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Margarita Lopez-Fernandez, Maria Romero-González, Alix Günther, Pier L Solari, Mohamed L Merroun
This study presents the effect of aqueous uranium speciation (U-hydroxides and U-hydroxo-carbonates) on the interaction of this radionuclide with the cells of the yeast Rhodotorula mucigilanosa BII-R8. This strain was isolated from Spanish bentonites considered as reference materials for the engineered barrier components of the future deep geological repository of radioactive waste. X-ray absorption and infrared spectroscopy showed that the aqueous uranium speciation has no effect on the uranium binding process by this yeast strain...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Hayden Winter, Elena Christopher-Allison, Anna L Brown, Andrea Mitchell Goforth
Herein, we report an aerobic synthesis method to produce bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) with average diameters in the range 40-80 nm using commercially available bismuth triiodide (BiI<sub>3</sub>) as starting material; the method uses only readily available chemicals and conventional laboratory equipment. Furthermore, size data from replicates of the synthesis under standard reaction conditions indicate that this method is highly reproducible in achieving Bi NP populations with low standard deviations in the mean diameters...
February 2, 2018: Nanotechnology
Verena Leutgeb, Daniela Schwab, Wilfried Scharmüller, Carina Höfler, Anne Schienle
Blood can be easily recognized in situations involving injury. However, very little is known about the ability of humans to identify blood without such context information. We investigated the blood detection capacity and associated electrocortical correlates (event-related potentials) in 20 women with blood phobia and 20 non-phobic females. The participants viewed images depicting droplets of pig blood, and water with pink or red food coloring. They were asked to decide, whether the pictures showed real blood or not...
October 28, 2017: Brain Research
Enrico Guarnera, Zhen Wah Tan, Zejun Zheng, Igor N Berezovsky
Motivation: Allostery is an omnipresent mechanism of the function modulation in proteins via either effector binding or mutations in the exosites. Despite the growing number of online servers and databases devoted to prediction/classification of allosteric sites and their characteristics, there is a lack of resources for an efficient and quick estimation of the causality and energetics of allosteric communication. Results: The AlloSigMA server implements a unique approach on the basis of the recently introduced structure-based statistical mechanical models of allosteric signaling...
July 6, 2017: Bioinformatics
Ariadna Martín, Ana Pérez-Ayala, Fernando Chaves, David Lora, M Ángeles Orellana
Rapid and accurate detection of the pathogens that cause gastrointestinal infection is important for appropriate therapy and proper infection control. This study assesses the performance of a new molecular assay for simultaneous detection of 13 different gastrointestinal bacteria in stool specimens. Using the Allplex GI-Bacteria (AGI-BI/AGI-BII) assay, a total of 394 stool samples were tested and the results were compared with culturing on selective differential followed by identification by mass spectroscopy...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Bohdan Schneider, Paulína Božíková, Petr Čech, Daniel Svozil, Jiří Černý
We analyzed the structural behavior of DNA complexed with regulatory proteins and the nucleosome core particle (NCP). The three-dimensional structures of almost 25 thousand dinucleotide steps from more than 500 sequentially non-redundant crystal structures were classified by using DNA structural alphabet CANA (Conformational Alphabet of Nucleic Acids) and associations between ten CANA letters and sixteen dinucleotide sequences were investigated. The associations showed features discriminating between specific and non-specific binding of DNA to proteins...
