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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758900/how-to-describe-organic-contamination-in-soils-a-model-comparison-for-chlorinated-solvent-concentrations-at-industrial-site-scale
#1
Mariangela Donati, Chantal de Fouquet
The heavy-tailed distribution of the data of organic pollution in soils can raise specific problems in estimating and mapping the concentrations. Some high values often highly impact the sample variogram and extend the pollution hot-spots on the estimation maps. Non-linear geostatistical models, such as the anamorphosed Gaussian model, have been proposed in the 70's. They allow a consistent estimate of the concentrations and the probability that the concentrations exceed a cut-off. These well-founded methods are rarely used by environmental consultants, mainly because of time constraints and because the hypotheses of the models are not always satisfied...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751302/the-influence-of-irrigation-induced-water-table-fluctuation-on-iron-redistribution-and-arsenic-immobilization-within-the-unsaturation-zone
#2
Zeyong Chi, Xianjun Xie, Kunfu Pi, Yanxin Wang, Junxia Li, Kun Qian
Given the long-term potential risk of arsenic (As)-contaminated agricultural soil to public health, the redistribution of iron (Fe) and immobilization of As within the unsaturation zone during irrigation and consequent water table fluctuations were studied via a column experiment and corresponding geochemical modeling. Experimental results show that As and Fe accumulated significantly at the top of the column during irrigation. A tremendous increase in As and Fe accumulation rates exists after water table recovery...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745135/-impacts-of-warming-and-nitrogen-addition-on-organic-fraction-release-in-fresh-litter-of-larix-potaninii-in-alpine-zone-of-the-western-sichuan-province-china
#3
Yue Xi Chen, Bei Chen, Hui Sun, Li Hong Ma, Dan Jie Shen, Yan Yang Liu
The decomposition dynamics of organic components in fresh litter of Larix potaninii were monitored by in situ litter-bag incubation under four treatments, i.e., field condition (CK), nitrogen addition (AN, 2 g N·m-2 ), warming by top-open chamber (OTC), nitrogen addition with warming by top-open chamber (OTC+AN), from November to next September. Decomposition of water-soluble sugar, water-soluble phenol and total polyphenol were stimulated significantly under the treatment OTC, AN and OTC+AN during the first four months compared with the CK, but the difference of these components release narrowed with the extension of incubation time...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742474/environmental-behaviour-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-a-paddy-field-impact-factors-and-canopy-effects
#4
Qilu Li, Kong Yang, Yan Wang, Biao Jin, Chunling Luo, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Paddy fields play an important role in the transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to the filter effects of canopy and their wide distribution. Thus, most studies have been focusing on the filter effects of canopy for POPs. However, shielding effects of canopy might also influence transport and portion of POPs between top and bottom. To investigate these two important processes, our study involved 30 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a paddy field. Samples of bulk depositions, surface water, and air were taken to investigate the occurrence and the behaviour of PCBs...
