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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642779/mitigating-groundwater-depletion-in-north-china-plain-with-cropping-system-that-alternate-deep-and-shallow-rooted-crops
#1
Xiao-Lin Yang, Yuan-Quan Chen, Tammo S Steenhuis, Steven Pacenka, Wang-Sheng Gao, Li Ma, Min Zhang, Peng Sui
In the North China Plain, groundwater tables have been dropping at unsustainable rates of 1 m per year due to irrigation of a double cropping system of winter wheat and summer maize. To reverse the trend, we examined whether alternative crop rotations could save water. Moisture contents were measured weekly at 20 cm intervals in the top 180 cm of soil as part of a 12-year field experiment with four crop rotations: sweet potato→ cotton→ sweet potato→ winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle); peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle); ryegrass-cotton→ peanuts→ winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle); and winter wheat-summer maize (WS, each year)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635625/soil-moisture-content-estimation-based-on-sentinel-1-and-auxiliary-earth-observation-products-a-hydrological-approach
#2
Dimitrios D Alexakis, Filippos-Dimitrios K Mexis, Anthi-Eirini K Vozinaki, Ioannis N Daliakopoulos, Ioannis K Tsanis
A methodology for elaborating multi-temporal Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images for estimating topsoil Soil Moisture Content (SMC) to support hydrological simulation studies is proposed. After pre-processing the remote sensing data, backscattering coefficient, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), thermal infrared temperature and incidence angle parameters are assessed for their potential to infer ground measurements of SMC, collected at the top 5 cm. A non-linear approach using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is tested...
June 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633110/emerging-contaminants-related-to-the-occurrence-of-forest-fires-in-the-spanish-mediterranean
#3
Julian Campo, María Lorenzo, Erik L H Cammeraat, Yolanda Picó, Vicente Andreu
Forest fires can be a source of contamination because, among others, of the use of chemicals to their extinction (flame retardants, FRs), or by the production of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from high temperature alteration of organic matter. Up to our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the direct (PAHs 16 on the USA EPA's priority list), and indirect [tri- to hepta- brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)] contamination related to forest fires...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623883/no-consistent-effect-of-plant-species-richness-on-resistance-to-simulated-climate-change-for-above-or-below-ground-processes-in-managed-grasslands
#4
Carsten F Dormann, Lars von Riedmatten, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen
BACKGROUND: Species richness affects processes and functions in many ecosystems. Since management of temperate grasslands is directly affecting species composition and richness, it can indirectly govern how systems respond to fluctuations in environmental conditions. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether species richness in managed grasslands can buffer the effects of drought and warming manipulations and hence increase the resistance to climate change. We established 45 plots in three regions across Germany, each with three different management regimes (pasture, meadow and mown pasture)...
June 17, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611747/microbial-community-and-functional-structure-significantly-varied-among-distinct-types-of-paddy-soils-but-responded-differently-along-gradients-of-soil-depth-layers
#5
Ren Bai, Jun-Tao Wang, Ye Deng, Ji-Zheng He, Kai Feng, Li-Mei Zhang
Paddy rice fields occupy broad agricultural area in China and cover diverse soil types. Microbial community in paddy soils is of great interest since many microorganisms are involved in soil functional processes. In the present study, Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing and functional gene array (GeoChip 4.2) techniques were combined to investigate soil microbial communities and functional gene patterns across the three soil types including an Inceptisol (Binhai), an Oxisol (Leizhou), and an Ultisol (Taoyuan) along four profile depths (up to 70 cm in depth) in mesocosm incubation columns...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609854/a-revision-of-the-ewartia-oldfieldi-distant-species-complex-hemiptera-cicadidae-cicadettinae-with-five-new-species-from-eastern-and-northern-australia
#6
Lindsay W Popple
The identity of Ewartia oldfieldi (Distant) is re-examined and this species is redescribed. Five new species belonging to the genus Ewartia Moulds are described. Ewartia oldfieldi s. str. occurs in association with wattles (Acacia spp.; Mimosaceae) with large or fleshy phyllodes growing in soils derived from sandstone and coarse-grained metasediments throughout the south-eastern third of Queensland. Ewartia roberti n. sp. is associated with wattles that possess narrow or delicate phyllodes, growing in loam soils in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales...
May 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603450/changes-in-soil-organic-matter-over-70%C3%A2-years-in-continuous-arable-and-ley-arable-rotations-on-a-sandy-loam-soil-in-england
#7
A E Johnston, P R Poulton, K Coleman, A J Macdonald, R P White
The sequestration in soil of organic carbon (SOC) derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by replacing arable crops with leys, has been measured over 70 years on a sandy loam soil. The experiment was designed initially to test the effect of leys on the yields of arable crops. A 3-year grazed grass with clover (grass + clover) ley in a 5-year rotation with arable crops increased percentage organic carbon (%OC) in the top 25 cm of the soil from 0.98 to 1.23 in 28 years, but with little further increase during the next 40 years with all-grass leys given fertilizer nitrogen (N)...
