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Clinic pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109077/simultaneous-but-not-consecutive-combination-with-folinate-salts-potentiates-5-fluorouracil-antitumor-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Antonello Di, Paola Orlandi, Teresa Di, Romano Danesi, Guido Bocci
The combination of folinate salts to 5-fluoruracil (5-FU)-based schedules is an established clinical routine in the landscape of the colorectal cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological differences between the sequential administration of folinate salts (1 h before, as in clinical routine) followed by 5-FU and the simultaneous administration of both drugs. Proliferation and apoptotic assays were performed on human colon cancer cells exposed to 5-FU, calcium (CaLV) or disodium (NaLV) levofolinate or their simultaneous and sequential combination for 24 and 72h...
January 20, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108860/early-cardioversion-in-atrial-fibrillation-earlier-is-better-but-not-always-and-maybe-not-immediately
#2
REVIEW
Paloma G Piña, Alexandru B Chicos
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in humans. One of its important features is the tendency to become more persistent over time, even in the absence of underlying progressive heart disease. Conversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm by pharmacological or electrical methods become increasingly difficult the longer the arrhythmia persists. Electrical, mechanical, structural, and autonomic remodeling processes have been implicated in the mechanisms of AF initiation, perpetuation, and progression...
January 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108747/national-guidelines-for-smoking-cessation-in-primary-care-a-literature-review-and-evidence-analysis
#3
Marjolein Verbiest, Evelyn Brakema, Rianne van der Kleij, Kate Sheals, Georgia Allistone, Siân Williams, Andy McEwen, Niels Chavannes
: National guidelines for smoking cessation in primary care can be effective in improving clinical practice. This study assessed which parties are involved in the development of such guidelines worldwide, which national guidelines address primary care, what recommendations are made for primary care settings, and how these recommendations correlate with each other and with current evidence. We identified national guidelines using an online resource. Only the most recent version of a guideline was included...
December 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108460/enhancer-remodeling-during-adaptive-bypass-to-mek-inhibition-is-attenuated-by-pharmacological-targeting-of-the-p-tefb-complex
#4
Jon S Zawistowski, Samantha M Bevill, Daniel R Goulet, Timothy J Stuhlmiller, Adriana S Beltran, Jose F Olivares-Quintero, Darshan Singh, Noah Sciaky, Joel S Parker, Naim U Rashid, Xin Chen, James S Duncan, Martin C Whittle, Steven P Angus, Sara Hanna Velarde, Brian T Golitz, Xiaping He, Charlene Santos, David B Darr, Kristalyn Gallagher, Lee M Graves, Charles M Perou, Lisa A Carey, H Shelton Earp, Gary L Johnson
Targeting the dysregulated BRaf-MEK-ERK pathway in cancer has increasingly emerged in clinical trial design. Despite clinical responses in specific cancers using inhibitors targeting BRaf and MEK, resistance develops often involving non-genomic adaptive bypass mechanisms. Inhibition of MEK1/2 by trametinib in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients induced dramatic transcriptional responses, including upregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) comparing tumor samples before and after one week of treatment...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108245/japanese-guidelines-for-childhood-asthma-2017
#5
REVIEW
Hirokazu Arakawa, Yuhei Hamasaki, Yoichi Kohno, Motohiro Ebisawa, Naomi Kondo, Sankei Nishima, Toshiyuki Nishimuta, Akihiro Morikawa
The Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Diseases 2017 (JAGL 2017) includes a minor revision of the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2012 (JPGL 2012) by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The section on child asthma in JAGL 2017 provides information on how to diagnose asthma between infancy and adolescence (0-15 years of age). It makes recommendations for best practices in the management of childhood asthma, including management of acute exacerbations and non-pharmacological and pharmacological management...
January 18, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108179/symptomatic-treatment-of-cough-among-adult-patients-with-lung-cancer-chest-guidelines-and-expert-panel-report
#6
Alex Molassiotis, Jaclyn A Smith, Peter Mazzone, Fiona Blackhall, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough among patients with lung cancer is a common but often undertreated symptom. We have used a recent Cochrane systematic review, among other sources of evidence, to update the recommendations and suggestions of the CHEST 2006 guideline on this topic. METHODS: The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework were used. The Expert Cough Panel based their recommendations on data from the Cochrane systematic review on the topic, uncontrolled studies, case studies, and the clinical context...