May 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741606/influence-of-imidacloprid-and-horticultural-oil-on-spider-abundance-on-eastern-hemlock-in-the-southern-appalachians
#5
A Hakeem, J F Grant, P L Lambdin, F A Hale, J R Rhea, G J Wiggins, C Coots
Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an exotic pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), in the eastern United States. Two commonly used insecticides to manage adelgid are imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid insecticide, and horticultural oil, a refined petroleum oil foliar spray. We have investigated the influence of imidacloprid and horticultural oil on spider abundance at different canopy strata in eastern hemlock. In total, 2,084 spiders representing 11 families were collected from the canopies of eastern hemlock...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741048/-responses-of-the-natural-abundance-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-isotopes-of-quercus-mongolica-leaf-and-soil-to-elevated-co-2
#6
Jian Fei Sun, Wei Wei Dai, Tong Xin He, Bo Peng, Ping Jiang, Shi Jie Han, E Bai
The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration significantly changed soil nitrogen (N) cycling which is important for us to predict the carbon (C) sequestration potential of terrestrial ecosystems. The natural abundance of N isotope as an integrative indicator of ecosystem N cycling processes can effectively indicate the effect of elevated CO2 on soil N cycling processes. Here, we used an open top chamber experiment to examine the effects of elevated CO2 for ten years on the natural abundance of Quercus mongolica, soil and microbial biomass C and N isotopes in northeastern China...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734601/soil-carbon-storage-in-mangroves-is-primarily-controlled-by-soil-properties-a-study-at-dongzhai-bay-china
#7
Yanmei Xiong, Baowen Liao, Ed Proffitt, Wei Guan, Yuxin Sun, Faming Wang, Xiu Liu
Coastal wetlands are well known for their considerable capacity to store carbon (C). However, the spatial patterns and major controls of soil C concentration and C density in coastal wetlands remain poorly known. We measured soil total C concentration up to one meter depth and assessed environmental and biological factors influencing soil C input and decomposition processes across various geomorphologic settings and mangrove forest types at Dongzhai Bay, China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the causal pathways of influencing factors on soil C concentration...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725161/participatory-evaluation-guides-the-development-and-selection-of-farmers-preferred-rice-varieties-for-salt-and-flood-affected-coastal-deltas-of-south-and-southeast-asia
#8
D Burman, B Maji, Sudhanshu Singh, Subhasis Mandal, Sukanta K Sarangi, B K Bandyopadhyay, A R Bal, D K Sharma, S L Krishnamurthy, H N Singh, A S delosReyes, D Villanueva, T Paris, U S Singh, S M Haefele, Abdelbagi M Ismail
Rice is the staple food and provides livelihood for smallholder farmers in the coastal delta regions of South and Southeast Asia. However, its productivity is often low because of several abiotic stresses including high soil salinity and waterlogging during the wet (monsoon) season and high soil and water salinity during the dry season. Development and dissemination of suitable rice varieties tolerant of these multiple stresses encountered in coastal zones are of prime importance for increasing and stabilizing rice productivity, however adoption of new varieties has been slow in this region...
May 1, 2018: Field Crops Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723750/occurrence-state-of-co-existing-arsenate-and-nickel-ions-at-the-ferrihydrite-water-interface-mechanisms-of-surface-complexation-and-surface-precipitation-via-atr-ir-spectroscopy
#9
Chao Wang, Yong Cui, Jinghai Zhang, Mario Gomez, Shaofeng Wang, Yongfeng Jia
Arsenic and nickel are common contaminants that usually co-exist in many contaminated natural and mining environments. More research on the interaction of these two contaminants is needed such as their coordination structure and occurrence state at mineral-water interfaces. In this study, we investigated the structure of surface complexes and surface precipitates formed by co-existing As(V) and Ni(II) ions at the ferrihydrite-water interface by varying the order of adsorption processes, pH, aging time and Ni(II) concentration using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR)...
April 26, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719194/mineral-constituents-in-leccinum-scabrum-from-lowland-locations-in-the-central-europe-and-their-relation-to-concentration-in-forest-topsoil
#10
Jerzy Falandysz
Leccinum scabrum is an edible mushroom common in European regions in the northern hemisphere. Macro and trace mineral constituents such as Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, P, Rb, Sr and Zn were studied in L. scabrum and in the top soil collected from the same location underneath soil substratum. The "pseudo-total" and labile (extractable fraction of minerals) were measured to get insight into the levels, distribution between the morphological parts of fruiting bodies, potential for their bioconcentration by mushroom and evaluated for human exposure via consumption of the mushroom...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709860/the-effect-of-nitrification-inhibitors-on-nh-3-and-n-2-o-emissions-in-highly-n-fertilized-irrigated-mediterranean-cropping-systems
#11
Jaime Recio, Antonio Vallejo, Julia Le-Noë, Josette Garnier, Sonia García-Marco, José Manuel Álvarez, Alberto Sanz-Cobena
There is an increasing concern about the negative impacts associated to the release of reactive nitrogen (N) from highly fertilized agro-ecosystems. Ammonia (NH3 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) are harmful N pollutants that may contribute both directly and indirectly to global warming. Surface applied manure, urea and ammonium (NH4 + ) based fertilizers are important anthropogenic sources of these emissions. Nitrification inhibitors (NIs) have been proposed as a useful technological approach to reduce N2 O emission although they can lead to large NH3 losses due to increasing NH4 + pool in soils...
