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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040633/prevalence-of-pre-antiretroviral-treatment-drug-resistance-by-gender-age-and-other-factors-in-hiv-infected-individuals-initiating-therapy-in-kenya-2013-2014
#1
Rachel A Silverman, Ingrid A Beck, Catherine Kiptinness, Molly Levine, Ross Milne, Christine J McGrath, Steve Bii, Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, Bhavna Chohan, Samah R Sakr, James N Kiarie, Lisa M Frenkel, Michael H Chung
Background: Pre-antiretroviral-treatment drug resistance (PDR) is a predictor of HIV treatment failure. We determined PDR-prevalence and correlates in a Kenyan cohort. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-eligible HIV-infected participants in 2013-2014 at three clinics. PDR was defined as ≥2% mutant-frequency in a participant's HIV-quasispecies at pol codons K103N, Y181C, G190A, M184 V, or K65R by oligonucleotide ligation assay...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991913/diagnosis-disclosure-to-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-rural-kenya-improves-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-and-immunologic-outcomes-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Gregg Joseph Montalto, Fredrick K Sawe, Argwings Miruka, Jonah Maswai, Ignatius Kiptoo, Appolonia Aoko, Chrispine Oreyo, Eunice Obiero, Sheila Korir, Stephen K Bii, Katherine X Song, Anjali N Kunz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Emphasis on adolescent HIV has increased worldwide as antiretroviral treatment has greatly extended life expectancies of HIV-positive children. Few evidence-based guidelines exist on the optimal time to disclose to an adolescent living with HIV (ALHIV); little is known about the medical effects of disclosure. This study looked to determine whether disclosure is associated with improved medical outcomes in ALHIV. Prior work has tended to be qualitative, cross-sectional, and with an emphasis on psychosocial outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987996/pharmacokinetic-comparison-of-seven-major-bioactive-components-in-normal-and-depression-model-rats-after-oral-administration-of-baihe-zhimu-decoction-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
Bo Yang, Zhirui Liu, Qian Wang, Yifeng Chai, Peiyuan Xia
A simple and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was firstly developed for simultaneous quantification of neomangiferin, mangiferin, regaloside A, regaloside I, timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin E and timosaponin AIII in rat plasma after oral administration of Baihe Zhimu decoction, which plays an important role for the treatment of depression. The plasma samples were pretreated by a one-step direct protein precipitation with methanol. Separation of the seven components and scutellarin (IS) from endogenous components with high selectivity and sensitivity (LLOQ, 0...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947379/acute-toxicity-28-day-repeated-dose-toxicity-and-toxicokinetic-study-of-timosaponin-bii-in-rats
#4
Ni Lin, Baofeng Liu, Jie Zhang, Yongpeng Long, Guoming Dong, Hongtao Jin, Baiping Ma
Timosaponin BII (TBII), a major steroidal saponin isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge., displays a variety of promising pharmacological activities, such as neuroprotection, enhancement of learning and memory, vascular protection and inhibition of platelet aggregation; therefore, it has been developed as a pharmaceutical for prevention or treatment of dementia. Given the safety concerns surrounding timosaponins and the absence of studies on the safety of TBII, the potential toxicity of TBII was evaluated in toxicity and toxicokinetic studies in rats...
September 22, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933833/total-synthesis-of-nahuoic-acid-ci-bii
#5
Qi Liu, Yifan Deng, Amos B Smith
A convergent total synthesis of (-)-nahuoic acid Ci(Bii) (3), a novel cis-decalin polyketide, has been achieved. Key synthetic transformations include Type II Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC) to construct the polyol chain, a Ti-catalyzed asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction to generate the cis-decalin skeleton, and a late-stage large fragment union exploiting a Micalizio alkoxide-directed alkyne-alkene coupling tactic.
