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Legal medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110223/guilt-without-fault-a-qualitative-study-into-the-ethics-of-forgiveness-after-traumatic-childbirth
#1
Katja Schrøder, Karen la Cour, Jan Stener Jørgensen, Ronald F Lamont, Niels Christian Hvidt
When a life is lost or severely impaired during childbirth, the midwife and obstetrician involved may experience feelings of guilt in the aftermath. Through three empirical cases, the paper examines the sense of guilt in the context of the current patient safety culture in healthcare where a blame-free approach is promoted in the aftermath of adverse events. The purpose is to illustrate how healthcare professionals may experience guilt without being at fault after adverse events, and Gamlund's theory on forgiveness without blame is used as the theoretical framework for this analysis...
January 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109021/affordable-orphan-drugs-a-role-for-not-for-profit-organisations
#2
E H Davies, E Fulton, D Brook, D A Hughes
The success of the Regulation on Orphan Medicinal Products in the European Union is evidenced by the 127 orphan drugs that have had market authorisation since 2000. However the incentives aimed to stimulate research and development have had the unintended consequence of increasing drug cost, resulting in many orphan drugs not being cost-effective. Orphan drugs command an increasing share of the pharmaceutical market and account for a disproportionate amount of healthcare expenditure. Orphan drug ownership by socially motivated, not-for-profit organisations may facilitate access to more affordable orphan drugs, for the benefit of patients and healthcare systems alike...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104841/human-tissues-in-a-dish-the-research-and-ethical-implications-of-organoid-technology
#3
REVIEW
Annelien L Bredenoord, Hans Clevers, Juergen A Knoblich
The ability to generate human tissues in vitro from stem cells has raised enormous expectations among the biomedical research community, patients, and the general public. These organoids enable studies of normal development and disease and allow the testing of compounds directly on human tissue. Organoids hold the promise to influence the entire innovation cycle in biomedical research. They affect fields that have been subjects of intense ethical debate, ranging from animal experiments and the use of embryonic or fetal human tissues to precision medicine, organoid transplantation, and gene therapy...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103979/-foreign-firms-and-dissemination-of-western-medicine-in-china-before-the-opium-war
#4
L P He, L Wang
From the beginning of the 19th century to the Opium War, by taking the advantages of free entering and departing China, and to protect themselves, the foreign firms introduced vaccination technique into China. This is the beginning of the introduction of western medicine to China. After 1807, following the arrival of protestant missionaries, foreign firms became the stronghold for the missionaries to conceal their missionary status so as to propagate the principles of Christianity. With the aid of the business firms employee's legal identity, the missionaries started their activities of delivering western medicines and practices...
November 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097606/colorado-medical-students-attitudes-and-beliefs-about-marijuana
#5
Michael H Chan, Christopher E Knoepke, Madeline L Cole, James McKinnon, Daniel D Matlock
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, state and local governments across the U.S. have been increasingly reforming marijuana laws. Despite growing support for marijuana as a medical treatment, little is known about medical students' perceptions of marijuana use. OBJECTIVE: To assess Colorado medical students' personal and professional opinions on current and future marijuana use in a healthcare setting. DESIGN: A voluntary, anonymous, online cross-sectional survey...
January 17, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094826/response-to-dittrich-et-al-non-embryo-destructive-extraction-of-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells-overlooked-legal-prohibitions-professional-legal-consequences-and-inconsistencies-in-patent-law
#6
REVIEW
T Faltus, U Storz
The publication of "Non-embryo-destructive Extraction of Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells: Implications for Regenerative Medicine and Reproductive Medicine" by Dittrich et al. in Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2015; 75: 1239-1242 1 describes various possibilities which could result from the non-embryo-destructive extraction of embryonic stem cells from human blastocysts. But implementing this method is more problematic, both legally and ethically, than the authors have represented it to be and is illegal in Germany...