April 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706979/forest-soil-phosphorus-resources-and-fertilization-affect-ectomycorrhizal-community-composition-beech-p-uptake-efficiency-and-photosynthesis
#12
Aljosa Zavišić, Nan Yang, Sven Marhan, Ellen Kandeler, Andrea Polle
Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient, whose plant-available form phosphate is often low in natural forest ecosystems. Mycorrhizal fungi mine the soil for P and supply their host with this resource. It is unknown how ectomycorrhizal communities respond to changes in P availability. Here, we used young beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) trees in natural forest soil from a P-rich and P-poor site to investigate the impact of P amendment on soil microbes, mycorrhizas, beech P nutrition, and photosynthesis. We hypothesized that addition of P to forest soil increased P availability, thereby, leading to enhanced microbial biomass and mycorrhizal diversity in P-poor but not in P-rich soil...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704716/dissipation-of-polyoxyethylene-tallow-amine-poea-and-glyphosate-in-an-agricultural-field-and-their-co-occurrence-on-streambed-sediments
#13
Daniel Tush, Megan M Maksimowicz, Michael T Meyer
The environmental fate of polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA), an additive in glyphosate herbicide formulations, has not been studied. This study examined the dissipation of POEA; glyphosate; and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a degradation product of glyphosate, in the top 45 cm of soil from an agricultural field where glyphosate was applied. The concentration of these compounds was also analyzed in bed sediment samples from watersheds in agricultural and urban areas from six states (Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina)...
April 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696899/-effects-of-land-use-changes-on-soil-water-conservation-in-hainan-island-china
#14
Zhi Wen, He Zhao, Lei Liu, Zhi Yun OuYang, Hua Zheng, Hong Xu Mi, Yan Min Li
In tropical areas, a large number of natural forests have been transformed into other plantations, which affected the water conservation function of terrestrial ecosystems. In order to clari-fy the effects of land use changes on soil water conservation function, we selected four typical land use types in the central mountainous region of Hainan Island, i.e., natural forests with stand age greater than 100 years (VF), secondary forests with stand age of 10 years (SF), areca plantations with stand age of 12 years (AF) and rubber plantations with stand age of 35 years (RF)...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696879/-impact-of-short-term-grazing-disturbance-on-nitrogen-accumulation-of-biological-soil-crusts-in-the-hilly-loess-plateau-region-china
#15
Shan Shan Wang, Yun Ge Zhao, Ya Fang Shi, Li Qian Gao, Qiao Yun Yang
The variations of total nitrogen, available nitrogen and microbial biomass nitrogen caused by simulated grazing disturbance were investigated in the sixth and twelfth months by using field survey combined with laboratory analysis in order to reveal the sensitivity of nitrogen content in biocrustal soils to disturbance in the hilly Loess Plateau region. The results showed that nitrogen contents in biocrustal soil were sensitive to disturbance. Total nitrogen and available nitrogen in the biocrustal layers were decreased by 0...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692145/-effects-of-hydrogen-sulfide-on-root-architecture-leaf-reactive-oxygen-and-photosynthetic-characteristics-of-malus-hupehensis-under-waterlogging
#16
Guo Qin Wei, Hui Cao, Yu Gang Sun, Bo Deng, Wei Wei Zhang, Hong Qiang Yang
The root architecture, leaf reactive oxygen species and photosynthetic characteristics of potted Malus hupehensis seedlings were investigated after 10 days of waterlogging under five concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH, 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mmol·L-1 ) and NaSH with scavenger hypotaurine (HT). The results showed that the root length, root surface area, root volume, root diameter, root top number, fractal dimension, first lateral roots and root activity all increased, the leaf superoxide anion (O2- · ) accumulation and hydrogen pero-xide (H2O2) content both decreased, the leaf Pn , Tr , gs , WUE and CUE all raised, the plant height and biomass both increased when the 0...
