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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333688/treatment-planning-of-intensity-modulated-composite-particle-therapy-with-dose-and-linear-energy-transfer-optimization
#1
Taku Inaniwa, Nobuyuki Kanematsu, Koji Noda, Tadashi Kamada
The biological effect of charged-particle beams depends on both dose and radiation quality. The radiation quality of charged-particle beams has been most commonly represented by the linear energy transfer (LET) in radiation biology studies. We investigated a new therapeutic technique using two or more ion species in one treatment session, which we call an Intensity Modulated composite PArtiCle Therapy (IMPACT), for optimizing the physical dose and dose-averaged LET distributions in a patient as its proof of principle...
March 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332994/predicting-patient-specific-dosimetric-benefits-of-proton-therapy-for-skull-base-tumors-using-a-geometric-knowledge-based-method
#2
David C Hall, Alexei V Trofimov, Brian A Winey, Norbert J Liebsch, Harald Paganetti
PURPOSE: To predict the organ at risk (OAR) dose levels achievable with proton beam therapy (PBT), solely based on the geometric arrangement of the target volume in relation to the OARs. A comparison with an alternative therapy yields a prediction of the patient-specific benefits offered by PBT. This could enable physicians at hospitals without proton capabilities to make a better-informed referral decision or aid patient selection in model-based clinical trials. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Skull-base tumors were chosen to test the method, owing to their geometric complexity and multitude of nearby OARs...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331947/-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-brain-tumors
#3
P Ditter, E Hattingen
BACKGROUND: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under consideration of clinical information enables the correct diagnosis and therapy for the majority of cerebral space-occupying lesions. Some important differential diagnoses, e. g. low vs. high-grade tumors, require additional MRI methods. OBJECTIVE: This article critically discusses the importance of magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in brain tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The concentration of normal and pathological brain metabolites can be non-invasively measured by (1)H-MRS...
March 22, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328150/yolk-shell-nanostructure-an-ideal-architecture-to-achieve-harmonious-integration-of-magnetic-plasmonic-hybrid-theranostic-platform
#4
Li-Sen Lin, Xiangyu Yang, Zijian Zhou, Zhen Yang, Orit Jacobson, Yijing Liu, Angela Yang, Gang Niu, Jibin Song, Huang-Hao Yang, Xiaoyuan Chen
Magnetic-plasmonic hybrid nanoparticles (MPHNs) have attracted great interest in cancer theranostics. However, the relaxivity of the magnetic component is typically reduced by the plasmonic component in conventional core-shell structured MPHNs, due to the presence of a water-impenetrable coating which severely restricts the proximity of protons to the magnetic portion. To circumvent this issue, yolk-shell structured MPHNs comprising a Fe3 O4 core within a hollow cavity encircled by a porous Au outer shell are designed...
March 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327577/metabolic-profiling-of-idh-mutation-and-malignant-progression-in-infiltrating-glioma
#5
Llewellyn E Jalbert, Adam Elkhaled, Joanna J Phillips, Evan Neill, Aurelia Williams, Jason C Crane, Marram P Olson, Annette M Molinaro, Mitchel S Berger, John Kurhanewicz, Sabrina M Ronen, Susan M Chang, Sarah J Nelson
Infiltrating low grade gliomas (LGGs) are heterogeneous in their behavior and the strategies used for clinical management are highly variable. A key factor in clinical decision-making is that patients with mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) oncogenes are more likely to have a favorable outcome and be sensitive to treatment. Because of their relatively long overall median survival, more aggressive treatments are typically reserved for patients that have undergone malignant progression (MP) to an anaplastic glioma or secondary glioblastoma (GBM)...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326569/the-dynamics-of-the-oesophageal-squamous-epithelium-normalisation-process-in-patients-with-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-disease-treated-with-long-term-acid-suppression-or-anti-reflux-surgery
#6
L Mastracci, R Fiocca, C Engström, S Attwood, C Ell, J P Galmiche, J G Hatlebakk, G Långström, S Eklund, T Lind, L Lundell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors and laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery (LARS) offer long-term symptom control to patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To evaluate the process of 'normalisation' of the squamous epithelium morphology of the distal oesophagus on these therapies. METHODS: In the LOTUS trial, 554 patients with chronic GERD were randomised to receive either esomeprazole (20-40 mg daily) or LARS. After 5 years, 372 patients remained in the study (esomeprazole, 192; LARS, 180)...
March 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323552/helicobacter-pylori-eradication-in-the-swedish-population
#7
Eva Doorakkers, Jesper Lagergren, Vijaya Krishna Gajulapuri, Steven Callens, Lars Engstrand, Nele Brusselaers
OBJECTIVES: Helicobacter pylori is associated with peptic ulcers and gastric cancer and its eradication aims to prevent these conditions. The recommended eradication regimen is triple therapy, consisting of a proton-pump inhibitor in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole for 7 days. Yet, other antibiotic regimens are sometimes prescribed. We aimed to assess the use of eradication therapy for H. pylori in the Swedish population during the last decade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population-based study used data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register...