December 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093642/the-ethical-framework-for-performing-research-with-rare-inherited-neurometabolic-disease-patients
#7
Viviana Giannuzzi, Hugo Devlieger, Lucia Margari, Viveca Lena Odlind, Lamis Ragab, Cinzia Maria Bellettato, Francesca D'Avanzo, Christina Lampe, Linda Cassis, Elisenda Cortès-Saladelafont, Ángels Garcia Cazorla, Ivo Barić, Ljerka Cvitanović-Šojat, Ksenija Fumić, Christine I Dali, Franco Bartoloni, Fedele Bonifazi, Maurizio Scarpa, Adriana Ceci
: The need for performing clinical trials to develop well-studied and appropriate medicines for inherited neurometabolic disease patients faces ethical concerns mainly raising from four aspects: the diseases are rare; include young and very young patients; the neurological impairment may compromise the capability to provide 'consent'; and the genetic nature of the disease leads to further ethical implications. This work is intended to identify the ethical provisions applicable to clinical research involving these patients and to evaluate if these cover the ethical issues...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078356/-marketability-of-food-supplements-criteria-for-the-legal-assessment
#8
Evelyn Breitweg-Lehmann
To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart...
January 11, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070689/redispensing-of-medicines-unused-by-patients-a-qualitative-study-among-stakeholders
#9
Charlotte L Bekker, Helga Gardarsdottir, Toine C G Egberts, Marcel L Bouvy, Bart J F van den Bemt
Background Medication waste has undesirable economic and environmental consequences. This waste is partly unavoidable, but might be reduced by redispensing medicines unused by patients. However, there is little knowledge of stakeholders' views on the redispensing. Objective To identify the stakeholders' views on the redispensing of medicines unused by patients. Setting Dutch healthcare system. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 Dutch stakeholders from September 2014 until April 2015. The interview guide included two themes: medication waste and redispensing of unused medicines...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070624/-food-supplements-legal-requirements-borderline-issues-and-other-aspects
#10
Pia Noble
Food supplements are classified as foods. They are concentrated sources of vitamins and minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. Their purpose is to supplement the normal diet. Food supplements have to comply with the applicable legal provisions of the food law. In order to ensure the health protection of consumers, food supplements that will be put on the market must be safe. For food supplements, regulations exist at the EU level as well as at the national level. Specific requirements are regulated in the Ordinance on Food Supplements, with which the European Directive on Food Supplements was transposed into German law...
January 9, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065992/challenges-surrounding-return-to-play-rtp-for-the-sports-clinician-a-case-highlighting-the-need-for-a-thorough-three-step-rtp-model
#11
Roger Menta, Kevin D'Angelo
Return-to-play (RTP) is a multifactorial process of retuning an injured athlete back to competition when risk for re-injury is minimized. Traditionally, these decisions are made by medical practitioners based on experience or anecdotal evidence. RTP decisions continue to be a challenging task for the medical practitioner. In the interest of advancing sports medicine for the betterment of athletes, improving the RTP decision-making process with a new paradigm has been suggested.1 It stands to clarify the intricacies used by clinicians when making RTP decisions by providing insight into the multiple factors that must be considered; not only by the athlete and medical practitioner, but all relevant parties (i...
December 2016: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063635/determination-of-cocaine-and-its-derivatives-in-hair-samples-by-liquid-phase-microextraction-lpme-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-gc-ms
#12
A M F Pego, F L Roveri, R Y Kuninari, V Leyton, I D Miziara, M Yonamine
Hair testing is a recognized approach when it comes to accessing historical drug use. According to the World Drug Report of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 2015, Brazil is the largest cocaine (COC) market in South America. New analytical methodologies to detect crack/cocaine analytes in hair samples are highly desirable. Here, a method consisting of a liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) as a clean-up step, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis has been proposed. The new validated method consisted of a washing step; an overnight incubation with methanol and a quick derivatization with butylchloroformate...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056935/community-pharmacists-perceptions-about-pharmaceutical-service-of-over-the-counter-traditional-chinese-medicine-a-survey-study-in-harbin-of-china
#13
Menghuan Song, Carolina Oi Lam Ung, Vivian Wing-Yan Lee, Yuanjia Hu, Jing Zhao, Peng Li, Hao Hu
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate community pharmacist's perception on the provision of over-the-counter (OTC) traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pharmaceutical services; focusing on the areas of their attitude, general practice, perceived barriers and suggested improvements. METHODS: Questionnaire survey targeting community pharmacists in Harbin of China was applied in this study. Questionnaires were distributed and collected at community pharmacies. Data was analyzed by combining descriptive analysis and Chi-test...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056726/community-mapping-of-sex-work-criminalization-and-violence-impacts-on-hiv-treatment-interruptions-among-marginalized-women-living-with-hiv-in-vancouver-canada