October 18, 2017: Genes
Rachel A Silverman, Ingrid A Beck, Catherine Kiptinness, Molly Levine, Ross Milne, Christine J McGrath, Steve Bii, Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, Bhavna Chohan, Samah R Sakr, James N Kiarie, Lisa M Frenkel, Michael H Chung
Background: Pre-antiretroviral-treatment drug resistance (PDR) is a predictor of HIV treatment failure. We determined PDR-prevalence and correlates in a Kenyan cohort. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-eligible HIV-infected participants in 2013-2014 at three clinics. PDR was defined as ≥2% mutant-frequency in a participant's HIV-quasispecies at pol codons K103N, Y181C, G190A, M184 V, or K65R by oligonucleotide ligation assay...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Gregg Joseph Montalto, Fredrick K Sawe, Argwings Miruka, Jonah Maswai, Ignatius Kiptoo, Appolonia Aoko, Chrispine Oreyo, Eunice Obiero, Sheila Korir, Stephen K Bii, Katherine X Song, Anjali N Kunz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Emphasis on adolescent HIV has increased worldwide as antiretroviral treatment has greatly extended life expectancies of HIV-positive children. Few evidence-based guidelines exist on the optimal time to disclose to an adolescent living with HIV (ALHIV); little is known about the medical effects of disclosure. This study looked to determine whether disclosure is associated with improved medical outcomes in ALHIV. Prior work has tended to be qualitative, cross-sectional, and with an emphasis on psychosocial outcomes...
2017: PloS One
Bo Yang, Zhirui Liu, Qian Wang, Yifeng Chai, Peiyuan Xia
A simple and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was firstly developed for simultaneous quantification of neomangiferin, mangiferin, regaloside A, regaloside I, timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin E and timosaponin AIII in rat plasma after oral administration of Baihe Zhimu decoction, which plays an important role for the treatment of depression. The plasma samples were pretreated by a one-step direct protein precipitation with methanol. Separation of the seven components and scutellarin (IS) from endogenous components with high selectivity and sensitivity (LLOQ, 0...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ni Lin, Baofeng Liu, Jie Zhang, Yongpeng Long, Guoming Dong, Hongtao Jin, Baiping Ma
Timosaponin BII (TBII), a major steroidal saponin isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge., displays a variety of promising pharmacological activities, such as neuroprotection, enhancement of learning and memory, vascular protection and inhibition of platelet aggregation; therefore, it has been developed as a pharmaceutical for prevention or treatment of dementia. Given the safety concerns surrounding timosaponins and the absence of studies on the safety of TBII, the potential toxicity of TBII was evaluated in toxicity and toxicokinetic studies in rats...
September 22, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Qi Liu, Yifan Deng, Amos B Smith
A convergent total synthesis of (-)-nahuoic acid Ci(Bii) (3), a novel cis-decalin polyketide, has been achieved. Key synthetic transformations include Type II Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC) to construct the polyol chain, a Ti-catalyzed asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction to generate the cis-decalin skeleton, and a late-stage large fragment union exploiting a Micalizio alkoxide-directed alkyne-alkene coupling tactic.
October 4, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lucia Keter, Richard Too, Nicholas Mwikwabe, Charles Mutai, Jennifer Orwa, Lizzy Mwamburi, Stanley Ndwigah, Christine Bii, Richard Korir
Utilization of herbal products is a major concern due to the possibility of contamination by toxigenic fungi that are mycotoxin producers such as Aspergillus species during processing and packaging. Research was carried out to determine the presence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in herbal medicinal products sold in Eldoret and Mombasa towns in Kenya. The study employed both exploratory and laboratory experimental design. The herbal products were purchased from the market and transported to Kenya Medical Research Institute for processing and analysis...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
Ruth Monyenye Nyangacha, David Odongo, Florence Oyieke, Missiani Ochwoto, Richard Korir, Ronald Kiprotich Ngetich, Gladys Nginya, Olipher Makwaga, Christine Bii, Peter Mwitari, Festus Tolo
Tungiasis or jigger infestation is a parasitic disease caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans. Secondary infection of the lesions caused by this flea is common in endemic communities. This study sought to shed light on the bacterial pathogens causing secondary infections in tungiasis lesions and their susceptibility profiles to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Participants were recruited with the help of Community Health Workers. Swabs were taken from lesions which showed signs of secondary infection...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nani Wang, Qiaoyan Zhang, Hailiang Xin, Dan Shou, Luping Qin
A method using osteoblast membrane chromatography coupled with liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to recognize and identify the specific active components from traditional Chinese medicines. Primary rat osteoblasts were used for the preparation of the stationary phase in the cell chromatography method. Retention components from the cell chromatography were collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This method was applied in screening active components from extracts of four traditional Chinese medicines...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Iván Sánchez-Castro, Miguel Angel Ruiz-Fresneda, Mohammed Bakkali, Peter Kämpfer, Stefanie P Glaeser, Hans Jürgen Busse, Margarita López-Fernández, Pablo Martínez-Rodríguez, Mohamed Larbi Merroun
A Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain, BII-R7T, was isolated during a study targeting the culture-dependent microbial diversity occurring in bentonite formations from southern Spain. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that BII-R7T represented a member of the genus Stenotrophomonas (class Gammaproteobacteria), and was related most closely to Stenotrophomonas rhizophila e-p10T (99.2 % sequence similarity), followed by Stenotrophomonas pavanii ICB 89T (98.5 %), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia IAM 12423T, Stenotrophomonas chelatiphaga LPM-5T and Stenotrophomonas tumulicola T5916-2-1bT (all 98...
