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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166706/-acute-stress-response-after-critical-burn
#1
H T Tang, F Zhu
The stress response is a preexisting and adaptive behavioral mode of all living beings, which may bring deleterious consequences of dysfunction or failure of tissue and organ. This article aims to elaborate theories of stress response, summarize the manifestation and mechanism of acute stress response in critically burned patients, and help to improve clinical curative efficacy and prognosis of these patients by physiological, psychological and pharmacological methods.
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166553/botulinum-toxin-injection-versus-topical-nitrates-for-chronic-anal-fissure-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#2
REVIEW
Shaheel M Sahebally, Babak Meshkat, Stewart R Walsh, David Beddy
BACKGROUND: Chronic anal fissures (CAF) are frequently encountered in coloproctology clinics. Chemical sphincterotomy with pharmacological agents is recommended as first-line therapy. Topical nitrates (TN) heal CAF effectively but recurrences are common. An alternative treatment modality is injection of botulinum toxin (BT) into the anal sphincter. We aimed to perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness of BT and TN in the management of CAF. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles from inception until March 2017...
November 22, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165784/interventions-for-managing-skeletal-muscle-spasticity-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
REVIEW
Anneliese Synnot, Marisa Chau, Veronica Pitt, Denise O'Connor, Russell L Gruen, Jason Wasiak, Ornella Clavisi, Loyal Pattuwage, Kate Phillips
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle spasticity is a major physical complication resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can lead to muscle contracture, joint stiffness, reduced range of movement, broken skin and pain. Treatments for spasticity include a range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, often used in combination. Management of spasticity following TBI varies from other clinical populations because of the added complexity of behavioural and cognitive issues associated with TBI...
November 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165716/targeting-bcr-abl-independent-tki-resistance-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-by-mtor-and-autophagy-inhibition
#4
Rebecca Mitchell, Lisa E M Hopcroft, Pablo Baquero, Elaine K Allan, Kay Hewit, Daniel James, Graham Hamilton, Arunima Mukhopadhyay, Jim O'Prey, Alan Hair, Junia V Melo, Edmond Chan, Kevin M Ryan, Véronique Maguer-Satta, Brian J Druker, Richard E Clark, Subir Mitra, Pawel Herzyk, Franck E Nicolini, Paolo Salomoni, G Vignir Helgason
Background: Imatinib and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) nilotinib and dasatinib have statistically significantly improved the life expectancy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients; however, resistance to TKIs remains a major clinical challenge. Although ponatinib, a third-generation TKI, improves outcomes for patients with BCR-ABL-dependent mechanisms of resistance, including the T315I mutation, a proportion of patients may have or develop BCR-ABL-independent resistance and fail ponatinib treatment...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165623/effects-of-pharmacologic-and-nonpharmacologic-interventions-on-insomnia-symptoms-and-subjective-sleep-quality-in-women-with-hot-flashes-a-pooled-analysis-of-individual-participant-data-from-4-msflash-trials
#5
Katherine A Guthrie, Joseph C Larson, Kristine E Ensrud, Garnet L Anderson, Janet S Carpenter, Ellen W Freeman, Hadine Joffe, Andrea Z LaCroix, JoAnn E Manson, Charles M Morin, Katherine M Newton, Julie Otte, Susan D Reed, Susan M McCurry
Study Objectives: The Menopause Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health network conducted three randomized clinical trials (RCT) testing six interventions treating vasomotor symptoms (VMS), and also collected self-reported sleep outcomes. A fourth RCT assessed an intervention for insomnia symptoms among women with VMS. We describe these seven interventions' effects relative to control in women with comparably severe insomnia symptoms and VMS. Methods: We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 546 peri- and postmenopausal women with Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) >12, and ≥14 bothersome VMS/week across the four RCTs...
November 20, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165095/metabolic-syndrome-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-people-treated-with-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics
#6
Vanessa Sanchez-Martinez, Dolores Romero-Rubio, Maria Jose Abad-Perez, Maria Amparo Descalzo-Cabades, Sofia Alonso-Gutierrez, Jose Salazar-Fraile, Vicente Montagud, Lorenzo Facila
BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders have an increased mortality mainly attributed to natural causes, specifically cardiovascular disease and cancer. The metabolic syndrome and the Framingham Risk Score are epidemiologic tools related to long-term cardiovascular disease risk and they are increased in people with severe mental disorders. This increase has been attributed both to the disorder itself and to the use of antipsychotic drugs. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the cardiovascular risk in a group of people treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics...