January 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108129/cardiovascular-impact-in-patients-undergoing-maintenance-hemodialysis-clinical-management-considerations
#7
REVIEW
Srisakul Chirakarnjanakorn, Sankar D Navaneethan, Gary S Francis, W H Wilson Tang
Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop both structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite improvement of dialysis technology, cardiovascular mortality of this population remains high. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are complex and not well understood. It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107677/sensitization-of-melanoma-cells-to-alkylating-agent-induced-dna-damage-and-cell-death-via-orchestrating-oxidative-stress-and-ikk%C3%AE-inhibition
#8
Anfernee Kai-Wing Tse, Ying-Jie Chen, Xiu-Qiong Fu, Tao Su, Ting Li, Hui Guo, Pei-Li Zhu, Hiu-Yee Kwan, Brian Chi-Yan Cheng, Hui-Hui Cao, Sally Kin-Wah Lee, Wang-Fun Fong, Zhi-Ling Yu
Nitrosourea represents one of the most active classes of chemotherapeutic alkylating agents for metastatic melanoma. Treatment with nitrosoureas caused severe systemic side effects which hamper its clinical use. Here, we provide pharmacological evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction and IKKβ inhibition cooperatively enhance nitrosourea-induced cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. We identified SC-514 as a ROS-inducing IKKβ inhibitor which enhanced the function of nitrosoureas. Elevated ROS level results in increased DNA crosslink efficiency triggered by nitrosoureas and IKKβ inhibition enhances DNA damage signals and sensitizes nitrosourea-induced cell death...
January 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107598/dropout-in-clinical-trials-of-pharmacologic-treatment-for-methamphetamine-dependence-the-role-of-initial-abstinence
#9
Ryan Cook, Brendan Quinn, Keith Heinzerling, Steve Shoptaw
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High rates of loss to follow-up represent a significant challenge to clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments for methamphetamine (MA) use disorder. We aimed to estimate and test the relationship between achieving and maintaining abstinence in the initial weeks of study participation and subsequent retention in such trials, hypothesizing that participants able to achieve early abstinence would be less likely to drop out. DESIGN: Data from four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacologic treatments for MA use disorder were pooled and analyzed using a random-effects approach...
January 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107120/treatment-of-diabetic-autonomic-neuropathy-in-older-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Nataliya Scheinberg, Rebecca L Salbu, Gayotri Goswami, Kenneth Cohen
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, screening and diagnosis, and optimal treatment of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) and its implications in older adults. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, DATA EXTRACTION, DATA SYNTHESIS: A search of PubMed using the Mesh terms "diabetes," "type 1," "insulin-dependent," "T1DM," and "diabetic autonomic neuropathy" was performed to find relevant primary literature. Additional search terms "epidemiology," "geriatric," and "risk" were employed...
November 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106796/preparative-scale-resolution-of-enantiomers-enables-accelerated-drug-discovery-and-development
#11
Hanna Leek, Shalini Andersson
The provision of pure enantiomers is of increasing importance not only for the pharmaceutical industry but also for agro-chemistry and biotechnology. In drug discovery and development, the enantiomers of a chiral drug depict unique chemical and pharmacological behaviors in a chiral environment, such as the human body, in which the stereochemistry of the chiral drugs determines their pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicological properties. We present a number of challenging case studies of up-to-kilogram separations of racemic or enriched isomer mixtures using preparative liquid chromatography and super critical fluid chromatography to generate individual enantiomers that have enabled the development of new candidate drugs within AstraZeneca...
January 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106706/intravitreal-ocriplasmin-in-clinical-practice-predictors-of-success-visual-outcomes-and-complications
#12
Henry L Feng, Daniel B Roth, Aisha Hasan, Howard F Fine, H Matthew Wheatley, Jonathan L Prenner, Sumit P Shah, Kunjal K Modi, William J Feuer
PURPOSE: To investigate predictors of success, visual outcomes, and complications of intravitreal ocriplasmin for the treatment of symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion in a clinical care setting. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 49 consecutive eyes of 47 patients who received intravitreal ocriplasmin. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans were examined for vitreomacular traction (VMT) release, full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) closure, and other changes in retinal anatomy...
January 18, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106668/primidone-inhibits-trpm3-and-attenuates-thermal-nociception-in-vivo
#13
Ute Krügel, Isabelle Straub, Holger Beckmann, Michael Schaefer
The melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel TRPM3 is a nonselective cation channel expressed in nociceptive neurons and activated by heat. Since TRPM3-deficient mice show inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia, pharmacological inhibition of TRPM3 may exert antinociceptive properties. Fluorometric Ca influx assays and a compound library containing approved or clinically tested drugs were used to identify TRPM3 inhibitors. Biophysical properties of channel inhibition were assessed using electrophysiological methods...
