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top soil

Trajče Stafilov, Robert Šajn, Mila Arapčeska, Ivan Kungulovski, Jasminka Alijagić
The results of the systematic study of the spatial distribution of trace metals in surface soil over the Bitola region, Republic of Macedonia, known for its coal mine and thermo-electrical power plant activities are reported. The investigated region (3200 km2 ) is covered by a sparse sampling grid of 5 × 5 km, but in the urban zone and around the thermoelectric power plant the sampling grid is denser (1 × 1 km). In total, 229 soil samples from 149 locations were collected including top-soil (0-5 cm) and bottom-soil samples (20-30 cm and 0-30 cm)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Kairong Wang, Fangli Wang, Ningning Song, Jun Liu, Tingting Zhang, Minglun Wang, Yongxian Wang
Cadmium (Cd) accumulation and internal Cd translocation in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are highly related to root uptake, which may largely depend on the cultivar variation and the depth of the Cd-contaminated soil. A split-column soil experiment was conducted using two common Chinese peanut cultivars (Huayu-20 and Huayu-23) known to relocate Cd to different tissues. The growth medium was separated into four layers and Cd solution was solely applied to one layer to determine the key depth affecting the Cd accumulation in a plant via root uptakes...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Roberto Raga, Alberto Pivato, Maria Cristina Lavagnolo, Laura Megido, Raffaello Cossu
In this study, a top cover system is investigated as a control for emissions during the aftercare of new landfills and for old landfills where biogas energy production might not be profitable. Different materials were studied as landfill cover system in lab-scale columns: mechanical-biological pretreated municipal solid waste (MBP); mechanical-biological pretreated biowaste (PB); fine (PBSf ) and coarse (PBSc ) mechanical-biological pretreated mixtures of biowaste and sewage sludge, and natural soil (NS). The effectiveness of these materials in removing methane and sulphur compounds from a gas stream was tested, even coupled with activated carbon membranes...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Amjad M Husaini, Aafreen Sakina, Souliha R Cambay
Fusarium oxysporum, a ubiquitous soil-borne pathogen causes devastating vascular wilt in more than 100 plant species and ranks fifth among top ten fungal plant pathogens. It has emerged as a human pathogen too, causing infections in immune-compromised patients. It is, therefore, important to gain insight into the molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of this trans-kingdom pathogen. A complex network comprising of interconnected and over lapping signal pathways; mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, Ras proteins, G-protein signaling components and their downstream pathways, components of the velvet (LaeA/VeA/VelB) complex and cAMP pathways, is involved in perceiving the host...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
P Pramanik, Bidisha Chakrabarti, Arti Bhatia, S D Singh, A Maity, P Aggarwal, P Krishnan
An attempt has been made to study the effect of elevated temperature on soil hydrothermal regimes and winter wheat growth under simulated warming in temperature gradient tunnel (TGT). Results showed that bulk density (BDs) of 0, 0.9, and 2.5 °C were significantly different whereas BDs of 2.8 and 3.5 °C were not significantly different. Water filled pore space (WFPS) was maximum at 3.5 °C temperature rise and varied between 43.80 and 98.55%. Soil surface temperature (ST) at different dates of sowing increased with rise in sensor temperature and highest ST was observed at S5 sensors (3...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
A S Varela-Stokes, S H Park, J V Stokes, N A Gavron, S I Lee, G M Moraru, S C Ricke
Our objective of this study was to explore the bacterial microbiome in fresh or fresh-frozen adult Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast ticks) using extracts enriched for microbial DNA. We collected 100 questing adult A. maculatum, surface disinfected them, and extracted DNA from individual ticks collected the same day or after storage at -80 °C. Because only extracts with microbial DNA concentrations above 2 ng/μL were considered suitable for individual analysis, we expected fewer samples to meet these requirements...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Larry M York
Root crown phenotyping allows measuring many parameters that describe the top portion of crop root systems and can be used for the basis of genome-wide association studies, QTL analysis, and physiology studies. Root crown phenotyping is a relatively simple process, with the major steps being excavation, transport, soil removal, and measurements. On the other hand, all steps require substantial manual labor and occur outside in challenging environments, and many factors influence the ultimate success of applying this methodology to research questions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bram Hanse, Frans G J Tijink, Jurgen Maassen, Noud van Swaaij