October 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692070/-effects-of-elevated-ozone-concentrations-on-enzyme-activities-and-organic-acids-content-in-wheat-rhizospheric-soil
#17
Wei Qin Yin, Hao Qi Jing, Ya Bo Wang, Si Yu Wei, Yue Sun, Sheng Sen Wang, Xuai Zhi Wang
The elevated concentration of tropospheric ozone (O3 ) is an important global climate change driver, with adverse impacts on soil ecological environment and crop growth. In this study, a pot experiment was carried out in an open top chamber (OTC), to investigate the effects of elevated ozone concentration on soil enzyme activities (catalase, polyphenol oxidase, dehydrogenase and invertase), organic acids contents (oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid) at different growth stages (tillering, jointing, heading and ripening stages) of wheat, and combined with the rhizospheric soil physicochemical properties and plant root characteristics to analyze the underlying reasons...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677445/new-amphiphilic-composite-for-preparing-efficient-coated-potassium-fertilizers-for-top-dressing-fertilization-of-annual-crops
#18
Oscar Urrutia, Javier Erro, Andre Vinicius Zabini, Kent Hoshiba, Anne Francoise Blandin, Roberto Baigorri, Manuel Martin-Pastor, Yves Alis, Jean-Claude Yvin, José María García-Mina
This study describes the efficiency of a new coating material for preparing granulated potassium-fertilizers with a potassium release to the soil solution sensitive to rainfall intensity. The composite is prepared by reaction of an alkyd-resin with cement in the absence of water. The complementary use of diverse analytical techniques showed that the presence of the cement fraction induced alkyd resin reticulation and gradual cement-resin hardening. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of micro and nanopores within cement-clusters, whose water permeability is affected by the resin reticulation and amphiphilic character...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668702/response-of-soil-organic-carbon-fractions-microbial-community-composition-and-carbon-mineralization-to-high-input-fertilizer-practices-under-an-intensive-agricultural-system
#19
Jing Li, Xueping Wu, Mesfin Tsegaye Gebremikael, Huijun Wu, Dianxiong Cai, Bisheng Wang, Baoguo Li, Jiancheng Zhang, Yongshan Li, Jilong Xi
Microbial mechanisms associated with soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition are poorly understood. We aim to determine the effects of inorganic and organic fertilizers on soil labile carbon (C) pools, microbial community structure and C mineralization rate under an intensive wheat-maize double cropping system in Northern China. Soil samples in 0-10 cm layer were collected from a nine-year field trial involved four treatments: no fertilizer, CK; nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers, NP; maize straw combined with NP fertilizers, NPS; and manure plus straw and NP fertilizers, NPSM...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668041/warming-intensify-co-2-flux-and-nutrient-release-from-algal-wrack-subsidies-on-sandy-beaches
#20
M Lastra, J López, I F Rodil
Algal wrack subsidies underpin most of the food web structure of exposed sandy beaches, and are responsible of important biogeochemical processes that link marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The response in decomposition of algal wrack deposits to global warming has not been studied in ocean exposed sandy beaches to date. With this aim, passive open top chambers (OTCs) were used to increase soil temperature within the range predicted by the IPCC for western Europe (between 0.5 and 1.5 °C), following the hypothesis that the biogeochemical processing of macroalgal wrack subsidies would accelerate in response to temperature increase...
April 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
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