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Proton therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351653/calibration-of-gafchromic-ebt3-film-for-dosimetry-of-scanning-proton-pencil-beam-pbs
#1
D Krzempek, G Mianowska, N Bassler, L Stolarczyk, R Kopec, B Sas-Korczynska, P Olko
Gafchromic EBT3 films are applied in proton radiotherapy for 2D dose mapping because they demonstrate spatial resolution well below 1 mm. However, the film response must be corrected in order to reach the accuracy of dose measurements required for the clinical use. The in-house developed AnalyseGafchromic software allows to analyze and correct the measured response using triple channel dose calibration, statistical scan-to-scan fluctuations as well as experimentally determined dose and LET dependence. Finally, the optimized protocol for evaluation of response of Gafchromic EBT3 films was applied to determine 30 × 40 cm2 dose profiles of the scanning therapy unit at the Cyclotron Centre Bronowice, CCB in Krakow, Poland...
January 17, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350196/estimation-and-correction-of-produced-light-from-prompt-gamma-photons-on-luminescence-imaging-of-water-for-proton-therapy-dosimetry
#2
Takuya Yabe, Masataka Komori, Toshiyuki Toshito, Mitsutaka Yamaguchi, Naoki Kawachi, Seiichi Yamamoto
Although the luminescence images of water during proton-beam irradiation using a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera showed almost the same ranges of proton beams as those measured by an ionization chamber, the depth profiles showed lower Bragg peak intensities than those measured by an ionization chamber. In addition, a broad optical baseline signal was observed in depths that exceed the depth of Bragg peak. We hypothesize that this broad baseline signal originates from interaction of proton-induced prompt gamma photons with water...
January 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348437/first-experimental-proof-of-proton-boron-capture-therapy-pbct-to-enhance-protontherapy-effectiveness
#3
G A P Cirrone, L Manti, D Margarone, G Petringa, L Giuffrida, A Minopoli, A Picciotto, G Russo, F Cammarata, P Pisciotta, F M Perozziello, F Romano, V Marchese, G Milluzzo, V Scuderi, G Cuttone, G Korn
Protontherapy is hadrontherapy's fastest-growing modality and a pillar in the battle against cancer. Hadrontherapy's superiority lies in its inverted depth-dose profile, hence tumour-confined irradiation. Protons, however, lack distinct radiobiological advantages over photons or electrons. Higher LET (Linear Energy Transfer) 12C-ions can overcome cancer radioresistance: DNA lesion complexity increases with LET, resulting in efficient cell killing, i.e. higher Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). However, economic and radiobiological issues hamper 12C-ion clinical amenability...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348402/self-generated-surface-magnetic-fields-inhibit-laser-driven-sheath-acceleration-of-high-energy-protons
#4
M Nakatsutsumi, Y Sentoku, A Korzhimanov, S N Chen, S Buffechoux, A Kon, B Atherton, P Audebert, M Geissel, L Hurd, M Kimmel, P Rambo, M Schollmeier, J Schwarz, M Starodubtsev, L Gremillet, R Kodama, J Fuchs
High-intensity lasers interacting with solid foils produce copious numbers of relativistic electrons, which in turn create strong sheath electric fields around the target. The proton beams accelerated in such fields have remarkable properties, enabling ultrafast radiography of plasma phenomena or isochoric heating of dense materials. In view of longer-term multidisciplinary purposes (e.g., spallation neutron sources or cancer therapy), the current challenge is to achieve proton energies well in excess of 100 MeV, which is commonly thought to be possible by raising the on-target laser intensity...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348282/acquired-pyloric-stenosis-resulting-in-hypokalaemic-hyperchloraemic-normal-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-persistent-vomiting-in-an-adult-cause-and-effect
#5
Philip Kaye
A 24-year-old woman presented with a history of persistent vomiting for at least 3 months. This resulted in severe dehydration with risk of acute kidney injury. In addition to volume depletion, loss of gastric fluid resulted in a specific metabolic derangement-hypokalaemic, hypochloraemic normal anion gap metabolic alkalosis with a reduced ionised calcium concentration and paradoxical aciduria. These metabolic changes were reflected in her ECG. Investigation demonstrated acquired gastric outflow tract obstruction secondary to a pyloric peptic ulcer...