The reform of the European Union's sugar regime caused potential decreasing beet prices. Therefore, the Speeding Up Sugar Yield (SUSY) project was initiated. At the start, a 3 × 15 target was formulated: in 2015 the national average sugar yield in the Netherlands equals 15 t/ha (60% of the sugar beet potential) and the total variable costs 15 euro/t sugar beet, aspiring a saving on total variable costs and a strong increase in sugar yield. Based on their average sugar yield in 2000-2004, 26 pairs of "type top" (high yielding) and "type average" (average yielding) growers were selected from all sugar beet growing regions in the Netherlands...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Songchao Chen, Manuel P Martin, Nicolas P A Saby, Christian Walter, Denis A Angers, Dominique Arrouays
Although soils have a high potential to offset CO2 emissions through its conversion into soil organic carbon (SOC) with long turnover time, it is widely accepted that there is an upper limit of soil stable C storage, which is referred to SOC saturation. In this study we estimate SOC saturation in French topsoil (0-30cm) and subsoil (30-50cm), using the Hassink equation and calculate the additional SOC sequestration potential (SOCsp ) by the difference between SOC saturation and fine fraction C on an unbiased sampling set of sites covering whole mainland France...
February 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ilonka C Engelhardt, Amy Welty, Steven J Blazewicz, David Bru, Nadine Rouard, Marie-Christine Breuil, Arthur Gessler, Lucía Galiano, José Carlos Miranda, Aymé Spor, Romain L Barnard
Changes in frequency and amplitude of rain events, that is, precipitation patterns, result in different water conditions with soil depth, and likely affect plant growth and shape plant and soil microbial activity. Here, we used18 O stable isotope probing (SIP) to investigate bacterial and fungal communities that actively grew or not upon rewetting, at three different depths in soil mesocosms previously subjected to frequent or infrequent watering for 12 weeks (equal total water input). Phylogenetic marker genes for bacteria and fungi were sequenced after rewetting, and plant-soil microbial coupling documented by plant13 C-CO2 labeling...
February 23, 2018: ISME Journal
Lihong Song, Hongkai Li, Kehong Wang, Xiumin Yan, Donghui Wu
Peatlands cover 3% of the earth's land surface but contain 30% of the world's soil carbon pool. Microbial communities constitute a crucial detrital food web for nutrient and carbon cycling in peatlands. Heterotrophic protozoans are considered top predators in the microbial food web; however, they are not yet well understood. In this study, we investigated seasonal dynamics in the community and the trophic structure of testate amoebae in four peatlands. Testate amoebae density and biomass in August were significantly higher than those in May and October...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Jia Xu, Joseph W Kloepper, Ping Huang, John A McInroy, Chia H Hu
The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize N2 -fixing bacteria from giant reed and switchgrass and evaluate their plant growth promotion and nutrient uptake potential for use as biofertilizers. A total of 190 bacteria were obtained from rhizosphere soil and inside stems and roots of giant reed and switchgrass. All the isolates were confirmed to have nitrogenase activity, 96.9% produced auxin, and 85% produced siderophores. Then the top six strains, including Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-14, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-19, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-17, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-20, Psychrobacillus psychrodurans NP-3, and Enterobacter oryzae NXU-38, based on nitrogenase activity, were inoculated on maize and wheat seeds in greenhouse tests to assess their potential benefits to plants...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Chong Cao, Juan Huang, Chunni Yan, Jialiang Liu, Qian Hu, Wenzhu Guan
The increasing utilization of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in industry and commerce inevitably raises its release into wastewater. In this work, effects of Ag NPs on system performance and microbial community along the way of a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) were investigated, along with the removal and fate of Ag NPs within the system. Results showed that the performance of control wetland kept stable during the experimental period, and the top substrate layer (soil layer) of wetland could remove most of pollutants in the influent...