October 4, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929127/risk-of-fungi-associated-with-aflatoxin-and-fumonisin-in-medicinal-herbal-products-in-the-kenyan-market
#6
Lucia Keter, Richard Too, Nicholas Mwikwabe, Charles Mutai, Jennifer Orwa, Lizzy Mwamburi, Stanley Ndwigah, Christine Bii, Richard Korir
Utilization of herbal products is a major concern due to the possibility of contamination by toxigenic fungi that are mycotoxin producers such as Aspergillus species during processing and packaging. Research was carried out to determine the presence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in herbal medicinal products sold in Eldoret and Mombasa towns in Kenya. The study employed both exploratory and laboratory experimental design. The herbal products were purchased from the market and transported to Kenya Medical Research Institute for processing and analysis...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886013/secondary-bacterial-infections-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-tungiasis-patients-in-western-kenya
#7
Ruth Monyenye Nyangacha, David Odongo, Florence Oyieke, Missiani Ochwoto, Richard Korir, Ronald Kiprotich Ngetich, Gladys Nginya, Olipher Makwaga, Christine Bii, Peter Mwitari, Festus Tolo
Tungiasis or jigger infestation is a parasitic disease caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans. Secondary infection of the lesions caused by this flea is common in endemic communities. This study sought to shed light on the bacterial pathogens causing secondary infections in tungiasis lesions and their susceptibility profiles to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Participants were recruited with the help of Community Health Workers. Swabs were taken from lesions which showed signs of secondary infection...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884956/osteoblast-cell-membrane-chromatography-coupled-with-liquid-chromatography-and-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-for-screening-specific-active-components-from-traditional-chinese-medicines
#8
Nani Wang, Qiaoyan Zhang, Hailiang Xin, Dan Shou, Luping Qin
A method using osteoblast membrane chromatography coupled with liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to recognize and identify the specific active components from traditional Chinese medicines. Primary rat osteoblasts were used for the preparation of the stationary phase in the cell chromatography method. Retention components from the cell chromatography were collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This method was applied in screening active components from extracts of four traditional Chinese medicines...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820086/stenotrophomonas-bentonitica-sp-nov-isolated-from-bentonite-formations
#9
Iván Sánchez-Castro, Miguel Angel Ruiz-Fresneda, Mohammed Bakkali, Peter Kämpfer, Stefanie P Glaeser, Hans Jürgen Busse, Margarita López-Fernández, Pablo Martínez-Rodríguez, Mohamed Larbi Merroun
A Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain, BII-R7T, was isolated during a study targeting the culture-dependent microbial diversity occurring in bentonite formations from southern Spain. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that BII-R7T represented a member of the genus Stenotrophomonas (class Gammaproteobacteria), and was related most closely to Stenotrophomonas rhizophila e-p10T (99.2 % sequence similarity), followed by Stenotrophomonas pavanii ICB 89T (98.5 %), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia IAM 12423T, Stenotrophomonas chelatiphaga LPM-5T and Stenotrophomonas tumulicola T5916-2-1bT (all 98...
August 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774976/draft-genome-sequence-of-stenotrophomonas-bentonitica-bii-r7-t-a-selenite-reducing-bacterium-isolated-from-spanish-bentonites
#10
Iván Sánchez-Castro, Mohammed Bakkali, Mohamed L Merroun
The Gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas bentonitica BII-R7(T) was isolated from bentonite formations. Like other species within the genus Stenotrophomonas, strain BII-R7(T) possesses high tolerance to numerous heavy metals, suggesting potential for bioremediation purposes. The draft genome sequence reported here comprises 4.37 Mb with a G+C content of 66.5% and 3,796 predicted protein-coding sequences.
