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Clinic pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230801/ethnopharmacology-chemistry-and-biological-properties-of-four-malian-medicinal-plants
#1
REVIEW
Karl Egil Malterud
The ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacology of four Malian medicinal plants, Biophytum umbraculum, Burkea africana, Lannea velutina and Terminalia macroptera are reviewed. These plants are used by traditional healers against numerous ailments: malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, wounds, sexually transmitted diseases, insect bites and snake bites, etc. The scientific evidence for these uses is, however, limited. From the chemical and pharmacological evidence presented here, it seems possible that the use in traditional medicine of these plants may have a rational basis, although more clinical studies are needed...
February 21, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230176/antithrombotic-therapy-for-patients-with-stemi-undergoing-primary-pci
#2
REVIEW
Francesco Franchi, Fabiana Rollini, Dominick J Angiolillo
Antithrombotic therapy, including antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents, is the cornerstone of pharmacological treatment to optimize clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Intravenous anticoagulant drugs available for PPCI include the indirect thrombin inhibitors unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin, and the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin. Intravenous antiplatelet drugs mainly include glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and the P2Y12-receptor inhibitor cangrelor...
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229443/-desvenlafaxine-and-neuropathic-pain-additional-clinical-benefits-of-a-second-generation-serotonin-noradrenaline-reuptake-inhibitor
#3
REVIEW
A Alcantara-Montero
INTRODUCTION: Desvenlafaxine is the third antidepressant within the group of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. The latest clinical practice guidelines consulted agree that tricyclic antidepressants, dual (venlafaxine/duloxetine) and gabapentin/pregabalin antiepileptics, are the first-line drugs in the treatment of neuropathic pain, being tramadol, lidocaine 5% patches and capsaicin 8% patches of second-line drugs, while strong opioids constitute a third line treatment. The interaction between the binomial pain and depression is very frequent, being the psychological complication more frequent in patients with chronic pain...
March 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229401/a-clinical-approach-to-addressing-diet-with-migraine-patients
#4
REVIEW
Margaret Slavin, Jessica Ailani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Migraine is a common disorder causing attacks of neurological dysfunction and pain. Treatment ranges from pharmacological to lifestyle changes to improve both frequency and severity of attacks. Focus on lifestyle changes, especially diet, is often discussed during clinical visits in the care of migraine patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Diet may play a role in triggering migraine, but available evidence on migraine and diet is limited. When advising patients on dietary changes to improve migraine, it is important to acknowledge the limits in evidence and the larger role that diet may play in lifestyle changes...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229252/pain-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-prevalence-mechanisms-management-and-future-developments
#5
REVIEW
Andreas I Koulouris, Paul Banim, Andrew R Hart
Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence...
February 22, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229162/pharmacokinetics-of-recombinant-human-soluble-thrombomodulin-in-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-patients-with-acute-renal-dysfunction
#6
Mineji Hayakawa, Shigeki Kushimoto, Eizo Watanabe, Koji Goto, Yasushi Suzuki, Toru Kotani, Takeyuki Kiguchi, Tomoaki Yatabe, Jun Tagawa, Fumiyo Komatsu, Satoshi Gando
Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (ART-123) is a novel anticoagulant for patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). It is widely used in clinical settings throughout Japan. Furthermore, a global Phase 3 study is currently being conducted. In healthy subjects, ART-123 is excreted mainly via the kidneys. Therefore, ART-123 dose decrease was recommended in DIC patients with severe renal dysfunction. However, the pharmacokinetics of ART-123 in DIC patients with severe acute renal dysfunction has not been elucidated...
February 23, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228784/atypical-periprosthetic-acetabular-fracture-in-long-term-alendronate-therapy
#7
Giuseppe Marongiu, Antonio Capone
Bisphosphonates have been commonly used in the treatment of osteoporosis, demonstrating its efficacy in fracture risk reduction. However, even if are generally safe and well tolerated, concerns have emerged about atypical fractures related to its prolonged use. Although atypical femoral fracture are more common, case reports demonstrated that even other skeletal areas can be involved by unusual pattern of fracture. We report a atypical acetabular periprosthetic fracture in a 83-year-old female patient after prolonged alendronate treatment for osteoporosis and isolated acetabular revision surgery...