February 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Madaín Pérez-Patricio, Jorge Luis Camas-Anzueto, Avisaí Sanchez-Alegría, Abiel Aguilar-González, Federico Gutiérrez-Miceli, Elías Escobar-Gómez, Yvon Voisin, Carlos Rios-Rojas, Ruben Grajales-Coutiño
This work introduces a new vision-based approach for estimating chlorophyll contents in a plant leaf using reflectance and transmittance as base parameters. Images of the top and underside of the leaf are captured. To estimate the base parameters (reflectance/transmittance), a novel optical arrangement is proposed. The chlorophyll content is then estimated by using linear regression where the inputs are the reflectance and transmittance of the leaf. Performance of the proposed method for chlorophyll content estimation was compared with a spectrophotometer and a Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) meter...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
Ekaterina Pushkareva, Igor S Pessi, Zorigto Namsaraev, Marie-Jose Mano, Josef Elster, Annick Wilmotte
Molecular and morphological methods were applied to study cyanobacterial community composition in biological soil crusts (BSCs) from four areas (two nunataks and two ridges) in the Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica. The sampling sites serve as control areas for open top chambers (OTCs) that were put in place in 2010 at the time of sample collection and will be compared with BSC samples taken from the OTCs in the future. Cyanobacterial cell biovolume was estimated using epifluorescence microscopy, which revealed the dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria in all studied sites except the Utsteinen ridge, where unicellular cyanobacteria were the most abundant...
February 7, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Hasbagan Ganjurjav, Guozheng Hu, Yunfan Wan, Yue Li, Luobu Danjiu, Qingzhu Gao
Climate is a driver of terrestrial ecosystem carbon exchange, which is an important product of ecosystem function. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has recently been subjected to a marked increase in temperature as a consequence of global warming. To explore the effects of warming on carbon exchange in grassland ecosystems, we conducted a whole-year warming experiment between 2012 and 2014 using open-top chambers placed in an alpine meadow, an alpine steppe, and a cultivated grassland on the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Kévin Barré, Isabelle Le Viol, Romain Julliard, François Chiron, Christian Kerbiriou
The increased use of pesticides and tillage intensification is known to negatively affect biodiversity. Changes in these agricultural practices such as herbicide and tillage reduction have variable effects among taxa, especially at the top of the trophic network including insectivorous bats. Very few studies compared the effects of agricultural practices on such taxa, and overall, only as a comparison of conventional versus organic farming without accurately accounting for underlying practices, especially in conventional where many alternatives exist...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Hugues Thouin, Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet, Marie-Paule Norini, Lydie Le Forestier, Mickael Charron, Sébastien Dupraz, Pascale Gautret
Thermal destruction of chemical munitions from World War I led to the formation of a heavily contaminated residue that contains an unexpected mineral association in which a microbial As transformation has been observed. A mesocosm study was conducted to assess the impact of water saturation episodes and input of bioavailable organic matter (OM) on pollutant behavior in relation to biogeochemical parameters. Over a period of about eight (8) months, the contaminated soil was subjected to cycles of dry and wet periods corresponding to water table level variations...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Maya Almaraz, Edith Bai, Chao Wang, Justin Trousdell, Stephen Conley, Ian Faloona, Benjamin Z Houlton
Nitrogen oxides (NO x = NO + NO 2 ) are a primary component of air pollution-a leading cause of premature death in humans and biodiversity declines worldwide. Although regulatory policies in California have successfully limited transportation sources of NO x pollution, several of the United States' worst-air quality districts remain in rural regions of the state. Site-based findings suggest that NO x emissions from California's agricultural soils could contribute to air quality issues; however, a statewide estimate is hitherto lacking...
January 2018: Science Advances
Jianwei Li, Chunlan Guo, Siyang Jian, Qi Deng, Chih-Li Yu, Kudjo E Dzantor, Dafeng Hui
The effects of intensive nitrogen (N) fertilizations on spatial distributions of soil microbes in bioenergy croplands remain unknown. To quantify N fertilization effect on spatial heterogeneity of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and N (MBN), we sampled top mineral horizon soils (0-15 cm) using a spatially explicit design within two 15-m2 plots under three fertilization treatments in two bioenergy croplands in a three-year long fertilization experiment in Middle Tennessee, USA. The three fertilization treatments were no N input (NN), low N input (LN: 84 kg N ha-1 in urea) and high N input (HN: 168 kg N ha-1 in urea)...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
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