May 2017: European Journal of Soil Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600571/micro-scale-heterogeneity-of-soil-phosphorus-depends-on-soil-substrate-and-depth
#8
Florian Werner, Carsten W Mueller, Jürgen Thieme, Alessandra Gianoncelli, Camille Rivard, Carmen Höschen, Jörg Prietzel
Soils comprise various heterogeneously distributed pools of lithogenic, free organic, occluded, adsorbed, and precipitated phosphorus (P) forms, which differ depending on soil forming factors. Small-scale heterogeneity of element distributions recently has received increased attention in soil science due to its influence on soil functions and soil fertility. We investigated the micro-scale distribution of total P and different specific P binding forms in aggregates taken from a high-P clay-rich soil and a low-P sandy soil by combining advanced spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques to introduce new insights on P accessibility and availability in soils...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599372/a-hybrid-machine-learning-model-to-predict-and-visualize-nitrate-concentration-throughout-the-central-valley-aquifer-california-usa
#9
Katherine M Ransom, Bernard T Nolan, Jonathan A Traum, Claudia C Faunt, Andrew M Bell, Jo Ann M Gronberg, David C Wheeler, Celia Z Rosecrans, Bryant Jurgens, Gregory E Schwarz, Kenneth Belitz, Sandra M Eberts, George Kourakos, Thomas Harter
Intense demand for water in the Central Valley of California and related increases in groundwater nitrate concentration threaten the sustainability of the groundwater resource. To assess contamination risk in the region, we developed a hybrid, non-linear, machine learning model within a statistical learning framework to predict nitrate contamination of groundwater to depths of approximately 500m below ground surface. A database of 145 predictor variables representing well characteristics, historical and current field and landscape-scale nitrogen mass balances, historical and current land use, oxidation/reduction conditions, groundwater flow, climate, soil characteristics, depth to groundwater, and groundwater age were assigned to over 6000 private supply and public supply wells measured previously for nitrate and located throughout the study area...
June 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597442/effects-of-adjacent-land-use-types-on-the-distribution-of-soil-organic-carbon-stocks-in-the-montane-area-of-central-taiwan
#10
Chiou-Pin Chen, Kai-Wei Juang, Chih-Hsin Cheng, Chuang-Wen Pai
BACKGROUND: Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks can be altered through reforestation and cropping. We estimated the effects of land use on SOC stocks after natural deciduous forests replaced by crops and coniferous plantations by examining the vertical distribution of SOC stocks at different depth intervals in an adjacent Oolong tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plantation, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest, and Taiwania (Taiwania cryptomerioides) forest in central Taiwan...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582458/reproducibility-of-up-flow-column-percolation-tests-for-contaminated-soils
#11
Tetsuo Yasutaka, Angelica Naka, Hirofumi Sakanakura, Akihiko Kurosawa, Toru Inui, Miyuki Takeo, Seiji Inoba, Yasutaka Watanabe, Takuro Fujikawa, Toshihiko Miura, Shinji Miyaguchi, Kunihide Nakajou, Mitsuhiro Sumikura, Kenichi Ito, Shuichi Tamoto, Takeshi Tatsuhara, Tomoyuki Chida, Kei Hirata, Ken Ohori, Masayuki Someya, Masahiko Katoh, Madoka Umino, Masanori Negishi, Keijiro Ito, Junichi Kojima, Shohei Ogawa
Up-flow column percolation tests are used at laboratory scale to assess the leaching behavior of hazardous substance from contaminated soils in a specific condition as a function of time. Monitoring the quality of these test results inter or within laboratory is crucial, especially if used for Environment-related legal policy or for routine testing purposes. We tested three different sandy loam type soils (Soils I, II and III) to determine the reproducibility (variability inter laboratory) of test results and to evaluate the difference in the test results within laboratory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580551/investigating-the-relationship-between-lead-speciation-and-bioaccessibility-of-mining-impacted-soils-and-dusts
#12
Yanju Liu, Olanrewaju Bello, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Zhaomin Dong, Shofiqul Islam, Ravi Naidu
Lead (Pb) bioaccessibility measurements have been the subject of much research in recent years, given the desire to develop a cost-effective and reliable alternative method to estimate its bioavailability from soils and dusts. This study investigates the relationship between Pb bioaccessibility estimated using the Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure (RBALP) and solid phase speciation of Pb using mining impacted soils and associated dusts. Solid phase speciation was conducted prior to and after RBALP extractions...
June 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575800/remediation-of-soil-contaminated-with-organic-and-inorganic-wood-impregnation-chemicals-by-soil-washing
#13
Jurate Kumpiene, Désirée Nordmark, Ivan Carabante, Jūratė Sužiedelytė-Visockienė, Vladislovas Česlovas Aksamitauskas
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a large scale washing/wet sieving technique for a soil contaminated with wood impregnation chemicals by 1) defining the final distribution of trace elements (As, Cu, Cr, Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in separated soil particle size fractions; and 2) defining the leaching behavior of the contaminants in these soil fractions. A soil washing experiment was implemented at waste management facility in Sweden using a full scale soil sorting and washing equipment...