September 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228735/the-potential-use-of-pharmacological-agents-to-modulate-orthodontic-tooth-movement-otm
#8
REVIEW
Thaleia Kouskoura, Christos Katsaros, Stephan von Gunten
The biological processes that come into play during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) have been shown to be influenced by a variety of pharmacological agents. The effects of such agents are of particular relevance to the clinician as the rate of tooth movement can be accelerated or reduced as a result. This review aims to provide an overview of recent insights into drug-mediated effects and the potential use of drugs to influence the rate of tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. The limitations of current experimental models and the need for well-designed clinical and pre-clinical studies are also discussed...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228660/estimating-the-economic-consequences-of-an-increased-medication-adherence-due-to-a-potential-improvement-in-the-inhaler-technique-with-spiromax-%C3%A2-compared-with-turbuhaler-%C3%A2-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-spain
#9
Josep Darbà, Gabriela Ramírez, Juan L García-Rivero, Sagrario Mayoralas, José Francisco Pascual, Diego Vargas, Adi Bijedic
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of the introduction of DuoResp(®) Spiromax(®), budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (FDC), focusing on an increase in medication adherence due to an enhancement of the inhalation technique for the treatment of COPD patients in Spain and 5 regions including Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia. METHODS: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the time period of 2015-2018...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#10
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228076/transdermal-drug-delivery-opportunities-and-challenges-for-controlled-delivery-of-therapeutic-agents-using-nanocarriers
#11
Balak Das Kurmi, Pawan Tekchandani, Rishi Paliwal, Shivani Rai Paliwal
BACKGROUND: Transdermal drug delivery represents an extremely attractive and innovative route across the skin owing to the possibility for achieving systemic effect of drugs. Present scenario demands a special focus on developing safe medicine with minimize toxic adverse effects related to most of the pharmacologically active agents. Transdermal drug delivery would be a focal paradigm which provides patient convenience, first-pass hepatic metabolism avoidance, local targeting and reduction in toxic effect related to various categories of drugs like, analgesics, anti-inflammatory, antibiotics, antiviral, anaesthetic, anticancer etc...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228056/brexpiprazole
#12
Marija Markovic, Alyssa Gallipani, Krina H Patel, Megan Maroney
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology and clinical data for brexpiprazole in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). DATA SOURCES: An English-language literature search using PubMed and MEDLINE was performed using the term brexpiprazole. All articles containing human clinical trial data published up to September 2016 were evaluated for inclusion as well as information from the manufacturer's product labeling. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: Phase 3 trials for brexpiprazole were evaluated...
April 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225996/effect-of-diacerein-as-an-add-on-to-metformin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-inadequate-glycemic-control
#13
Miriam Méndez-Del Villar, Esperanza Martínez-Abundis, Rafael O Preciado-Márquez, Manuel González-Ortiz
Objective: To evaluate the effect of diacerein as an add-on to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and inadequate glycemic control. Materials and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 12 patients with T2DM and inadequate glycemic control [glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) ≥ 7%] with metformin as monotherapy (≥ 1500 mg per day) for at least the previous 90 days. Fasting and postprandial glucose were measured before and after the pharmacological intervention...
