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Brittany Lynn Huhmann, Charles F Harvey, Anjal Uddin, Imtiaz Choudhury, Kazi M Ahmed, John M Duxbury, Benjamin C Bostick, Alexander Van Geen
Rice was traditionally grown only during the summer (aman) monsoon in Bangladesh but more than half is now grown during the dry winter (boro) season and requires irrigation. A previous field study conducted in a small area irrigated by a single high-arsenic well has shown that the accumulation of arsenic (As) in soil from irrigating with high-As groundwater can reduce rice yield. We investigated the effect of soil As on rice yield under a range of field conditions by exchanging the top 15 cm of soil between 13 high-As and 13 low-As plots managed by 16 different farmers, and we explore the implications for mitigation...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Nardy Kip, Stefan Jansen, Marcio F A Leite, Mattias de Hollander, Michael Afanasyev, Eiko E Kuramae, Johannes A Van Veen
Microorganisms are able to cause, but also to inhibit or protect against corrosion. Corrosion inhibition by microbial processes may be due to the formation of mineral deposition layers on metal objects. Such deposition layers have been found in archaeological studies on ancient metal objects, buried in soil, which were hardly corroded. Recent field investigations showed that natural mineral deposition layers can be found on sheet piles in soil. We investigated the microbial communities of these deposition layers and the adjacent soil...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ying Fan, Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, Esteban G Jobbágy, Robert B Jackson, Carlos Otero-Casal
Plant rooting depth affects ecosystem resilience to environmental stress such as drought. Deep roots connect deep soil/groundwater to the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrologic cycle and climate. Deep roots enhance bedrock weathering, thus regulating the long-term carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Here, we present a global synthesis of 2,200 root observations of >1,000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients. Results reveal strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage)...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anatoli Brouchkov, Marsel Kabilov, Svetlana Filippova, Olga Baturina, Victor Rogov, Valery Galchenko, Andrey Mulyukin, Oksana Fursova, Gennady Pogorelko
Permanently frozen (approx. 3.5Ma) alluvial Neogene sediments exposed in the Aldan river valley at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia) are unique, ancient, and poorly studied permafrost environments. So far, the structure of the indigenous bacterial community has remained unknown. Use of 16S metagenomic analysis with total DNA isolation using DNA Spin Kit for Soil (MO-Bio) and QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) has revealed the major and minor bacterial lineages in the permafrost alluvium sediments. In sum, 61 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) with 31,239 reads (Qiagen kit) and 15,404 reads (Mo-Bio kit) could be assigned to the known taxa...
September 12, 2017: Gene
Bindumol G P, Harilal C C
Leaching potential of pesticides, apart from climatological factors, depends on soil physical properties, soil-pesticide interaction and chemical nature of the molecule. Recent investigations have revealed the presence of various organophosphate pesticides in various agroecosystems. The present study investigated the soil transport mechanism of commonly used organophosphate pesticides in acidic sandy clay loam soils of Kerala State, India. Packed soil column experiment was undertaken under laboratory condition for 30 days...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sheng Xu, Wei Fu, Xingyuan He, Wei Chen, Weiwei Zhang, Bo Li, Yanqing Huang
Open top chambers were used to study the changes in photosynthesis, physiology and stomata characteristics in 1-year-old Lonicera maackii seedlings exposed to drought (DT, 30%-35% soil saturated water content) or/and elevated ozone (EO, 80 ppb). The results showed that DT or/and EO significantly decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), but increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde content (p < 0.05). Compared with EO alone, the combination of EO and DT caused higher values in Pn, Fv/Fm, SOD activity (p < 0...
September 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
E Nestola, A Scartazza, D Di Baccio, A Castagna, A Ranieri, M Cammarano, F Mazzenga, G Matteucci, C Calfapietra
This study investigates the functionality of a Mediterranean-mountain beech forest in Central Italy using simultaneous determinations of optical measurements, carbon (C) fluxes, leaf eco-physiological and biochemical traits during two growing seasons (2014-2015). Meteorological variables showed significant differences between the two growing seasons, highlighting a heat stress coupled with a reduced water availability in mid-summer 2015. As a result, a different C sink capacity of the forest was observed between the two years of study, due to the differences in stressful conditions and the related plant physiological status...
September 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lin Hou, Sijia Hou
BACKGROUND: Restoration of degraded forest ecosystem is crucial for regional sustainable development. To protect the country's fragile and fragmented environment, the Chinese government initiated an ecological engineering project, the Natural Forest Protection Program, in seventeen provinces in China beginning in 1998. Fully hillside-closed forest protection (vegetation restoration naturally without any artificial disturbance) was one of vital measures of the Natural Forest Protection Program applied nation wide...
2017: PeerJ
Paul Gosling, Christopher van der Gast, Gary D Bending
Sequestration of atmospheric CO2 as organic carbon by agricultural soils (SOC) is promoted as a climate change mitigation option. IPCC provides guidelines for determining carbon stocks and sequestration potential, incentivising policy changes towards management of farmland for carbon sequestration. However, the basis of the assumption that agricultural soils can sequester significant atmospheric CO2 has been questioned. We sought to determine the potential for conversion of arable cropland to grassland to sequester carbon in the short to medium term and potential limiting factors...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kelly A Morris, Xiao Li, David B Langston, Richard F Davis, Patricia Timper, Timothy L Grey
BACKGROUND: Fluensulfone is a fluoroalkenyl chemistry with activity against multiple genera of plant-parasitic nematodes. The adsorption, desorption, and mobility of fluensulfone were evaluated on multiple soils from the United States in laboratory and column experiments. RESULTS: Adsorption data regressed to the logarithmic Freundlich equation resulted in isotherm values of 1.24 to 3.28. Soil adsorption of fluensulfone positively correlated with organic matter (0...