November 20, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164564/role-of-silodosin-in-patients-with-luts-bpe-non-responding-to-medical-treatment-with-tamsulosin-a-prospective-open-label-pilot-study
#7
S Masciovecchio, A B Di Pasquale, G Ranieri, G Romano, L Di Clemente
OBJECTIVE: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are frequently experienced in association with benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). Current guidelines state that alpha-blockers should be considered the first-line therapy of LUTS associated with BPE in most patients. However, in clinical practice treatment efficacy differs among individuals and, therefore, intra-class switch from one alpha-blocker to another, is frequently applied. In particular, switching to silodosin in clinical practice appears an intriguing therapeutic strategy due to the peculiar pharmacological properties of this molecule...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164439/brief-report-major-depressive-disorder-with-psychotic-features-in-williams-syndrome-a-case-series
#8
Francisca Valdes, Christopher J Keary, Jennifer E Mullett, Michelle L Palumbo, Jessica L Waxler, Barbara R Pober, Christopher J McDougle
Descriptions of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychotic features have not appeared in the literature. In addition to reviewing previous reports of psychotic symptoms in persons with WS, this paper introduces clinical histories and therapeutic management strategies for three previously unreported adults with WS diagnosed with co-morbid MDD with psychotic features. Co-morbid medical disorders common in WS are highlighted with regard to safe and appropriate pharmacological treatment...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164426/the-impact-of-vascular-disease-treatment-on-platelet-derived-microvesicles
#9
Justyna Rosińska, Maria Łukasik, Wojciech Kozubski
Platelet-derived microvesicles (pMVs) are small, heterogeneous vesicles released from platelet membranes as a result of activation. These microvesicles possess a wide range of properties, including prothrombotic, proatherogenic, proinflammatory, immunomodulatory, and even anticoagulant activity. The elevated release of these microvesicles has been observed in various metabolic, inflammatory, thrombotic, and vascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and connective tissue disease...
November 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163691/autophagy-inhibition-contributes-to-endostar-sensitization-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
Xinghua Han, Zhanggui Wang, Bin Hu, Jianming Xu
Endostar is a novel artificially-synthesized anti-angiogenesis drug, and has been approved for clinical use. Previous studies have indicated that patients with esophageal cancer could benefit from Endostar combined with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. However, the most advantageous use of this drug remains to be elucidated. The role of autophagy in cancer treatment remains controversial. The results of the present study demonstrated that Endostar promotes autophagy activation, which is regulated via phosphorylation inhibition of the downstream signaling molecules of the vascular endothelial growth factor, AKT serine/threonine kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163463/selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-properties-of-gsk866-analogs-with-cysteine-reactive-warheads
#11
Chandra S Chirumamilla, Ajay Palagani, Balu Kamaraj, Ken Declerck, Marinus W C Verbeek, Ryabtsova Oksana, Karolien De Bosscher, Nadia Bougarne, Bart Ruttens, Kris Gevaert, René Houtman, Winnok H De Vos, Jurgen Joossens, Pieter Van Der Veken, Koen Augustyns, Xaveer Van Ostade, Annemie Bogaerts, Hans De Winter, Wim Vanden Berghe
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GC) are the mainstay therapy for treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. Due to the high adverse effects associated with long-term use, GC pharmacology has focused since the nineties on more selective GC ligand-binding strategies, classified as selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists (SEGRAs) or selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators (SEGRMs). In the current study, GSK866 analogs with electrophilic covalent-binding warheads were developed with potential SEGRA properties to improve their clinical safety profile for long-lasting topical skin disease applications...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163223/have-the-findings-from-clinical-risk-prediction-and-trials-any-key-messages-for-safety-pharmacology
#12
REVIEW
Jem D Lane, Andrew Tinker
Anti-arrhythmic drugs are a mainstay in the management of symptoms related to arrhythmias, and are adjuncts in prevention and treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. However, they also have the potential for pro-arrhythmia and thus the prediction of arrhythmia predisposition and drug response are critical issues. Clinical trials are the latter stages in the safety testing and efficacy process prior to market release, and as such serve as a critical safeguard. In this review, we look at some of the lessons to be learned from approaches to arrhythmia prediction in patients, clinical trials of drugs used in the treatment of arrhythmias, and the implications for the design of pre-clinical safety pharmacology testing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163153/ketogal-a-derivative-ketorolac-molecule-with-minor-ulcerogenic-and-renal-toxicity
#13
Roberto Russo, Carmen De Caro, Bice Avallone, Salvatore Magliocca, Maria Nieddu, Gianpiero Boatto, Roberta Troiano, Rosario Cuomo, Carla Cirillo, Carmen Avagliano, Claudia Cristiano, Giovanna La Rana, Giovanni Sarnelli, Antonio Calignano, Maria G Rimoli
Ketorolac is a powerful non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), with a great analgesic activity, present on the Italian market since 1991. Despite the excellent therapeutic activity, the chronic use of ketorolac has long been limited owing to the high incidence of gastrointestinal and kidney side events. In our previous study, we demonstrated that ketorolac-galactose conjugate (ketogal), synthesized and tested in a single-dose study, was able to reduce ulcerogenicity, while preserving the high pharmacological efficacy of its parent drug...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162554/sustained-administration-of-corticosterone-at-stress-like-levels-after-stroke-suppressed-glial-reactivity-at-sites-of-thalamic-secondary-neurodegeneration
#14
Katarzyna Zalewska, Giovanni Pietrogrande, Lin Kooi Ong, Mahmoud Abdolhoseini, Murielle Kluge, Sarah J Johnson, Frederick R Walker, Michael Nilsson
Secondary neurodegeneration (SND) is an insidious and progressive condition involving the death of neurons in regions of the brain that were connected to but undamaged by the initial stroke. Our group have published compelling evidence that exposure to psychological stress can significantly exacerbate the severity SND, a finding that has considerable clinical implications given that stroke-survivors often report experiencing high and unremitting levels of psychological stress. It may be possible to use one or more targeted pharmacological approaches to limit the negative effects of stress on the recovery process but in order to move forward with this approach the most critical stress signals have to be identified...