March 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323405/oxygen-vacancy-enables-markedly-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-photothermal-therapy-of-a-gd-3-doped-contrast-agent
#8
Dalong Ni, Jiawen Zhang, Jing Wang, Ping Hu, Yingying Jin, Zhongmin Tang, Zhenwei Yao, Wenbo Bu, Jianlin Shi
Gd(3+)-based contrast agents (CAs) are the most prevailing and widely used for enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Numbers of approaches have been developed to regulate the key parameters in order to obtain high-relaxivity CAs, according to the classic Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgen theory. Herein, a method of controlling oxygen vacancies in inorganic nanosized CAs has been developed for largely accelerated proton relaxation to obtain a high r1 value. Such a strategy is verified on oxygen-deficient PEG-NaxGdWO3 nanorods, which exhibit a remarkable r1 value up to 80 mM(-1) s(-1) (at 0...
March 23, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321635/relative-biological-effectiveness-in-a-proton-spread-out-bragg-peak-formed-by-pencil-beam-scanning-mode
#9
Anna Michaelidesová, Jana Vachelová, Monika Puchalska, Kateřina Pachnerová Brabcová, Vladimír Vondráček, Lembit Sihver, Marie Davídková
In recent years, there is an increased interest in using scanning modes in proton therapy, due to the more conformal dose distributions, thanks to the spot-weighted dose delivery. The dose rate in each spot is however much higher than the dose rate when using passive irradiation modes, which could affect the cell response. The purpose of this work was to investigate how the relative biological effectiveness changes along the spread-out Bragg peak created by protons delivered by the pencil beam scanning mode...
March 20, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321555/medical-treatment-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#10
Daniel A Kroch, Ryan D Madanick
Medical treatment is effective in the majority of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Lifestyle modifications are often recommended for patients with GERD, although the data supporting lifestyle recommendations are limited. Antacids are often used to treat the symptoms of GERD, but their effect is short-lived. H2-receptor antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors provide more effective options for remission of GERD symptoms and healing of esophagitis. Prokinetic medications (e.g., metoclopramide) have not been proven to help in the control of symptoms...
March 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321162/mortality-associated-with-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-children-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Thomas M Attard, Mikaela Miller, Chaitanya Pant, Ashwath Kumar, Mike Thomson
AIM: To determine the clinical characteristics of children with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) who died during the course of their admission. METHODS: We interrogated the Pediatric Hospital Information System database, including International Classification of Diseases, Current Procedural Terminology and Clinical Transaction Classification coding from 47 pediatric tertiary centers extracting the population of patients (1-21 years of age) admitted (inpatient or observation) with acute, upper or indeterminate GIB (1/2007-9/2015)...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321021/potential-cardiovascular-risks-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-the-general-population
#12
Wengen Zhu, Kui Hong
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective gastric acid-suppressing agents and the mainstay medical therapy for a series of acid peptic diseases. In general, the safety profile of PPIs is excellent. However, with long-term drug administration, the safety and potency of PPIs has been questioned. In the cardiovascular field, drug-drug interactions related to PPIs have been identified with particular attention regarding the use of PPIs combined with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome...
March 17, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318880/highly-conformal-craniospinal-radiotherapy-techniques-can-underdose-the-cranial-clinical-target-volume-if-leptomeningeal-extension-through-skull-base-exit-foramina-is-not-contoured
#13
D J Noble, T Ajithkumar, J Lambert, I Gleeson, M V Williams, S J Jefferies
AIMS: Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) remains a crucial treatment for patients with medulloblastoma. There is uncertainty about how to manage meningeal surfaces and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that follows cranial nerves exiting skull base foramina. The purpose of this study was to assess plan quality and dose coverage of posterior cranial fossa foramina with both photon and proton therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed the radiotherapy plans of seven patients treated with CSI for medulloblastoma and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours and three with ependymoma (total n = 10)...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317125/referenceless-magnetic-resonance-temperature-imaging-using-gaussian-process-modeling
#14
Joshua P Yung, David Fuentes, Christopher J MacLellan, Florian Maier, Yannis Liapis, John D Hazle, R Jason Stafford
PURPOSE: During magnetic resonance (MR)-guided thermal therapies, water proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) based MR temperature imaging can quantitatively monitor tissue temperature changes. It is widely known that the PRFS technique is easily perturbed by tissue motion, tissue susceptibility changes, magnetic field drift, and modality-dependent applicator induced artifacts. Here a referenceless Gaussian process modeling (GPM) based estimation of the PRFS is investigated as a methodology to mitigate unwanted background field changes...