August 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Iván Sánchez-Castro, Mohammed Bakkali, Mohamed L Merroun
The Gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas bentonitica BII-R7(T) was isolated from bentonite formations. Like other species within the genus Stenotrophomonas, strain BII-R7(T) possesses high tolerance to numerous heavy metals, suggesting potential for bioremediation purposes. The draft genome sequence reported here comprises 4.37 Mb with a G+C content of 66.5% and 3,796 predicted protein-coding sequences.
August 3, 2017: Genome Announcements
Martha F Mushi, Oliver Bader, Liliane Taverne-Ghadwal, Christine Bii, Uwe Groß, Stephen E Mshana
Oral candidiasis (OC) is the most common opportunistic fungal infection among immunocompromised individuals. This systematic review and meta-analysis reports on the contribution of non-albicans Candida species in causing OC among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa between 2005 and 2015. Thirteen original research articles on oral Candida infection/colonization among HIV-infected African populations were reviewed. The prevalence of OC ranged from 7.6% to 75.3%. Pseudomembranous candidiasis was found to range from 12...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Erica Simon, Alicia E Meuret, Thomas Ritz
The autonomic regulation in blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia has received particular attention due to the unique link between fear and fainting in this anxiety disorder. However, systematic exploration of sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity during exposure to phobia-relevant emotional stimuli has remained rare and inconclusive, including with regard to disgust, a frequent response to BII stimuli. Existing studies using respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a noninvasive index of parasympathetic cardiac activity also have not accounted sufficiently for effects of respiration...
June 30, 2017: Psychophysiology
Si-Hui Nian, Hui-Jun Li, E-Hu Liu, Ping Li
Comprehensive utilization of medicinal plant resources is of great significance for sustainable development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the present study, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the rhizome and fibrous root of Anemarrhena Asphodeloides Bunge, were compared detailedly, and a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive constituents including neomangiferin, mangiferin, isomangiferin, timosaponin BII, timosaponin B, timosaponin AIII, and timosaponin N in 40 batches of samples...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ivan Turkevych, Said Kazaoui, Eisuke Ito, Toshiyuki Urano, Koji Yamada, Hiroshi Tomiyasu, Hideo Yamagishi, Michio Kondo, Shinji Aramaki
Hybrid CPbX3 (C: Cs, CH3 NH3 ; X: Br, I) perovskites possess excellent photovoltaic properties but are highly toxic, which hinders their practical application. Unfortunately, all Pb-free alternatives based on Sn and Ge are extremely unstable. Although stable and non-toxic C2 ABX6 double perovskites based on alternating corner-shared AX6 and BX6 octahedra (A=Ag, Cu; B=Bi, Sb) are possible, they have indirect and wide band gaps of over 2 eV. However, is it necessary to keep the corner-shared perovskite structure to retain good photovoltaic properties? Here, we demonstrate another family of photovoltaic halides based on edge-shared AX6 and BX6 octahedra with the general formula Aa Bb Xx (x=a+3 b) such as Ag3 BiI6 , Ag2 BiI5 , AgBiI4 , AgBi2 I7 ...
October 9, 2017: ChemSusChem
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