September 4, 2017: Pest Management Science
A Konoplev, V Golosov, Y Wakiyama, T Takase, V Yoschenko, T Yoshihara, O Parenyuk, A Cresswell, M Ivanov, M Carradine, K Nanba, Y Onda
Processes of vertical and lateral migration lead to gradual reduction in contamination of catchment soil, particularly its top layer. The reduction can be considered as natural attenuation. This, in turn, results in a gradual decrease of radiocesium activity concentrations in the surface runoff and river water, in both dissolved and particulate forms. The purpose of this research is to study the dynamics of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in undisturbed soils and floodplain deposits exposed to erosion and sedimentation during floods...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Anjali Singh, Madhu Bala Tyagi, Ashok Kumar
The present study describes cyanobacterial species composition and their dominance in biological crusts from barks of different trees, roof top of building and soil of agricultural field. An attempt was also made to explore the presence of photoprotective compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in the crust samples. Microscopic examination and growth studies revealed the presence of Oscillatoria species in all the crust samples excluding the crust of roof top of a building. Study on the abundance of dominant genera showed marked differences among various crust samples but Hapalosiphon, Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Scytonema sp...
August 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yunfu Gu, Yingyan Wang, Sheng'e Lu, Quanju Xiang, Xiumei Yu, Ke Zhao, Likou Zou, Qiang Chen, Shihua Tu, Xiaoping Zhang
Soil microbes provide important ecosystem services. Though the effects of changes in nutrient availability due to fertilization on the soil microbial communities in the topsoil (tilled layer, 0-20 cm) have been extensively explored, the effects on communities and their associations with soil nutrients in the subsoil (below 20 cm) which is rarely impacted by tillage are still unclear. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to investigate bacterial and archaeal communities in a Pup-Calric-Entisol soil treated for 32 years with chemical fertilizer (CF) and CF combined with farmyard manure (CFM), and to reveal links between soil properties and specific bacterial and archaeal taxa in both the top- and subsoil...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jiangsan Zhao, Peter Sykacek, Gernot Bodner, Boris Rewald
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important source of protein but breeding for increased yield stability and stress tolerance is hampered by the scarcity of phenotyping information. Because comparisons of cultivars adapted to different agro-climatic zones improve our understanding of stress tolerance mechanisms, the root architecture and morphology of 16 European faba bean cultivars were studied at maturity. Different machine learning (ML) approaches were tested in their usefulness to analyse trait variations between cultivars...
August 30, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
A Carla Staver, Judith Botha, Lars Hedin
Savanna vegetation is variable, and predicting how water, nutrients, and chronic disturbances interact to determine vegetation structure in savannas represents a challenge. Here, we examined in situ interactions among rainfall, soils, grasses, fire, and elephants that determine tree layer responses to resource gradients in Kruger National Park in South Africa, using 363 long-term monitoring sites throughout the park. Grass biomass increased with rainfall and on nutrient-rich clay soils. Fire frequency, too, increased with rainfall...
August 25, 2017: New Phytologist
Jonathan Sanderman, Tomislav Hengl, Gregory J Fiske
Human appropriation of land for agriculture has greatly altered the terrestrial carbon balance, creating a large but uncertain carbon debt in soils. Estimating the size and spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss due to land use and land cover change has been difficult but is a critical step in understanding whether SOC sequestration can be an effective climate mitigation strategy. In this study, a machine learning-based model was fitted using a global compilation of SOC data and the History Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) land use data in combination with climatic, landform and lithology covariates...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Samara Zanetti, Laís F M Pereira, Maria Márcia P Sartori, Marcelo A Silva
The objective of this study was to determine predictor models of leaf area of ​​cassava from linear leaf measurements. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse in the municipality of Botucatu, São Paulo state, Brazil. The stem cuttings with 5-7 nodes of the cultivar IAC 576-70 were planted in boxes filled with about 320 liters of soil, keeping soil moisture at field capacity, monitored by puncturing tensiometers. At 80 days after planting, 140 leaves were randomly collected from the top, middle third and base of cassava plants...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Montse Marquès, Jordi Sierra, Tatiana Drotikova, Montse Mari, Martí Nadal, José L Domingo
A combined assessment on the levels and distribution profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements in soils from Pyramiden (Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago) is here reported. As previously stated, long-range atmospheric transport, coal deposits and previous mining extractions, as well as the stack emissions of two operative power plants at this settlement are considered as potential sources of pollution. Eight top-layer soil samples were collected and analysed for the 16 US EPA priority PAHs and for 15 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, V and Zn) during late summer of 2014...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Research
Marchela Pandelova, Bernhard Henkelmann, Bernd M Bussian, Karl-Werner Schramm
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in 86 humic topsoil layers and in a subset of 11 randomly selected top mineral forest soils at the depths of 0-5cm and 5-10cm collected from different federal states of Germany. The distribution of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in humic topsoils with respect to vegetation cover (coniferous vs. deciduous vs. mixed), total organic carbon (TOC), altitude and latitude data was investigated...
August 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kristina Kirfel, Christoph Leuschner, Dietrich Hertel, Bernhard Schuldt
Despite their importance for water uptake and transport, the xylem anatomical and hydraulic properties of tree roots have only rarely been studied in the field. We measured mean vessel diameter (D), vessel density (VD), relative vessel lumen area (lumen area per xylem area) and derived potential hydraulic conductivity (Kp) in the xylem of 197 fine- to medium-diameter roots (1-10 mm) in the topsoil and subsoil (0-200 cm) of a mature European beech forest on sandy soil for examining the influence of root diameter and soil depth on xylem anatomical and derived hydraulic traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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