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Clinic pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738523/a-natriuretic-peptides-clearance-receptor-s-agonist-reduces-pulmonary-artery-pressures-and-enhances-cardiac-performance-in-preclinical-models-new-hope-for-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension-due-to-left-ventricular-heart-failure
#1
Emmanuel Eroume Egom, Tiam Feridooni, Rebabonye B Pharithi, Barkat Khan, Haaris A Shiwani, Vincent Maher, Yassine El Hiani, Kishore B S Pasumarthi, Hilaire A Ribama
BACKGROUND: In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common and represents a strong predictor of death. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding there is as yet no prospect of cure of this deadly clinical entity and the majority of patients continue to progress to right ventricular failure and die. Furthermore, there is no single medical treatment currently approved for PH related to HF. There is, therefore an urgent unmet need to identify novel pharmacological agents that will prevent the progressive increased or reverse the elevated pulmonary arterial pressures while enhancing cardiac performance in HF...
July 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738385/pharmacological-and-nonpharmacological-interventions-to-arrest-neuroprogression-in-psychiatric-disorders
#2
Fotini Boufidou, Angelos Halaris
The concept of neuroprogression describes the progressive course of the disorder and stresses the progressive, recurrent, and chronic course of the disease entity under consideration. It subsumes clinical manifestations of the disease process and may also entail morphological, biochemical, neurochemical, immunological, physiological, and genetic aspects that contribute to the progressive course of the disease in question. In an attempt to identify the appropriate agent or method that could arrest neuroprogression in psychiatric patients, we conducted an evaluation of the use of anti-inflammatory drugs under the perspective of current pharmacological and neurophysiological data...
July 24, 2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737843/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-for-cancer-related-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#3
REVIEW
Tess E Cooper, Lauren C Heathcote, Brian Anderson, Marie-Claude Grégoire, Gustaf Ljungman, Christopher Eccleston
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for pharmacological treatments for persisting pain in children acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. Views on children's pain have changed over time and relief of pain is now seen as important. In the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, and it was assumed that children quickly forgot about painful experiences...
July 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737768/arid1a-mutated-ovarian-cancers-depend-on-hdac6%C3%A2-activity
#4
Benjamin G Bitler, Shuai Wu, Pyoung Hwa Park, Yang Hai, Katherine M Aird, Yemin Wang, Yali Zhai, Andrew V Kossenkov, Ana Vara-Ailor, Frank J Rauscher Iii, Weiping Zou, David W Speicher, David G Huntsman, Jose R Conejo-Garcia, Kathleen R Cho, David W Christianson, Rugang Zhang
ARID1A, encoding a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex, is the most frequently mutated epigenetic regulator across all human cancers. ARID1A and TP53 mutations are typically mutually exclusive. Therapeutic approaches that correlate with this genetic characteristic remain to be explored. Here, we show that HDAC6 activity is essential in ARID1A-mutated ovarian cancers. Inhibition of HDAC6 activity using a clinically applicable small-molecule inhibitor significantly improved the survival of mice bearing ARID1A-mutated tumours...
July 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737198/-tetany-secondary-to-phosphate-enema-toxicity-case-report
#5
María José Núñez Sánchez, Sofía Leighton Swaneck, Franco Díaz
Phosphate enemas are frequently used in the treatment of constipation. Errors in dosage and administration can lead to severe complications. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of severe toxicity of phosphate enemas in a child with no risk factors. CASE: 2 years old female, with functional constipation, was brought to emergency department because abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with fecal impaction and received half a bottle of Fleet Adult® (Laboratorio Synthon, Chile) two times, with no clinical resolution, deciding to start proctoclisis in pediatric ward...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735565/can-pharmacological-manipulation-of-ltp-favor-the-effects-of-motor-rehabilitation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Letizia Leocani, Giancarlo Comi, Ennio Iezzi, Diego Centonze
BACKGROUND: Synaptic plasticity, the basic mechanism of clinical recovery after brain lesion, can also remarkably influence the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Physical rehabilitation represents the main treatment option to promote synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and to enhance spontaneous recovery of neurological deficits. OBJECTIVES: To overview the role of pharmacological treatment and physical rehabilitation in modulating LTP and enhancing clinical recovery in MS...
