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top soil

Nicholas Midzi, Blessing Kavhu, Portia Manangazira, Isaac Phiri, Susan L Mutambu, Cremants Tshuma, Moses J Chimbari, Shungu Munyati, Stanely M Midzi, Lincon Charimari, Anatoria Ncube, Masceline J Mutsaka-Makuvaza, White Soko, Emmanuel Madzima, Gibson Hlerema, Joel Mbedzi, Gibson Mhlanga, Mhosisi Masocha
BACKGROUND: Reliable mapping of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) parasites requires rigorous statistical and machine learning algorithms capable of integrating the combined influence of several determinants to predict distributions. This study tested whether combining edaphic predictors with relevant environmental predictors improves model performance when predicting the distribution of STH, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms at a national scale in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Geo-referenced parasitological data obtained from a 2010/2011 national survey indicating a confirmed presence or absence of STH among school children aged 10-15 years was used to calibrate ten species distribution models (SDMs)...
January 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
E Tubert, V A Vitali, M S Alvarez, F A Tubert, I Baroli, G Amodeo
Reducing fertilizer use is a priority in the quest for sustainable forestry systems. In short rotation Eucalyptus plantations, NPK pellets are routinely added to the seedling's top soil layer at planting, potentially leading to increased seedling mortality, nutrient loss and environmental degradation. To address this triple challenge, the development of efficient fertilization practices is essential. In the present work, we synthesized a crosslinked acrylic-cellulosic superabsorbent composite (SAPH-BAL) containing small amounts of specific nutrients integrated in the polymer matrix...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sanja Stipičević, Gordana Mendaš, Marija Dvoršćak, Sanja Fingler, Natalija Galzina, Klara Barić
Ever since terbuthylazine (TBA) replaced atrazine in herbicide crop treatment, its much greater persistence has raised considerable environmental concern. The aim of our field experiment was to establish the dissipation dynamics of TBA and its degradation product desethylterbuthylazine (DET) in soil over five months of maize growth. We applied TBA as part of pre-emergent treatment in the regular and double-the-regular amounts. Soil samples were collected periodically at the following depths: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 30-50 cm...
December 20, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Su-Lun Hwang, Miao-Ching Chi, Su-Er Guo, Yu-Ching Lin, Chiang-Ting Chou, Chieh-Mo Lin
The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal variations and source apportionment on atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass and associated trace element concentrations at a coastal area, in Chiayi County of southwestern Taiwan. Particle measurements were conducted in 2015. Twenty-three trace elements in PM2.5 were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multiple approaches of the enrichment factor (EF) analysis and positive matrix fraction (PMF) model were used to identify potential sources of PM2...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Elena Armenise, Robert W Simmons, Sujung Ahn, Amin Garbout, Stefan H Doerr, Sacha J Mooney, Craig J Sturrock, Karl Ritz
This study delivers new insights into rainfall-induced seal formation through a novel approach in the use of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). Up to now seal and crust thickness have been directly quantified mainly through visual examination of sealed/crusted surfaces, and there has been no quantitative method to estimate this important property. X-ray CT images were quantitatively analysed to derive formal measures of seal and crust thickness. A factorial experiment was established in the laboratory using open-topped microcosms packed with soil...