#14
Shira M Goldenberg, Kathleen Deering, Ofer Amram, Silvia Guillemi, Paul Nguyen, Julio Montaner, Kate Shannon
Despite the high HIV burden faced by sex workers, data on access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. Using an innovative spatial epidemiological approach, we explored how the social geography of sex work criminalization and violence impacts HIV treatment interruptions among sex workers living with HIV in Vancouver over a 3.5-year period. Drawing upon data from a community-based cohort (AESHA, 2010-2013) and linked external administrative data on ART dispensation, GIS mapping and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to prospectively examine the effects of spatial criminalization and violence near women's places of residence on 2-day ART interruptions...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054116/-pharmacological-properties-as-criterion-of-demarcation
#15
Kerstin Stephan
Because of the growing healthcare market and the increasing health consciousness of the population, more and more food supplements are being placed on the market in addition to medicinal products. Concerning the demarcation of medicinal products to food supplements, not only is the intended purpose of the product critical, but the mode of action of the respective preparation also plays an important role. Following the legal definition, a drug has a pharmacological effect, without it being further defined...
January 4, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053076/opportunities-to-apply-the-3rs-in-safety-assessment-programs
#16
Fiona Sewell, Joanna Edwards, Helen Prior, Sally Robinson
Before a potential new medicine can be administered to humans it is essential that its safety is adequately assessed. Safety assessment in animals forms an integral part of this process, from early drug discovery and initial candidate selection to the program of recommended regulatory tests in animals. The 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement of animals in research) are integrated in the current regulatory requirements and expectations and, in the EU, provide a legal and ethical framework for in vivo research to ensure the scientific objectives are met whilst minimizing animal use and maintaining high animal welfare standards...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041869/-palliative-care-after-neonatal-intensive-care-contributions-of-leonetti-law-and-remaining-challenges
#17
P Kuhn, L Dillenseger, N Cojean, B Escande, C Zores, D Astruc
The 2005 enactment of the "Patients' rights and end-of-life care" act, known as the Leonetti law, has been accompanied by practical changes in the processes of withdrawal and withholding of active life-sustaining treatments. This law has also promoted the implementation of palliative care in perinatal medicine to avoid unreasonable therapeutic interventions and to preserve the dying patient's quality of life and human dignity. Recently, a new law has been voted by the French National Assembly and new reflections on the ethical aspects of the end of life in neonatal medicine should resume again within the French Society of Neonatology in the working group on ethical issues in neonatology...
December 29, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040667/multivariate-linear-regression-modelling-of-lung-weight-in-24-056-swedish-medico-legal-autopsy-cases
#18
T Gustafsson, A Eriksson, C J Wingren
Heavy combined lung weight at autopsy is a non-specific autopsy finding associated with certain causes of death such as intoxication. There is however no clear definition of what constitutes "heavy" lung weight. Different reference values have been suggested but previous studies have been limited by small select populations and only univariate regression has been attempted. The aim of this study was to create a model to estimate lung weight from decedent parameters. We identified all cases >18 years age autopsied at the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine from 2000 through 2013, excluding cases with a post-mortem interval >5 days as well as cases with extreme values, totalling 24,056 cases...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039957/social-responsibility-and-the-state-s-duty-to-provide-healthcare-an-islamic-ethico-legal-perspective
#19
Aasim I Padela
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes...
December 30, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035631/reflections-on-cultural-preferences-and-internal-medicine-the-case-of-jehovah-s-witnesses-and-the-changing-thresholds-for-blood-transfusions
#20
Iftach Sagy, Alan Jotkowitz, Leonid Barksi
Jehovah's witnesses oppose receiving blood transfusions based on religious grounds. This refusal raises complex medical, legal and ethical issues for the treating medical staff. In the past physicians attempted to force patients and children to accept transfusions when deemed medically necessary through the use of court orders. However, in recent years the threshold for blood transfusion has been gradually raised by medical experts as expressed in consensus guidelines, which means that Jehovah's witnesses' aversion to transfusion would have been partially justified medically...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
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