November 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162539/modulation-of-diverse-oncogenic-transcription-factors-by-thymoquinone-an-essential-oil-compound-isolated-from-the-seeds-of-nigella-sativa-linn
#15
REVIEW
Muthu K Shanmugam, Frank Arfuso, Alan Prem Kumar, Lingzhi Wang, Boon Cher Goh, Kwang Seok Ahn, Anupam Bishayee, Gautam Sethi
Thymoquinone (TQ), isolated almost fifty years ago, is the main bioactive constituent of black seed essential oil extracted from the seed of Nigella sativa. TQ has been shown to have promising effects against a variety of inflammatory diseases and cancer. Cancer development is a multistep process where normal cells acquire qualities that enable the cells to proliferate continuously and migrate to distant sites in the human body. Drugs that interfere with this process are considered potential anti-cancer therapeutics, which may ultimately result in their clinical usage...
November 18, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161956/percutaneous-repair-of-mitral-valve-regurgitation-in-patients-with-severe-heart-failure-comparison-with-optimal-medical-treatment
#16
Nicolas Geis, Philip Raake, Markus Lewening, Derliz Mereles, Emmanuel Chorianopoulos, Lutz Frankenstein, Hugo A Katus, Raffi Bekeredjian, Sven T Pleger
BACKGROUND: Occurrence of severe mitral valve (MV) regurgitation (MR) is an independent negative predictor of mortality in patients with severe systolic heart failure (HF). This study examines clinical effects and cardiac reverse remodelling in patients with severe systolic HF receiving percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) using MitraClip in comparison to patients receiving optimal medical therapy only. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2014, 86 patients (Society of Thoracic Surgeons score: 10...
November 21, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161912/developing-an-integrative-treatment-program-for-cancer-related-fatigue-using-stakeholder-engagement-a-qualitative-study
#17
Claudia Canella, Michael Mikolasek, Matthias Rostock, Jörg Beyer, Matthias Guckenberger, Josef Jenewein, Esther Linka, Claudia Six, Sarah Stoll, Roger Stupp, Claudia M Witt
BACKGROUND: Although cancer-related fatigue (CRF) has gained increased attention in the past decade, it remains difficult to treat. An integrative approach combining conventional and complementary medicine interventions seems highly promising. Treatment programs are more likely to be effective if the needs and interests of the people involved are well represented. This can be achieved through stakeholder engagement. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to develop an integrative CRF treatment program using stakeholder engagement and to compare it to an expert version...
November 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161465/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-for-the-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolism
#18
REVIEW
Shahab Hajibandeh, Shahin Hajibandeh, George A Antoniou, James Rh Scurr, Francesco Torella
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious but preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation systems (NMES) for the prevention of VTE may be beneficial for patients in whom pharmacological or standard mechanical prophylaxis methods are contraindicated or are regarded as unsafe or impractical. Although findings of experimental studies suggest that NMES reduce venous stasis, the clinical utility and effectiveness of NMES in VTE prevention remain controversial...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161398/role-of-gabaa-receptor-subtypes-in-the-behavioural-effects-of-intravenous-general-anaesthetics
#19
C J Weir, S J Mitchell, J J Lambert
Since the introduction of general anaesthetics into clinical practice, researchers have been mystified as to how these chemically disparate drugs act to produce their dramatic effects on central nervous system function and behaviour. Scientific advances, particularly during the last 25 years, have now begun to reveal the molecular mechanisms underpinning their behavioural effects. For certain i.v. general anaesthetics, such as etomidate and propofol, a persuasive case can now be made that the GABAA receptor, a major inhibitory receptor in the mammalian central nervous system, is an important target...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161185/medications-for-sleep-schedule-adjustments-in-athletes
#20
Matthew B Baird, Irfan M Asif
CONTEXT: Sleep schedule adjustments are common requirements of modern-day athletes. Many nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic strategies exist to facilitate circadian rhythm shifts to maximize alertness and performance during competition. This review summarizes the evidence for commonly used pharmacologic agents and presents recommendations for the sports medicine provider. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: MEDLINE searches were performed using the following keywords: sleep aids, circadian rhythm adjustment, athletes and sleep, caffeine and sports, melatonin and athletes, and sleep aids and sports...
November 1, 2017: Sports Health
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