January 2018: Journal of Hydrology
Dhivakar Govindarajan, Abhijit P Deshpande, Ravikrishna Raghunathan
Enhanced upward mobility of a non aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) present in wet sand during natural drying, and in the absence of any external pressure gradients, is reported for the first time. This mobility was significantly higher than that expected from capillary rise. Experiments were performed in a glass column with a small layer of NAPL-saturated sand trapped between two layers of water-saturated sand. Drying of the wet sand was induced by flow of air across the top surface of the wet sand. The upward movement of the NAPL, in the direction of water transport, commenced when the drying effect reached the location of the NAPL and continued as long as there was significant water evaporation in the vicinity of NAPL, indicating a clear correlation between the NAPL rise and water evaporation...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Zheng Sun, Jiajun Chen
The potential toxic elements (PTEs) pollution problems in many rural industrial wastelands have been observed to be conspicuous. Therefore, 40 top soil samples were collected from the wasteland of a typical rural metallurgy factory in Baoding, China. The total concentrations of six key PTEs were measured. The soil properties and speciation of the PTEs were also identified. Extremely high concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were observed in the surface soils. Using the PTEs concentration in the top soils of the rural industrial wasteland, the following indices of pollution were calculated: the pollution load index (PLI), the geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), the risk assessment code (RAC), and the health risk assessment (HRA)...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Fabricio T Ramos, Eliana F G de Carvalho Dores, Oscarlina L Dos Santos Weber, Daniel C Beber, José H Campelo, João C de Souza Maia
BACKGROUND: Conservation agricultural practices increase total organic carbon storage in soil (TOCS ), a factor that is correlated with the physical and chemical qualities of highly weathered soils. In this study, we investigated the effects of TOCS on the physicochemical attributes of a Latosol after 10 years of no-till management in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. RESULTS: TCOS was highly correlated (r = 0.92) with cation exchange capacity (CEC, pH = 7) and soil density...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Thomas Ranius, Aino Hämäläinen, Gustaf Egnell, Bengt Olsson, Karin Eklöf, Johan Stendahl, Jörgen Rudolphi, Anna Sténs, Adam Felton
We review the consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services from the industrial-scale extraction of logging residues (tops, branches and stumps from harvested trees and small-diameter trees from thinnings) in managed forests. Logging residue extraction can replace fossil fuels, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation. The additional biomass and nutrients removed, and soils and other structures disturbed, have several potential environmental impacts. To evaluate potential impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity we reviewed 279 scientific papers that compared logging residue extraction with non-extraction, the majority of which were conducted in Northern Europe and North America...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yanfang Feng, Haijun Sun, Lihong Xue, Yueman Wang, Linzhang Yang, Weiming Shi, Baoshan Xing
Sawdust biochar (SDB) was for the first time applied to rice paddy field to evaluate its effects on potential nitrogen (N) runoff and ammonia (NH3) volatilization losses in a soil column experimental system. Results showed that total N concentration of surface floodwater under SDB treatments was reduced by 7.29-35.16, 16.34-32.35, and 12.21-28.12% after three split N fertilizations, respectively. Particularly, NH4+-N was decreased by 11.84-27.08, 14.29-36.50, and 2.97-19.64%, respectively. However, SDB addition has no significant influence on NO3--N concentration...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
P Bouisset, M Nohl, A Bouville, G Leclerc
Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out by the United States, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and China between 1945 and 1980 resulted in radioactive fallout over the earth's surface of long-lived radionuclides, such as 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 238Pu that could be detected more than 50 years after their production. In addition, the burnup in the upper atmosphere of a thermoelectric generator fueled by 238Pu, SNAP-9A, contributed to the inventory of 238Pu deposited on the ground. In order to estimate the deposition densities of 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 238Pu in French Polynesia, we collected undisturbed soil samples up to 30 cm deep at eight sites in two islands (Hiva Oa, 139°W - 10°S and Raivavae, 148°W - 24°S) in 2015-2016...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Marie-Line Fiola, Alizée Vernouillet, Marc-André Villard
The ecological literature presents considerable evidence for top-down forcing on the maintenance of species diversity. Yet, in temperate forests, bottom-up forces often exert a strong influence on ecosystem functioning. Here, we report on the indirect influence of a pulsed resource, sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seed production, on nest survival in a migratory songbird. We hypothesized that seed production in year t would determine daily nest survival rate in year t + 1 through its effects on seed-eating rodents...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Ghulam Abbas Shah, Ghulam Mustafa Shah, Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid, Jeroen C J Groot, Bouba Traore, Egbert A Lantinga
This study examined the influences of three potential additives, i.e., lava meal, sandy soil top-layer and zeolite (used in animal bedding) amended solid cattle manures on (i) ammonia (NH3), dinitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and (ii) maize crop or grassland apparent N recovery (ANR). Diffusion samplers were installed at 20 cm height on grassland surface to measure the concentrations of NH3 from the manures. A photoacoustic gas monitor was used to quantitate the fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 after manures' incorporation into the maize-field...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Ziming Han, Mingwen Deng, Anqi Yuan, Jiahui Wang, Hao Li, Jincai Ma
Soil freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) change soil physical, chemical, and biological properties, however information regarding their vertical variations in response to FTCs is limited. In this work, black soil (silty loam) packed soil columns were exposed to 8 FTCs, and soil properties were determined for each of vertical layer of soil columns. The results revealed that after FTCs treatment, moisture and electrical conductivity (EC) salinity tended to increase in upper soil layers. Increments of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) in top layers (0-10cm) were greater than those in other layers, and increments of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and decrease of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in middle layers (10-20cm) were greater than those in both ends...