January 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346670/scoping-analysis-of-material-activation-at-a-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-facility-based-on-the-be-p-xn-reaction-with-30-mev-protons
#6
Bo-Lun Lai, Rong-Jiun Sheu
Material activation assessment of a proposed accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy facility was performed using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to quantify the magnitude of the problem in terms of the isotope inventories, induced activities, and residual dose rates. Two simplified operation scenarios were considered: a 30-min proton bombardment to simulate a typical session of patient treatment and a long-term 1 year continuous operation to estimate the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides. Following the generation and transport of decay radiation, the space- and time-dependent inventories of induced radionuclides in materials and residual dose rates after shutdown were obtained...
January 16, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344499/unilateral-multifocal-choroidal-melanoma
#7
Debarshi Mustafi, Bertil Damato, Jesse L Berry
We report a case of multifocal choroidal melanoma in the same eye, separated in presentation by 20 years. A 57-year-old Caucasian male initially presented with a choroidal melanoma of the right eye that was treated with transpupillary thermotherapy. Due to recurrence, the patient underwent proton beam therapy with subsequent tumor regression. A second small choroidal lesion was noted in the right eye during his surveillance examinations that was closely monitored and demonstrated stable dimensions and features suggestive of a choroidal nevus...
December 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344328/management-of-functional-dyspepsia-state-of-the-art-and-emerging-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Hiroshi Yamawaki, Seiji Futagami, Mako Wakabayashi, Noriko Sakasegawa, Shuhei Agawa, Kazutoshi Higuchi, Yasuhiro Kodaka, Katsuhiko Iwakiri
Patients with functional dyspepsia, defined in the 2016 Rome IV criteria as bothersome clinical dyspepsia symptoms, experience markedly reduced quality of life. Several etiologies have been associated with the disorder. In the Rome IV criteria, the brain-gut axis was acknowledged as an important factor in the etiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The distinct subgroups of functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), are treated differently: acid secretion inhibitors are recommended with patients with EPS, whereas prokinetic drugs as mosapride and acotiamide are recommended for patients with PDS...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343945/the-impact-of-pharmaceutical-interventions-on-the-rational-use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-a-chinese-hospital
#9
Chuanwei Xin, Zhu Dong, Mengmeng Lin, Gong-Hua Li
Background: The prescriptions of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have raised concern due to both huge increase in medical expenditure and the possible long-term adverse events caused by them; therefore, an approach to taper off the irrational use of PPIs by patients is clinically warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical interventions on the rational use of PPIs. Patients and methods: A single-center, pre- to post-intervention study (pharmaceutical interventions group and control group) was performed in a Chinese hospital...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342941/development-of-optical-fiber-based-measurement-system-for-the-verification-of-entrance-dose-map-in-pencil-beam-scanning-proton-beam
#10
Jaeman Son, Se Byeong Lee, Youngkyung Lim, Sung Yong Park, Kwanho Cho, Myonggeun Yoon, Dongho Shin
This study describes the development of a beam monitoring system for the verification of entrance dose map in pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy based on fiber optic radiation sensors (FORS) and the validation of this system through a feasibility study. The beam monitoring system consisted of 128 optical fibers optically coupled to photo-multiplier tubes. The performance of the beam monitoring system based on FORS was verified by comparing 2D dose maps of square-shaped fields of various sizes, which were obtained using conventional dosimeters such as MatriXX and EBT3 film, with those measured using FORS...
January 15, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342035/systematic-review-of-hearing-preservation-after-radiotherapy-for-vestibular-schwannoma
#11
Adam R Coughlin, Tyler J Willman, Samuel P Gubbels
OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term hearing preservation rate for spontaneous vestibular schwannoma treated by primary radiotherapy. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews, and EMBASE databases were searched using a comprehensive Boolean keyword search developed in conjunction with a scientific librarian. English language papers published from 2000 to 2016 were evaluated. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria: full articles, pretreatment and posttreatment audiograms or audiogram based scoring system, vestibular schwannoma only tumor type, reported time to follow-up, published after 1999, use of either Gamma Knife or linear accelerator radiotherapy...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341525/-general-internal-medicine%C3%A2-2017-scientific-breakthroughs-in-ambulatory-care
#12
Alexandre Gouveia, Lionel De Alencastro, Yvonne Fierz, Lionel Koehli, Alexandre Béguelin, Olivier Pasche, Kevin Selby, Patrick Bodenmann
Bariatric surgery improves glycemic control in obese patients with diabetes type 2. Dual antiplatelet therapy can be maintained beyond 12 months after a myocardial infarction. Levothyroxine is not beneficial among patients ≥ 65 years that have subclinical hypothyroidism. Prophylactic anticoagulation in lower limb immobilisation should be reserved only for patients with a high risk of thromboembolism. A diagnosis of asthma should be initially confirmed by a spirometry if clinically suspected. A proton pump inhibitor is indicated for patients ≥ 65 years that are treated with aspirin...