March 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304223/metastatic-clival-chordoma-a-case-report-of-multiple-extraneural-metastases-following-resection-and-proton-beam-radiotherapy-in-a-5-year-old-boy
#15
Martin J Rutkowski, Harjus S Birk, Matthew D Wood, Arie Perry, Theodore Nicolaides, Christopher P Ames, Nalin Gupta
The authors report the case of a 5-year-old boy in whom extraneural metastases developed 5 years after he underwent an occipitocervical fusion and transoral approach to treat a clival chordoma without local recurrence. Following primary resection, the patient's postoperative course was complicated by recurrent meningitis secondary to CSF leak, which responded to antibiotics, and communicating hydrocephalus, for which a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. The patient then underwent postoperative proton beam radiotherapy...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302921/deciphering-the-acute-cellular-phosphoproteome-response-to-irradiation-with-x-rays-protons-and-carbon-ions
#16
Martin Winter, Ivana Dokic, Julian Schlegel, Uwe Warnken, Jürgen Debus, Amir Abdollahi, Martina Schnölzer
Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of cancer therapy. The recently established particle therapy with raster-scanning protons and carbon ions landmarks a new era in the field of high-precision cancer medicine. However, molecular mechanisms governing radiation induced intracellular signaling remain elusive. Here, we present the first comprehensive proteomic and phosphoproteomic study applying stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry to decipher cellular response to irradiation with X-rays, protons and carbon ions...
March 16, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301676/deprescribing-versus-continuation-of-chronic-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-in-adults
#17
REVIEW
Taline A Boghossian, Farah Joy Rashid, Wade Thompson, Vivian Welch, Paul Moayyedi, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Kevin Pottie, Barbara Farrell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that reduce acid secretion and are used for treating many conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), dyspepsia, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, and hypersecretory conditions (e.g. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), and as part of the eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori bacteria. However, approximately 25% to 70% of people are prescribed a PPI inappropriately. Chronic PPI use without reassessment contributes to polypharmacy and puts people at risk of experiencing drug interactions and adverse events (e...
March 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300385/a-benchmarking-method-to-evaluate-the-accuracy-of-a-commercial-proton-monte-carlo-pencil-beam-scanning-treatment-planning-system
#18
Liyong Lin, Sheng Huang, Minglei Kang, Petri Hiltunen, Reynald Vanderstraeten, Jari Lindberg, Sami Siljamaki, Todd Wareing, Ian Davis, Allen Barnett, John McGhee, Charles B Simone, Timothy D Solberg, James E McDonough, Christopher Ainsley
AcurosPT is a Monte Carlo algorithm in the Eclipse 13.7 treatment planning system, which is designed to provide rapid and accurate dose calculations for proton therapy. Computational run-time in minimized by simplifying or eliminating less significant physics processes. In this article, the accuracy of AcurosPT was benchmarked against both measurement and an independent MC calculation, TOPAS. Such a method can be applied to any new MC calculation for the detection of potential inaccuracies. To validate multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) which affects primary beam broadening, single spot profiles in a Solidwater(®) phantom were compared for beams of five selected proton energies between AcurosPT, measurement and TOPAS...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300378/comparison-of-linear-and-nonlinear-programming-approaches-for-worst-case-dose-and-minmax-robust-optimization-of-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-dose-distributions
#19
Maryam Zaghian, Wenhua Cao, Wei Liu, Laleh Kardar, Sharmalee Randeniya, Radhe Mohan, Gino Lim
Robust optimization of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) takes uncertainties into account during spot weight optimization and leads to dose distributions that are resilient to uncertainties. Previous studies demonstrated benefits of linear programming (LP) for IMPT in terms of delivery efficiency by considerably reducing the number of spots required for the same quality of plans. However, a reduction in the number of spots may lead to loss of robustness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance in terms of plan quality and robustness of two robust optimization approaches using LP and nonlinear programming (NLP) models...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300377/a-comparison-between-hydrogel-spacer-and-endorectal-balloon-an-analysis-of-intrafraction-prostate-motion-during-proton-therapy
#20
Samantha G Hedrick, Marcio Fagundes, Ben Robison, Marc Blakey, Jackson Renegar, Mark Artz, Niek Schreuder
The purpose of this study was to evaluate intrafraction prostate motion in patients treated with proton therapy and an endorectal balloon or a hydrogel spacer using orthogonal x-rays acquired before and after each treatment field. This study evaluated 10 patients (662 fields throughout treatment) treated daily with an endorectal balloon (ERB) and 16 patients (840 fields throughout treatment) treated with a hydrogel spacer (GEL) without an ERB. Patient shifts were recorded before and after each treatment field, correlated with a treatment time, using x-ray imaging and implanted fiducial alignment...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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