July 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735109/design-and-rationale-for-a-real-world-observational-cohort-of-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-target-nash-study
#7
A Sidney Barritt, Norman Gitlin, Samuel Klein, Anna S Lok, Rohit Loomba, Laura Malahias, Margaret Powell, Miriam B Vos, L Michael Weiss, Kenneth Cusi, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Arun Sanyal
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver disease. NAFLD comprises the spectrum from simple steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver, NAFL), to steatosis with inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH). Current primary therapy recommended for NAFLD is weight loss induced by lifestyle modification. The difficulty in achieving this has led to robust pharmacological therapy development. While new drugs may show efficacy in selected phase II/III clinical trial populations, their real-world effectiveness is unknown...
July 19, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735000/application-of-pharmacometrics-and-quantitative-systems-pharmacology-to-cancer-therapy-the-example-of-luminal-a-breast-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Brett Fleisher, Kayla Andrews, Ashley A Brown, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. It is a heterogeneous disease composed of multiple subtypes with distinct morphologies and clinical implications. Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) is an emerging discipline bridging systems biology with pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) leveraging the systematic understanding of drugs' efficacy and toxicity. Despite numerous challenges in applying computational methodologies for QSP and mechanism-based PK/PD models to biological, physiological, and pharmacological data, bridging these disciplines has the potential to enhance our understanding of complex disease systems such as BC...
July 19, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734960/pharmacokinetic-interactions-of-curcuminoids-with-conventional-drugs-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Roja Rahimi, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herb-drug interactions are of great concern in health practices. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol extracted from turmeric, a spice widely used all over the world. Curcumin is clinically used due to its acceptable safety profile and therapeutic efficacy. AIM OF THE STUDY: Current paper aims to highlight the effect of curcumin on concomitantly used drugs. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct were searched with the keywords "curcumin" in the title/abstract and "drug interaction," "drug metabolism," "cytochrome," "P-glycoprotein" and "P450" in the whole text...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734639/ffa4-gpr120-pharmacology-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#10
REVIEW
Graeme Milligan, Elisa Alvarez-Curto, Brian D Hudson, Rudi Prihandoko, Andrew B Tobin
Free Fatty Acid receptor 4 (FFA4), also known as GPR120, is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) responsive to long-chain fatty acids that is attracting considerable attention as a potential novel therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although no clinical studies have yet been initiated to assess efficacy in this indication, a significant number of primary publications and patents have highlighted the ability of agonists with potency at FFA4 to improve glucose disposition and enhance insulin sensitivity in animal models...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734089/dementia-risk-and-prevention-by-targeting-modifiable-vascular-risk-factors
#11
REVIEW
Sana Tariq, Philip A Barber
The incidence of dementia is expected to double in the next 20 years and will contribute to heavy social and economic burden. Dementia is caused by neuronal loss that leads to brain atrophy years before symptoms manifest. Currently, no cure exists and extensive efforts are being made to mitigate cognitive impairment in late life in order to reduce the burden on patients, caregivers, and society. The most common type of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) often co-exists in the brain and shares common, modifiable risk factors, which are targeted in numerous secondary prevention trials...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733984/implant-treatment-in-pharmacologically-immunosuppressed-liver-transplant-patients-a-prospective-controlled-study
#12
Víctor Paredes, Rosa María López-Pintor, Jesús Torres, Juan Carlos de Vicente, Mariano Sanz, Gonzalo Hernández
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of implant therapy in liver transplant patients (LTP). The secondary goal was to assess several implant- and patient-dependent variables, such as peri-implantitis (PI), peri-implant mucositis (PIM), bone loss (BL), and immediate postoperative complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups, including 16 pharmacologically immunosuppressed LTP and 16 matched controls, received 52 and 54 implants, respectively, between 1999 and 2008...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733905/glp-1-glucagon-receptor-co-agonism-for-treatment-of-obesity
#13
REVIEW
Miguel A Sánchez-Garrido, Sara J Brandt, Christoffer Clemmensen, Timo D Müller, Richard D DiMarchi, Matthias H Tschöp
Over a relatively short period, obesity and type 2 diabetes have come to represent a large medical and economic burden to global societies. The epidemic rise in the prevalence of obesity has metabolic consequences and is paralleled by an increased occurrence of other diseases, such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular complications. Together, obesity and type 2 diabetes constitute one of the more preventable causes of premature death and the identification of novel, safe and effective anti-obesity drugs is of utmost importance...
July 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733759/management-of-gait-changes-and-fall-risk-in-mci-and-dementia
#14
REVIEW
Gilles Allali, Joe Verghese
Gait disorders and falls are very prevalent in aging, especially in older adults with cognitive impairment: older adults with dementia are 2-3 times more likely to fall than their non-demented counterparts. The management of gait disorders and falls in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia begins by their identification with the use of specific screening tools, such as measuring gait speed, use of dual-task gait tests, or diagnosing motoric cognitive risk syndrome, a newly described pre-dementia syndrome...
