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Joanna J Hoppins, David R Gruber, Heather L Miears, Alexey S Kiryutin, Rustem D Kasymov, Darya V Petrova, Anton V Endutkin, Alexander V Popov, Alexandra V Yurkovskaya, Stanislav O Fedechkin, Jacob A Brockerman, Dmitry O Zharkov, Serge L Smirnov
8-oxoguanine is one of the most abundant and impactful oxidative DNA lesions. However, the reasons underlying its effects, especially those not directly explained by the altered base pairing ability, are poorly understood. We report the effect of the lesion on the action of EcoRI, a widely used restriction endonuclease. Introduction of 8-oxoguanine inside, or adjacent to, the GAATTC recognition site embedded within the Drew-Dickerson dodecamer sequence notably reduced the EcoRI activity. Solution NMR revealed that 8-oxoguanine in the DNA duplex causes substantial alterations in the sugar-phosphate backbone conformation, inducing a BI→BII transition...
2016: PloS One
Minh N Nguyen, Adelene Y L Sim, Yue Wan, M S Madhusudhan, Chandra Verma
RNA molecules are attractive therapeutic targets because non-coding RNA molecules have increasingly been found to play key regulatory roles in the cell. Comparing and classifying RNA 3D structures yields unique insights into RNA evolution and function. With the rapid increase in the number of atomic-resolution RNA structures, it is crucial to have effective tools to classify RNA structures and to investigate them for structural similarities at different resolutions. We previously developed the algorithm CLICK to superimpose a pair of protein 3D structures by clique matching and 3D least squares fitting...
September 14, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Abigael Obura Awuor, Joel Montgomery, Ellen Yard, Collen Martin, Johnni Daniel, Nicholas Zitomer, Michael Rybak, Lauren Lewis, Timothy Phillips, Amelia Romoser, Sarah Elmore, Elvis Oyugi, Samwel Amwayi, Christine Bii, John Vulule
Acute aflatoxin exposure can cause death and disease (aflatoxicosis) in humans. Aflatoxicosis fatality rates have been documented to be as high as 40% in Kenya. The inclusion in the diet of calcium silicate 100 (ACCS100), a calcium montmorillonite clay, may reduce aflatoxin bioavailability; thus potentially decreasing the risk of aflatoxicosis. We investigated the efficacy, acceptability, and palatability of ACCS100 in a population in Kenya with recurring aflatoxicosis outbreaks. Healthy adult participants were enrolled in this double-blinded, cross-over clinical trial in 2014...
September 7, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
John Abuga Guto, Christine C Bii, David W Denning
INTRODUCTION: Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. METHODOLOGY: We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Raikamal Ghosh, Naresh C Sharma, Kalpataru Halder, Rupak K Bhadra, Goutam Chowdhury, Gururaja P Pazhani, Sumio Shinoda, Asish K Mukhopadhyay, G Balakrish Nair, Thadavarayan Ramamurthy
Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004-2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhen Liu, Shushang Liu, Guanghui Xu, Fan Feng, Man Guo, Xiao Lian, Chao Nai, Xuewen Yang, Jinqiang Liu, Gaozan Zheng, Hongwei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term survival and postoperative complications of distal gastric cancer patients between Billroth I((BI() and Billroth II((BII() reconstruction. METHODS: Clinicopathological data of 992 patients with distal gastric cancer who underwent D2 curative gastrectomy in our department from May 2008 to April 2015 were recorded, including 207 patients of BI( reconstruction and 785 of BII( reconstruction, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients presenting a previous history of cancer, gastric resection or cytotoxic chemotherapy, and those presenting liver or intraperitoneal tumor dissemination or unresectable infiltration into contiguous organs were excluded...
July 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Martha F Mushi, Conjester I Mtemisika, Oliver Bader, Christine Bii, Mariam M Mirambo, Uwe Groß, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: Non-albicans Candida (NAC) spp. in immunocompromised patients are linked to invasive infections with narrow treatment choice. This study aimed at comparing the oral colonization of NAC spp. between HIV and non-HIV infected individuals in Mwanza, Tanzania. METHOD: Oral rinse of 351 HIV-infected and 639 non-HIV infected individuals were collected between March and July 2015. Phenotypic identifications of Candida spp. was done using Candida Chromogenic agar and confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS...