May 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541561/effects-of-rainfall-exclusion-on-leaf-gas-exchange-traits-and-osmotic-adjustment-in-mature-canopy-trees-of-dryobalanops-aromatica-dipterocarpaceae-in-a-malaysian-tropical-rain-forest
#14
Yuta Inoue, Tomoaki Ichie, Tanaka Kenzo, Aogu Yoneyama, Tomo'omi Kumagai, Tohru Nakashizuka
Climate change exposes vegetation to unusual levels of drought, risking a decline in productivity and an increase in mortality. It still remains unclear how trees and forests respond to such unusual drought, particularly Southeast Asian tropical rain forests. To understand leaf ecophysiological responses of tropical rain forest trees to soil drying, a rainfall exclusion experiment was conducted on mature canopy trees of Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f. (Dipterocarpaceae) for 4 months in an aseasonal tropical rain forest in Sarawak, Malaysia...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539640/recalcitrant-carbon-components-in-glomalin-related-soil-protein-facilitate-soil-organic-carbon-preservation-in-tropical-forests
#15
Jing Zhang, Xuli Tang, Siyuan Zhong, Guangcai Yin, Yifei Gao, Xinhua He
Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is known as an important microbial by-product which is crucial for preserving or accumulating soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the chemical structures of GRSP and its relationship with SOC using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in three tropical forests. The three forests, including a planted forest (PF), a secondary forest (MF) and a primary forest (BF), were selected to represent the natural successional process after disturbance in southern China...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531952/groundwater-quality-in-the-alluvial-aquifer-system-of-northwest-india-new-evidence-of-the-extent-of-anthropogenic-and-geogenic-contamination
#16
D J Lapworth, G Krishan, A M MacDonald, M S Rao
Groundwater depletion has been widely studied in northwest India, but water quality concerns are still poorly constrained. In this study, we explore the hydrochemistry of the top 160m of the aquifer system, through detailed field studies in the Bist-Doab region, considering both anthropogenic and geogenic controls. A detailed comparison is made between sites dominated by urban and agricultural landuse. Salinity, nitrate, chloride and lead concentrations are significantly higher in the shallow (0-50m) groundwater system due to surface anthropogenic contaminant loading from agricultural and urban sources...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530292/soil-sorption-of-two-nitramines-derived-from-amine-based-co2-capture
#17
Cathrine Brecke Gundersen, Gijs D Breedveld, Lena Foseid, Rolf D Vogt
Nitramines are potentially carcinogens that form from the amines used in post-combustion CO2 capture (PCCC). The soil sorption characteristics of monoethanol (MEA)- and dimethyl (DMA)-nitramines have been assessed using a batch experimental setup, and defined indirectly by measuring loss of nitramine (LC-MS/MS) from the aqueous phase (0.01 M CaCl2 and 0.1% NaN3) after equilibrium had been established with the soil (24 h). Nitramine soil sorption was found to be strongly dependent on the content of organic matter in the soil (r(2) = 0...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527376/the-effectiveness-of-cutoff-walls-to-control-saltwater-intrusion-in-multi-layered-coastal-aquifers-experimental-and-numerical-study
#18
Antoifi Abdoulhalik, Ashraf A Ahmed
The objective of this study was to examine the performance of cutoff walls in controlling saltwater intrusion in stratified heterogeneous coastal aquifers. Numerical and laboratory experiments were completed in laboratory-scale aquifer where the effectiveness of cutoff walls was assessed in three different configurations, including a homogeneous scenario, a stratified aquifer with high K-low K-high K pattern (case HLH) and another stratified aquifer with low K-high K-low K pattern (case LHL). The results show that the cutoff wall was effective in reducing the saltwater wedge in all the investigated cases of layered-aquifers with toe length reduction of up to 43%...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527363/postmortem-microbial-communities-in-burial-soil-layers-of-skeletonized-humans
#19
Torri B Thomas, Sheree J Finley, Jeremy E Wilkinson, Daniel J Wescott, Azriel Gorski, Gulnaz T Javan
Microorganisms are major ecological participants in the successional decomposition of vertebrates. The relative abundance, or the scarcity, of certain microbial taxa in gravesoil has the potential to determine the ecological status of skeletons. However, there are substantial knowledge gaps that warrant consideration in the context of the surrounding terrestrial ecosystem. In the current study, we hypothesized that i.) soil microbial diversity is disparate in the latter stage of decomposition (skeletonization) compared to the earlier stages (fresh, bloat, active and advanced decay), and ii...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511136/fate-of-pharmaceuticals-in-soil-after-application-of-stps-products-influence-of-physicochemical-properties-and-modelling-approach
#20
Xela García-Santiago, Juan M Garrido, Juan M Lema, Amaya Franco-Uría
Depurated effluents can be employed as reclaimed water for irrigation in regions with low precipitations, while nutrients-rich biosolids are usually applied as fertilizer for agricultural purposes. However, both practices may result in the accumulation of micropollutants in the soil compartment, the contamination of groundwater, and/or their biotransfer to different living organisms until they finally may reach human receptors. The fate and transport of seven pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) with different physicochemical properties was analysed for these scenarios employing two different models: the buckets model and the HYDRUS-1D software package...
May 11, 2017: Chemosphere
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