August 3, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748027/oral-candidiasis-among-african-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-10-years-of-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-from-sub-saharan-africa
#11
REVIEW
Martha F Mushi, Oliver Bader, Liliane Taverne-Ghadwal, Christine Bii, Uwe Groß, Stephen E Mshana
Oral candidiasis (OC) is the most common opportunistic fungal infection among immunocompromised individuals. This systematic review and meta-analysis reports on the contribution of non-albicans Candida species in causing OC among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa between 2005 and 2015. Thirteen original research articles on oral Candida infection/colonization among HIV-infected African populations were reviewed. The prevalence of OC ranged from 7.6% to 75.3%. Pseudomembranous candidiasis was found to range from 12...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667690/sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-cardiac-responses-to-phobia-relevant-and-disgust-specific-emotion-provocation-in-blood-injection-injury-phobia-with-and-without-fainting-history
#12
Erica Simon, Alicia E Meuret, Thomas Ritz
The autonomic regulation in blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia has received particular attention due to the unique link between fear and fainting in this anxiety disorder. However, systematic exploration of sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity during exposure to phobia-relevant emotional stimuli has remained rare and inconclusive, including with regard to disgust, a frequent response to BII stimuli. Existing studies using respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a noninvasive index of parasympathetic cardiac activity also have not accounted sufficiently for effects of respiration...
June 30, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666166/comparison-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitory-effect-and-bioactive-constituents-of-anemarrhenae-rhizoma-and-fibrous-roots
#13
Si-Hui Nian, Hui-Jun Li, E-Hu Liu, Ping Li
Comprehensive utilization of medicinal plant resources is of great significance for sustainable development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the present study, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the rhizome and fibrous root of Anemarrhena Asphodeloides Bunge, were compared detailedly, and a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive constituents including neomangiferin, mangiferin, isomangiferin, timosaponin BII, timosaponin B, timosaponin AIII, and timosaponin N in 40 batches of samples...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660660/photovoltaic-rudorffites-lead-free-silver-bismuth-halides-alternative-to-hybrid-lead-halide-perovskites
#14
Ivan Turkevych, Said Kazaoui, Eisuke Ito, Toshiyuki Urano, Koji Yamada, Hiroshi Tomiyasu, Hideo Yamagishi, Michio Kondo, Shinji Aramaki
Hybrid CPbX3 (C: Cs, CH3 NH3 ; X: Br, I) perovskites possess excellent photovoltaic properties but are highly toxic, which hinders their practical application. Unfortunately, all Pb-free alternatives based on Sn and Ge are extremely unstable. Although stable and non-toxic C2 ABX6 double perovskites based on alternating corner-shared AX6 and BX6 octahedra (A=Ag, Cu; B=Bi, Sb) are possible, they have indirect and wide band gaps of over 2 eV. However, is it necessary to keep the corner-shared perovskite structure to retain good photovoltaic properties? Here, we demonstrate another family of photovoltaic halides based on edge-shared AX6 and BX6 octahedra with the general formula Aa Bb Xx (x=a+3 b) such as Ag3 BiI6 , Ag2 BiI5 , AgBiI4 , AgBi2 I7 ...
October 9, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643070/laparoscopic-revision-of-billroth-ii-with-braun-anastomosis-into-roux-en-y-anatomy-in-a-patient-with-intestinal-malrotation
#15
Fabio Garofalo, Omar Abouzahr, Henri Atlas, Ronald Denis, Pierre Garneau, Hai Huynh, Radu Pescarus
INTRODUCTION: Various reconstructions of the gastro-intestinal tract have been described in the past after distal gastrectomy. Among these, a Billroth II (BII) anastomosis can be performed with the addition of the Omega entero-enterostomy that may theoretically reduce the alkaline reflux. Given the significant complications associated with this procedure such as biliary reflux, marginal ulceration, and afferent loop syndrome, a revision into a Roux-en-Y anatomy is generally recommended...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633399/the-interfacial-character-of-antibody-paratopes-analysis-of-antibody-antigen-structures
#16
Minh N Nguyen, Mohan R Pradhan, Chandra Verma, Pingyu Zhong
Summary: In this study, computational methods are applied to investigate the general properties of antigen engaging residues of a paratope from a non-redundant dataset of 403 antibody-antigen complexes to dissect the contribution of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic, van der Waals contacts and ionic interactions, as well as role of water molecules in the antigen-antibody interface. Consistent with previous reports using smaller datasets, we found that Tyr, Trp, Ser, Asn, Asp, Thr, Arg, Gly, His contribute substantially to the interactions between antibody and antigen...