August 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Meiling Sun, Kai Li, Xianwei Liu
This article contains descriptions of three new species of Chinese Dermaptera: Timomenus bicolor sp. nov. from Xizang, Timomenus bii sp. nov. from Yunnan and Cordax serratus sp. nov. from Guangxi. Four new specific synonymies and three new combinations are proposed. We also emend the generic diagnosis of Mesolabia Shiraki, 1906 by providing characteristics of the male. Keys to the species of Timomenus, Cordax and Mesolabia from China are provided.
2016: Zootaxa
Shiu-Bii Lien, Hsain-Chung Shen, Leou-Chyr Lin
Subtle injuries of the Lisfranc joint complex are uncommon and difficult to diagnose clinically and thus are easily missed even by experienced orthopedic doctors. Misdiagnosed injuries can lead to chronic disability until eventual fusion surgery. We describe 10 cases diagnosed with subtle injury of the Lisfranc joint that were treated with combined innovative portal arthroscopy and fluoroscopy-assisted reduction and percutaneous screw fixation in an interfragmentary fashion. The distance between the first and second metatarsals (the Lisfranc distance) and that between the medial cuneiform and fifth metatarsal base (foot arch height) was measured before and after surgery...
June 21, 2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Claus G Roehrborn, Igor Oyarzabal Perez, Erik P M Roos, Nicolae Calomfirescu, Betsy Brotherton, Juan Manuel Palacios, Averyan Vasylyev, Michael J Manyak
PURPOSE: To investigate (in a post hoc analysis of the 2-year CONDUCT study) the characteristics and clinical outcomes of men with moderately symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) at risk of progression who benefitted from lifestyle changes alone. METHODS: Patients were given lifestyle advice and randomized to a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of dutasteride and tamsulosin or watchful waiting (WW) and followed for 24 months. Patients in the WW group were escalated to tamsulosin if any follow-up International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was equal or greater than the baseline value...
June 22, 2016: World Journal of Urology
Alexander V Bocharov, Tinghuai Wu, Irina N Baranova, Anna A Birukova, Denis Sviridov, Tatyana G Vishnyakova, Alan T Remaley, Thomas L Eggerman, Amy P Patterson, Konstantin G Birukov
Synthetic amphipathic helical peptides (SAHPs) designed as apolipoprotein A-I mimetics are known to bind to class B scavenger receptors (SR-Bs), SR-BI, SR-BII, and CD36, receptors that mediate lipid transport and facilitate pathogen recognition. In this study, we evaluated SAHPs, selected for targeting human CD36, by their ability to attenuate LPS-induced inflammation, endothelial barrier dysfunction, and acute lung injury (ALI). L37pA, which targets CD36 and SR-BI equally, inhibited LPS-induced IL-8 secretion and barrier dysfunction in cultured endothelial cells while reducing lung neutrophil infiltration by 40% in a mouse model of LPS-induced ALI...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jarosław M Michałowski, Jacek Matuszewski, Dawid Droździel, Wojciech Koziejowski, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Katarzyna Jednoróg, Artur Marchewka
In the present simultaneous EEG/ECG-fMRI study we compared the temporal and spatial characteristics of the brain responses and the cardiac activity during fear picture processing between spider, blood-injection-injury (BII) and social fearful as well as healthy (non-fearful) volunteers. All participants were presented with two neutral and six fear-related blocks of pictures: two social, two spider and two blood/injection fear blocks. In a social fear block neutral images were occasionally interspersed with photographs of angry faces and social exposure scenes...
May 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ella L Oar, Lara J Farrell, Allison M Waters, Thomas H Ollendick
Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia is a particularly debilitating condition that has been largely ignored in the child literature. The present study examined the clinical phenomenology of BII phobia in 27 youths, relative to 25 youths with dog phobia-one of the most common and well-studied phobia subtypes in youth. Children were compared on measures of phobia severity, functional impairment, comorbidity, threat appraisals (danger expectancies and coping), focus of fear, and physiological responding, as well as vulnerability factors including disgust sensitivity and family history...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
Kevin T McVary, Andrew Peterson, Craig F Donatucci, Simin Baygani, Carsten Henneges, Johannes Clouth, David Wong, Matthias Oelke
PURPOSE: Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia typically respond well to medical therapy. While changes in total I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) are generally accepted as measurement for treatment response, I-PSS storage and voiding subscores may not accurately reflect the influence of symptom improvement on patient bother and quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Structural equation modeling was done to evaluate physiological interrelationships measured by I-PSS storage vs voiding subscore questions and measure the magnitude of effects on bother using BII (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index) and quality of life on I-PSS quality of life questions...