January 17, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341042/-prescription-and-risks-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-fiction-and-facts
#13
Herbert Koop
There is substantial discussion about inappropriate prescriptions and risks of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. This review critically reviews prescription manners regarding PPI both by general practitioners and in hospitals, demonstrates exit strategies after prolonged PPI treatment and evaluates clinically relevant risks of PPI therapy.
January 16, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340935/endoscopic-treatments-of-gerd
#14
REVIEW
Carol Rouphael, Ruthvik Padival, Madhusudhan R Sanaka, Prashanthi N Thota
OPINION STATEMENT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endoscopic therapies for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are minimally invasive techniques which fill the gap between the medical therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and surgical fundoplication. The main endoscopic therapies currently available in the USA are transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) using EsophyX device or less commonly, Medigus Ultrasonic Surgical Endostapler, and radiofrequency energy delivery to lower esophageal sphincter using Stretta device...
January 16, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339948/update-on-functional-heartburn
#15
Takahisa Yamasaki, Jessica O'Neil, Ronnie Fass
The definition of functional heartburn has been refined over the years. It is currently described, based upon Rome IV criteria, as typical heartburn symptoms in the presence of normal upper endoscopy findings (including normal biopsies), normal esophageal pH testing, and a negative association between symptoms and reflux events. Functional heartburn is very common, affecting women more than men, and with reflux hypersensitivity makes up the majority of heartburn patients who fail twice-daily proton pump inhibitor therapy...
December 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339570/comparison-of-monte-carlo-and-analytical-dose-computations-for-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy
#16
Pablo P Yepes, Antony H Adair, David R Grosshans, Dragan Mirkovic, Falk Poenisch, Uwe Titt, Qianxia Wang, Radhe Mohan
To evaluate the effect of approximations in clinical analytical calculations performed by a Treatment Planning System (TPS) on dosimetric indices in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy. Methods: TPS calculated dose distributions were compared with dose distributions as estimated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, calculated with the Fast Dose Calculator (FDC) a system previously benchmarked to full MC. This study analyzed a total of 525 patients for four treatment sites (brain, head-and-neck, thorax and prostate)...
January 17, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338744/new-insights-in-the-relative-radiobiological-effectiveness-of-proton-irradiation
#17
REVIEW
K Ilicic, S E Combs, T E Schmid
BACKGROUND: Proton radiotherapy is a form of charged particle therapy that is preferentially applied for the treatment of tumors positioned near to critical structures due to their physical characteristics, showing an inverted depth-dose profile. The sparing of normal tissue has additional advantages in the treatment of pediatric patients, in whom the risk of secondary cancers and late morbidity is significantly higher. Up to date, a fixed relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1...
January 16, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337457/-pharmacovigilance-update
#18
Françoise Livio
The main pharmacovigilance updates in 2017 are reviewed. Denosumab : rebound-associated multiple vertebral fractures after discontinuation. Canagliflozine: increased risk of foot/leg amputations. Biologic and targeted cancer therapies, direct-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C: risk of hepatitis B reactivation. Checkpoint inhibitors : immune-related adverse events and graft rejection. Fingolimod : rebound-associated reactivation of MS following withdrawal. Daclizumab: risk of severe liver injury leading to restricted use in MS patients...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333061/critical-appraisal-of-rome-iv-criteria-hypersensitive-esophagus-does-belong-to-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-spectrum
#19
REVIEW
Leonardo Frazzoni, Marzio Frazzoni, Nicola de Bortoli, Salvatore Tolone, Irene Martinucci, Lorenzo Fuccio, Vincenzo Savarino, Edoardo Savarino
The Rome IV Committee introduced a major change in the classification of functional gastrointestinal disorders, proposing a more restrictive definition of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It was suggested that hypersensitive esophagus (HE) may sit more firmly within the functional realm. It was suggested that GERD diagnosis should be based upon abnormal acid exposure time (AET) only, implying no advantage of impedance-pH over pH monitoring. Symptom association probability (SAP), symptom index (SI) and heartburn relief with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy were regarded as unreliable, whereas a lack of response to PPI was considered as evidence of functional heartburn...
January 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328862/what-happens-when-proton-meets-randomization-is-there-a-future-for-proton-therapy
#20
Feng-Ming Spring Kong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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