September 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733468/management-impact-effects-on-quality-of-life-and-prognosis-in-men1
#15
Francesca Marini, Francesca Giusti, Francesco Tonelli, Maria Luisa Brandi
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant endocrine tumor syndrome, caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene at 11q13 locus, which predisposes to develop tumors in target neuroendocrine tissues. Since the positional cloning and identification of the causative gene in 1997, genetic diagnosis, by the sequencing-based research of gene mutations, has become an important tool in the early and differential diagnosis of the disease. Application of the genetic test, in MEN1 index cases and in first degree relatives of mutated patients, has been constantly increasing during the last two decades, also thanks to the establishment of multidisciplinary referral centers and specific genetic counselling, and thanks to the wide availability of high throughput instruments for gene sequencing and gene mutation identification...
July 21, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733448/pathophysiology-of-cardiorenal-syndrome-in-patients-with-heart-failure-potential-therapeutic-targets
#16
Hiroyuki Takahama, Masafumi Kitakaze
Despite the development of pharmacological inventions and new non-pharamacological techniques to prevent and treat HF, the mortality rate in patients with symptomatic HF remains high. To conquer these difficulties, the pathophysiology of HF should be considered within a wide range of views. Given the diverse mechanisms of HF pathophysiology, renal and cardiac functions have close and complementary interconnections. Recent studies suggest that communication between kidney and heart through bidirectional pathways causes significant pathological changes...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733142/deprescribing-for-frail-older-people-learning-from-the-case-of-mrs-hansen
#17
Anne Gerd Granas, Marit Stendal Bakken, Sabine Ruths, Katja Taxis
Drug treatment is often an essential part in treatment and prevention of diseases in older people, but there is much concern about inappropriate medication use. This paper aims to describe the complexity of medication safety issues and clinical judgments when optimizing prescribing in older individuals. It uses the case of Mrs. Hansen, an aged nursing home resident, to illustrate the facilitators and barriers of this process. With decreasing life expectancy, medication use should shift from cure to care, focusing on symptomatic treatment to increase the patient's well-being...
July 13, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732770/pharmacologic-modeling-of-primary-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-dysfunction-in-zebrafish
#18
James Byrnes, Rebecca Ganetzky, Richard Lightfoot, Michael Tzeng, Eiko Nakamaru-Ogiso, Christoph Seiler, Marni J Falk
Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease is a heterogeneous and highly morbid group of energy deficiency disorders for which no proven effective therapies exist. Robust vertebrate animal models of primary RC dysfunction are needed to explore the effects of variation in RC disease subtypes, tissue-specific manifestations, and major pathogenic factors contributing to each disorder, as well as their pre-clinical response to therapeutic candidates. We have developed a series of zebrafish (Danio rerio) models that inhibit, to variable degrees, distinct aspects of RC function, and enable quantification of animal development, survival, behaviors, and organ-level treatment effects on function as well as mitochondrial biochemistry and physiology...
July 18, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732458/use-of-a-complete-autologous-blood-recovery-system-the-sorin-xtra%C3%A2-autotransfusion-system-during-mechanical-thrombectomy-of-extensive-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis
#19
C Castaño, C Cubells, S Remollo, M R García-Sort, M Terceño
Background The endovascular therapy for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is currently accepted as a second-line treatment for patients who have failed or those in whom systemic anticoagulation is contraindicated or in a subgroup of patients presenting with rapid neurologic deterioration. A number of different mechanical and pharmacologic endovascular strategies have been reported, either as separate or combined approaches. These new catheters and aspiration systems have a high power and vacuum capacity, which carries a risk of anemization of the patient and hypovolemic shock, being necessitating the transfusion of the patient...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732252/update-on-medical-treatment-of-uterine-fibroids
#20
REVIEW
Fátima Faustino, Margarida Martinho, José Reis, Fernanda Águas
OBJECTIVES: In this review paper, the pros and cons of the available pharmacological options for the treatment of uterine fibroids are explored, including oral progestogens, levonorgestrel intra-uterine device, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs and progesterone receptor modulators with an emphasis on ulipristal acetate. STUDY DESIGN: The choice of the appropriate therapeutic approach for uterine fibroids depends on several factors, including women's age, parity, childbearing aspirations and wish to preserve fertility, extent and severity of symptoms, size, number and location of myomas, risk of malignancy and proximity to menopause...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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