September 2016: Journal of Urology
Michael H Chung, Rachel Silverman, Ingrid A Beck, Nelly Yatich, Sandra Dross, Jennifer McKernan-Mullin, Stephen Bii, Kenneth Tapia, Joshua Stern, Bhavna Chohan, Samah R Sakr, James N Kiarie, Lisa M Frenkel
Antiretroviral-naïve adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya were tested for HIV-1 drug resistance at codons K103N, Y181C, G190A, M184V, and K65R using an oligonucleotide ligation assay. Prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance increased from 3.89% in 2006 to 10.93% in 2014 (P < 0.001), and 95% of those with resistance had at least one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation. Resistance to tenofovir (K65R) was found in 2014 but not in 2006.
June 19, 2016: AIDS
Lu Lu, Yanping Liu, Yue Ding, Jianwei Hou, Yong Zhang, Haiping Xue, Tong Zhang
Timosaponin AIII (TAIII) exhibits extensive pharmacological activities and has been reported as a potent antitumour agent for various human cancers. In the present study, a potential industrial process for producing TAIII that involves biotransformation directly in the crude extract liquid of rhizoma anemarrhenae (RA) was developed. β-D-glycosidase was used to transform timosaponin BII (TBII) into TAIII, and monofactor experiments were conducted to optimise the enzymolysis conditions. In addition, AB-8 macroporous resin column chromatography, preparative liquid chromatography, and crystallisation technique were applied for yielding TAIII crystals with a purity > 97%...
October 2016: Natural Product Research
Sudipta Samanta, Devanathan Raghunathan, Sanchita Mukherjee
DNA within the living cells experiences a diverse range of temperature, ranging from freezing condition to hot spring water. How the structure, the mechanical properties of DNA, and the solvation dynamics around DNA changes with the temperature is important to understand the functionality of DNA under those acute temperature conditions. In that notion, we have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA oligomer, containing TATA-box sequence for three different temperatures (250K, 300K and 350K). We observed that the structure of the DNA, in terms of backbone torsion angles, sugar pucker, base pair parameters, and base pair step parameters, did not show any unusual properties within the studied range of temperatures, but significant structural alteration was noticed between BI and BII forms at higher temperature...
May 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Pascal Niggemann, Johannes Kuchta, Dariusch Hadizadeh, Claus Christian Pieper, Hans Heinz Schild
BACKGROUND: Posterior instability is a pathologic movement occurring in the spondylolytic cleft. PURPOSE: To present a new classification system for the evaluation of spondylolytic cleft by positional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and determine the prevalence of the different types. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 176 segments of the lumbar spine with spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis were examined using positional MRI. Scans were obtained in neutral sitting, flexion, and extension positions...
March 16, 2016: Acta Radiologica
G Parrella, B Greco
Partial polymerase (L) gene sequences of 919 nts, including the conserved segments pre-motif A and motif A of block III, of 20 Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV) isolates were generated, and trimmed sequences of 889 nts, based on the length of available sequences of other isolates, were used to determine phylogenetic relationships. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed two divergent lineages, designated as genetic group A (Italian isolates) and group B, with the latter further divided into subgroups BI (Greek isolates) and BII (Spanish isolates)...
March 2016: Acta Virologica
Chia-Chung Lee, Yang Lo, Ling-Jun Ho, Jenn-Haung Lai, Shiu-Bii Lien, Leou-Chyr Lin, Chun-Liang Chen, Tsung-Chih Chen, Feng-Cheng Liu, Hsu-Shan Huang
As part of an effort to profile potential therapeutics for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases, a diversity of amide-linked small molecules was synthesized by using parallel synthesis strategy. Moreover, these new compounds were also evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) by using tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced inflammatory responses in chondrocytes. Among the tested compounds, N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide (HS-Ck) was the most potent inhibitor of NO production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in TNF-α-stimulated chondrocytes...
2016: PloS One
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