October 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597287/comparison-of-endoscopic-sphincterotomy-techniques-after-billroth-ii-gastrectomy-using-a-novel-mechanical-simulator
#17
Mohamed Abdelhafez, Eckart Frimberger, Peter Klare, Bernhard Haller, Roland M Schmid, Stefan von Delius
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A postsurgical anatomy renders endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) more challenging. Although different EST techniques for such a situation exist, comparative studies are lacking. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of different EST techniques using a novel mechanical simulator. METHODS: Ten expert endoscopists performed 6 different EST techniques on a novel mechanical Billroth II (BII) simulator in a random sequence. The EST techniques were (1) standard sphincterotome used with a side-viewing endoscope, (2) BII sphincterotome used with a side-viewing endoscope, (3) needle-knife EST guided by biliary endoprosthesis used with a side-viewing endoscope, (4) standard sphincterotome used with a forward-viewing endoscope, (5) BII sphincterotome used with a forward-viewing endoscope, and (6) needle-knife EST guided by biliary endoprosthesis used with a forward-viewing endoscope...
June 8, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585420/quantitative-biogeography-of-picoprasinophytes-establishes-ecotype-distributions-and-significant-contributions-to-marine-phytoplankton
#18
Alexander J Limardo, Sebastian Sudek, Chang Jae Choi, Camille Poirier, Yoshimi M Rii, Marguerite Blum, Robyn Roth, Ursula Goodenough, Matthew J Church, Alexandra Z Worden
Bathycoccus and Ostreococcus are broadly distributed marine picoprasinophyte algae. We enumerated small phytoplankton using flow cytometry and qPCR assays for phylogenetically distinct Bathycoccus clades BI and BII and Ostreococcus clades OI and OII. Among 259 photic-zone samples from transects and time-series, Ostreococcus maxima occurred in the North Pacific coastal upwelling for OI (36 713 ± 1485 copies ml(-1) ) and the Kuroshio Front for OII (50 189 ± 561 copies ml(-1) ) and the two overlapped only in frontal regions...
August 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577527/misdiagnosis-of-hiv-treatment-failure-based-on-clinical-and-immunological-criteria-in-eastern-and-central-kenya
#19
Sunguti Luke Joram, Gathii Paul, Kitheka Moses, Bii Stanley, Malonza Isaac, Gohole Allan, Marwa Tom, Karimi Lilian, Mudany Mildred
BACKGROUND: Routine laboratory monitoring is part of the basic care package offered to people living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV). This paper aims to identify the proportion of PLHIVs with clinical and immunological failure who are virologically suppressed and risk being misclassified as treatment failures. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patient viral load data collected between January 2013 and June 2014 was conducted. Of the patients classified as experiencing either clinical or immunological failure, we evaluated the proportion of true (virological) failure, and estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the immunological and clinical criteria in diagnosing true treatment failure...
June 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574448/simultaneous-quantification-of-multiple-representative-components-in-the-xian-ling-gu-bao-capsule-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Zhi-Hong Yao, Zi-Fei Qin, Hong Cheng, Xiao-Meng Wu, Yi Dai, Xin-Luan Wang, Ling Qin, Wen-Cai Ye, Xin-Sheng Yao
Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (XLGB), a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription, is extensively used for the treatment of osteoporosis in China. However, few studies on the holistic quality control of XLGB have been reported. In this study, a reliable method using 18 representative components in XLGB was successfully established and applied to evaluate 34 batches of XLGB samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). The choice of quantitative markers mostly followed four principles, i...
June 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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