minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) using the National Cancer Database. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: MIPD, including laparoscopic and robotic approaches, has continued to gain acceptance despite prior reports of increased short-term mortality when compared with OPD. METHODS: Patients with pancreatic cancer diagnosed from 2010 to 2015 undergoing curative intent resection were selected from the National Cancer Database...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771621/tissue-preservation-with-mass-spectroscopic-analysis-implications-for-cancer-diagnostics
#14
O Morgan Hall, Cody J Peer, William D Figg
Surgical intervention is a common treatment modality for localized cancer. Post-operative analysis involves evaluation of surgical margins to assess whether all malignant tissue has been resected because positive surgical margins lead to a greater likelihood of recurrence. Secondary treatments are utilized to minimize the negative effects of positive surgical margins. Recently, in Science Translational Medicine, Zhang et al describe a new mass spectroscopic technique that could potentially decrease the likelihood of positive surgical margins...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770553/pilot-randomized-trial-of-a-volitional-help-sheet-based-tool-to-increase-leisure-time-physical-activity-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#15
Janine Chapman, Chloe Fletcher, Ingrid Flight, Carlene Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To develop and test a volitional help sheet-based tool to improve physical activity in breast cancer survivors compared to a standard self-generated implementation intention intervention. DESIGN: Pilot randomized trial conducted online over 3 months. METHODS: Participants were randomized to an online volitional help sheet (n = 50) or implementation intention (n = 51) intervention. Measures were taken at baseline, 1 and 3 months...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770171/risk-of-gastric-cancer-development-after-eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori
#16
REVIEW
Ka-Shing Cheung, Wai K Leung
Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection is the most important risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development through the Correa's gastric carcinogenesis cascade. However, H. pylori eradication alone does not eliminate GC, as pre-neoplastic lesions (atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia) may have already developed in some patients. It is therefore necessary to identify patients at high-risk for gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication to streamline the management plan. If the patients have not undergone endoscopy with histologic assessment, the identification of certain clinical risk factors and non-invasive testing (serum pepsinogen) can predict the risk of atrophic gastritis...
May 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770168/blood-and-tissue-enzymatic-activities-of-gdh-and-ldh-index-of-glutathione-and-oxidative-stress-among-breast-cancer-patients-attending-referral-hospitals-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia-hospital-based-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#17
Mohammed Mehdi, M K C Menon, Nebiyou Seyoum, Mahteme Bekele, Wondimagegn Tigeneh, Daniel Seifu
The exact cause of breast cancer is unknown; it is a multifactorial disease. It is the most diagnosed and the second killer cancer among women. Breast cancer can be originated from tissues of breast or secondary from other organs via metastasis. Generally, cancer cells show aberrant metabolism and oxidative stress when compared to noncancerous tissues of breast cancer patients. The current study aims at evaluating glutamate and glucose metabolism through GDH and LDH enzyme activities, oxidant, and antioxidative status among breast cancer patients attending referral hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769382/personalized-symptom-goals-and-patient-global-impression-on-clinical-changes-in-advanced-cancer-patients
#18
Sebastiano Mercadante, Claudio Adile, Gaetano Lanzetta, Kyriaki Mystakidou, Marco Maltoni, Luiz Guilherme Soares, Stefano De Santis, Patrizia Ferrera, Marco Valenti, Marta Rosati, Romina Rossi, Andrea Cortegiani, Francesco Masedu, Franco Marinangeli, Federica Aielli
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the patients' global impression (PGI) after symptom management, as well as the achievement of personalized symptom goals (PSG). The secondary outcome was to assess related factors. Subjects, Materials, and Methods . Advanced cancer patients admitted to palliative care units rated symptom intensity by using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Score (ESAS) at admission and then after 1 week. For each symptom, patient-reported PGI and PSG, as well as the rate of PSG response, were evaluated...
May 16, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769208/infusion-of-alloanergized-donor-lymphocytes-after-cd34-selected-haploidentical-myeloablative-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Jeff K Davies, Lisa L Brennan, John Wingard, Christopher R Cogle, Neena Kapoor, Ami J Shah, Bimalangshu R Dey, Thomas R Spitzer, Marcos De Lima, Laurence Jn Cooper, Peter Thall, Richard E Champlin, Lee M Nadler, Eva C Guinan
PURPOSE: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for many haematologic cancers. Use of haploidentical (mismatched) donors increases HSCT availability but is limited by severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and delayed immune reconstitution. Alloanergization of donor T-cells is a simple approach to rebuild immunity whilst limiting GvHD after haploidentical HSCT but the optimal T-cell dose and impact on immune reconstitution remain unknown.  Experimental Design: We performed a multicentre Phase 1 trial of alloanergized donor lymphocyte infusion (aDLI) after CD34-selected myeloablative haploidentical HSCT...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769170/design-and-rationale-for-a-parent-led-intervention-to-increase-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-in-young-childhood-cancer-survivors-reboot-protocol-for-a-pilot-study
#20
Lauren Touyz, Jennifer Cohen, Claire Wakefield, Allison Grech, Sarah Garnett, Paayal Gohil, Richard Cohn
BACKGROUND: Poor dietary habits are common among childhood cancer survivors, despite increasing their risk of cardio metabolic complications after cancer treatment. Here, we describe the design and rationale for a pilot telephone-based, parent-led intervention aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable intake in young cancer survivors (Reboot). OBJECTIVE: This pilot study aims to assess the feasibility and acceptability of delivering evidence-based telephone support to parents of childhood cancer survivors...
May 16, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
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