December 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Zhen-Huan Guan, Xiao Gang Li, Lin Wang
The effects of human activities on heavy metal pollution in soil have been less investigated on the Tibetan Plateau. The present study was designed to assess the effects of highway traffic on Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd enrichments in the 0-60-cm soil profile in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Soils were sampled at four transects (with an altitude range of 2643-2911 m) across the G212 highway and five transects (3163-3563 m) across the G213 highway. Background concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd to the 60-cm soil depth (measured at each transect 400 m away from highways) varied greatly among transects and between highways...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiaoyan Tang, Maya P Lim, Murray B McBride
To assess the importance of variation among arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) cultivars in the ability to accumulate arsenic (As) in above-ground tissues, uptake of As by 16 cultivars was measured in the field and in hydroponic culture. In the field trial on soil contaminated by past pesticide use, As soil-plant uptake coefficients varied by a factor of 2.7 among different cultivars, approaching a value of one for the strongest accumulators. Compared to the field assay, hydroponically grown arugula accumulated much lower concentrations of As when nutrient solutions contained standard (high) concentrations of phosphate along with 1...
December 22, 2017: Chemosphere
Yohan Liber, Clarisse Létondor, Sophie Pascal-Lorber, François Laurent
Because of its high persistence in soils, t1/2=30years, chlordecone (CLD) was classified as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) by the Stockholm Convention in 2009.The distribution of CLD over time has been heterogeneous, ranging from banana plantations to watersheds, and contaminating all environmental compartments. The aims of this study were to (i) evaluate the potential of Miscanthus species to extract chlordecone from contaminated soils, (ii) identify the growth parameters that influence the transfer of CLD from the soil to aboveground plant parts...
December 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Vittoria Giannini, Andrea Bertacchi, Enrico Bonari, Nicola Silvestri
A pilot experimental field combining rewetting of reclaimed peaty soils and water phyto-treatment was set up in the Massaciuccoli Lake basin (Tuscany, Italy) to reduce the water eutrophication and peat degradation caused by almost a century of drainage-based agricultural use. In this paper, we investigated the restoration process occurring consequently to the conversion of a drained area in a natural wetland system (NWS) (the partial top soil removal, the realization of a perimeter levee to contain the waters, the rewetting with the drainage waters coming from the of surrounding cultivated areas) and the capability of the spontaneous vegetation to catch nutrients acting as a vegetation filter...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Abayomi Adesola Olaojo, Michael Adeyinka Oladunjoye, Oluseun Adetola Sanuade
Sewage effluent was discharged through leaking sewer into the agricultural training farms, University of Ibadan which is used for cultivation of vegetables and cereals, thus constituting threat to human health. This study examined the reliability of the electrical resistivity technique in delineating sewage polluted zones and possible pathways into the groundwater network. The area investigated is underlain by banded gneisses. Ten resistivity Wenner-imaging lines (N-S) were established and inverted section generated using RES2DINV...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Juan Zhang, Shu-Kai Fan, Ming-Hua Zhang, Michael L Grieneisen, Jian-Feng Zhang
Aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) are major petroleum contaminants in the environment. In this study, the AHs bound to various soil endogenetic humus fractions were separated through successive extraction. Most of the AHs (46.1%) in soils were adsorbed onto/into humic acids (HA) and a small quantity of AHs (9.6%) were organic solvent extractable. AHs in B. chinensis were also analyzed since their potential risks to the residents through ingestion. AHs from C21 to C34, so called high molecular weight AHs (HMWAHs), were dominant AHs in B...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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