January 12, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105791/the-future-of-pleiotropic-therapy-in-heart-failure-lessons-from-the-benefits-of-exercise-training-on-endothelial-function
#14
REVIEW
Gilles W De Keulenaer, Vincent F M Segers, Faiez Zannad, Dirk L Brutsaert
A novel generation of drugs is introduced in the treatment of heart failure (HF). These drugs, including phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, guanylate cyclase stimulators and activators, share the feature that their action is either endothelial-mediated or substitutes for endothelial pathways, in particular the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, thereby influencing homeostatic balances in virtually each organ system in a pleiotropic fashion. Unfortunately, recent clinical trials with some of these drugs have shown disappointing results, at least in the setting of HF with a preserved ejection fraction...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105576/effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-and-armodafinil-on-quality-of-life-in-cancer-survivors-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Anita R Peoples, Sheila N Garland, Michael L Perlis, Josée Savard, Charles E Heckler, Charles S Kamen, Julie L Ryan, Karen M Mustian, Michelle C Janelsins, Luke J Peppone, Gary R Morrow, Joseph A Roscoe
PURPOSE: Cancer-related insomnia is associated with diminished quality of life (QOL), suggesting that improvement in insomnia may improve QOL in cancer survivors. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been shown to improve insomnia, but less is known regarding its effect on QOL and whether improvement in insomnia corresponds to improved QOL. The present analysis examines the effects of CBT-I, with and without armodafinil, on QOL both directly and indirectly through improvements of insomnia...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105156/establishment-of-a-first-line-second-line-treatment-model-for-human-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma
#16
Lining Wang, Yu Wang, Qi Guan, Yong Liu, Tianyi He, Jiaru Wang
Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer in the world. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are used clinically as treatments for numerous cancers. Due to the appearance of drug resistance, the remission rate is limited to 40-50%. Docetaxel and pemetrexed are two drugs commonly used, and their effects in single-phase cell culture are well known. From the pharmacological point of view, it appears rational to hypothesize that sequential therapy effects can show better outcomes compared with traditional single-phase experiments...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104736/pharmacological-treatment-and-risk-of-psychiatric-hospital-admission-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
Erik Joas, Alina Karanti, Jie Song, Guy M Goodwin, Paul Lichtenstein, Mikael Landén
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have examined the efficacy of drugs to prevent relapse in patients with bipolar disorder, however, their design often limits generalisation to routine clinical practice. AIMS: To estimate the effectiveness of drugs used for maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder. METHOD: We used national registers to identify 35 022 individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and information on lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, quetiapine and olanzapine treatment from 2006 to 2009...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104562/assessing-patient-rated-vs-clinician-rated-adherence-to-the-therapy-in-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-schizophrenia-responders-and-non-schizophrenia-patients
#18
Felice Iasevoli, Andrea Fagiolini, Maria Vittoria Formato, Emiliano Prinzivalli, Sara Giordano, Raffaele Balletta, Vincenzo De Luca, Andrea de Bartolomeis
The present study evaluated consistency, reliability, and determinants of two real-world measures of adherence to prescription in 57 schizophrenia and 61 non-schizophrenia patients. Treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) was additionally diagnosed in 28 of the schizophrenia patients. Patients were screened for clinical severity, cognitive functioning, and adherence by 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10) or Adherence-to-Therapy (AtT), a clinician-rated tool developed by our group. DAI-10 and AtT scores showed a significant correlation (p=0...
January 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104499/methylene-blue-increases-the-amount-of-hsf1-through-promotion-of-pka-mediated-increase-in-hsf1-p300-interaction
#19
Chao Huang, Wenfeng Hu, Jili Wang, Lijuan Tong, Xu Lu, Feng Wu, Yong Ling, Bo Jiang, Wei Zhang, Zhuo Chen, Yibin Qin, Rongrong Yang
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) critically contributes to the host defense, and its amount determines the mobilization efficiency of HSF1 under stress conditions. To date, how HSF1 amount is regulated remains largely unknown. We found that methylene blue (MB), an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent, increased the amount of HSF1 in BV-2 microglia, primary microglia, astrocytes, neurons and vital organs. The increased HSF1 contributed to a more increase in nuclear translocation of HSF1, association of HSF1 with heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) promoters and Hsp70 expression levels, and also induced a synergistic protection against oxidative stress-induced injuries in MB and heat shock-treated cells...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104437/pharmacological-intervention-for-dengue-virus-infection
#20
REVIEW
Jenn-Haung Lai, Yi-Ling Lin, Shie-Liang Hsieh
Dengue virus (DENV) infection has a considerable health impact in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Escalation of infection rates greatly increases morbidity and mortality, most commonly from deaths due to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Although the development of an effective, long-lasting vaccine has been a major aim for control and prevention of DENV infection, the currently licensed vaccine has limitations and is less than satisfactory. Thus, there remains an important need to identify effective and tolerable medications for treatment of DENV-infected patients both in the early phase, to prevent progression to fatal outcomes, and to minimize deaths after patients develop severe complications...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
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