February 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225800/the-risk-of-disabling-surgery-and-reoperation-in-crohn-s-disease-a-decision-tree-based-approach-to-prognosis
#14
Cláudia Camila Dias, Pedro Pereira Rodrigues, Samuel Fernandes, Francisco Portela, Paula Ministro, Diana Martins, Paula Sousa, Paula Lago, Isadora Rosa, Luis Correia, Paula Moura Santos, Fernando Magro
INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease known to carry a high risk of disabling and many times requiring surgical interventions. This article describes a decision-tree based approach that defines the CD patients' risk or undergoing disabling events, surgical interventions and reoperations, based on clinical and demographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicentric study involved 1547 CD patients retrospectively enrolled and divided into two cohorts: a derivation one (80%) and a validation one (20%)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225753/complement-drives-glucosylceramide-accumulation-and-tissue-inflammation-in-gaucher-disease
#15
Manoj K Pandey, Thomas A Burrow, Reena Rani, Lisa J Martin, David Witte, Kenneth D Setchell, Mary A Mckay, Albert F Magnusen, Wujuan Zhang, Benjamin Liou, Jörg Köhl, Gregory A Grabowski
Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in GBA1, which encodes the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 mutations drive extensive accumulation of glucosylceramide (GC) in multiple innate and adaptive immune cells in the spleen, liver, lung and bone marrow, often leading to chronic inflammation. The mechanisms that connect excess GC to tissue inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that activation of complement C5a and C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) controls GC accumulation and the inflammatory response in experimental and clinical Gaucher disease...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225019/trpv1-deletion-impaired-fracture-healing-and-inhibited-osteoclast-and-osteoblast-differentiation
#16
Lin-Hai He, Meng Liu, Yang He, E Xiao, Lu Zhao, Ting Zhang, Hua-Qian Yang, Yi Zhang
Fracture healing, in which osteoclasts and osteoblasts play important roles, has drawn much clinical attention. Osteoclast deficiency or decreased osteoblast activity will impair fracture healing. TRPV1 is a member of the Ca(2+) permeable cation channel subfamily, and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss, which makes TRPV1 a potential target for osteoporosis. However, whether long term TRPV1 inhibition or TRPV1 deletion will affect the fracture healing process is unclear...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225016/novel-liver-targeted-conjugates-of-glycogen-phosphorylase-inhibitor-psn-357-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-design-synthesis-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacological-evaluations
#17
Liying Zhang, Chengjun Song, Guangxin Miao, Lianzhi Zhao, Zhiwei Yan, Jing Li, Youde Wang
PSN-357, an effective glycogen phosphorylase (GP) inhibitor for the treatment for type 2 diabetics, is hampered in its clinical use by the poor selectivity between the GP isoforms in liver and in skeletal muscle. In this study, by the introduction of cholic acid, 9 novel potent and liver-targeted conjugates of PSN-357 were obtained. Among these conjugates, conjugate 6 exhibited slight GP inhibitory activity (IC50 = 31.17 μM), good cellular efficacy (IC50 = 13.39 μM) and suitable stability under various conditions...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224821/lenvatinib-for-use-in-combination-with-everolimus-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma-following-one-prior-anti-angiogenic-therapy
#18
Aine O'Reilly, James Larkin
In patients with mRCC options for second line therapies, following progression on anti-angiogenic agents, that demonstrate a survival advantage in clinical trials have been limited. Recently a number of agents have demonstrated efficacy in this setting. Here in we profile one such therapy, the combination of lenvatinib and everolimus, and discuss the expanded options for therapy available in this setting. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss current algorithms for treatment of mRCC in both the first-line and second-line setting...
March 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224732/pathways-into-psychopathology-modeling-the-effects-of-trait-emotional-intelligence-mindfulness-and-irrational-beliefs-in-a-clinical-sample
#19
K V Petrides, María G Gómez, Juan-Carlos Pérez-González
: We investigated possible pathways into mental illness via the combined effects of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI), mindfulness, and irrational beliefs. The sample comprised 121 psychiatric outpatients (64.5% males, mean age = 38.8 years) with a variety of formal clinical diagnoses. Psychopathology was operationalized by means of 3 distinct indicators from the Millon Clinical Multi-Axial Inventory (mild pathology, severe pathology, and clinical symptomatology). A structural equation model confirmed significant direct trait EI and mindfulness effects on irrational beliefs and psychopathology...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224609/mir-181-elevates-akt-signaling-by-co-targeting-phlpp2-and-inpp4b-phosphatases-in-luminal-breast-cancer
#20
Michaela Strotbek, Simone Schmid, Ismael Sànchez-Gonzàlez, Melanie Boerries, Hauke Busch, Monilola A Olayioye
The PI3K-Akt pathway is one of the most commonly dysregulated cancer-associated signaling pathways. Here we report an oncogenic function for the miR-181 family in luminal breast cancer cells that involves Akt hyperactivation. We show that miR-181a and miR-181d post-transcriptionally suppress the expression of PHLPP2 and INPP4B phosphatases, resulting in elevated growth factor-induced Akt phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of miR-181a and miR-181d promoted S-phase entry and cell proliferation, which was reversed by pharmacological Akt inhibition...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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