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H Calvete-Sogo, I González-Fernández, H García-Gómez, R Alonso, S Elvira, J Sanz, V Bermejo-Bermejo
Ozone (O3) critical levels (CLe) are still poorly developed for herbaceous vegetation. They are currently based on single species responses which do not reflect the multi-species nature of semi-natural vegetation communities. Also, the potential effects of other factors like the nitrogen (N) input are not considered in their derivation, making their use uncertain under natural conditions. Exposure- and dose-response relationships were derived from two open-top chamber experiments exposing a mixture of 6 representative annual Mediterranean pasture species growing in natural soil to 4 O3 fumigation levels and 3 N inputs...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Dennis Baldocchi, Youngryel Ryu, Trevor Keenan
A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise...
2016: F1000Research
Kristin M Blum, Patrik L Andersson, Gunno Renman, Lutz Ahrens, Meritxell Gros, Karin Wiberg, Peter Haglund
On-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs), which are used to reduce nutrient emissions in rural areas, were screened for anthropogenic compounds with two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). The detected compounds were prioritized based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity, removal efficiency, and concentrations. This comprehensive prioritization strategy, which was used for the first time on OSSF samples, ranked galaxolide, α-tocopheryl acetate, octocrylene, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, several chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants and linear alkyl benzenes as the most relevant compounds being emitted from OSSFs...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Javad Bayat, Seyed Hossein Hashemi, Korros Khoshbakht, Reza Deihimfard
The analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are composed of n-alkanes as well as branched and cyclic alkanes, can be used to distinguish between the sources of hydrocarbon contamination. In this study, the concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons, soil pH, and organic matter in agricultural soils located south of Tehran were monitored. Eighty-three soil samples were taken from two depth ranges of 0-30 and 30-60 cm. The results showed that aliphatic compounds ranged from 0.22-68.11 mg kg(-1) at the top to 0...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Eleanor U Hobley, Adrian J Le Gay Brereton, Brian Wilson
Fire alters ecosystem carbon cycling and generates pyrogenic matter such as charcoal, which can be incorporated into soils. The incorporation and cycling of charcoal in soils is a potential carbon sink, but studies investigating charcoal and carbon dynamics in soils are still lacking. We investigated soil carbon, charcoal and nitrogen dynamics in the top 20cm of a sandy soil within a eucalypt forest in eastern Australia at three sites representing a chronosequence from 3months to 14years post-fire. In the short-term, fire removed litter, but resulted in an increase in both the charcoal and non-charcoal SOC content of the soils, which we attribute to above-ground charcoal generation and its incorporation into the soil profile, as well as below-ground root mortality...
October 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Junhong Bai, Guangliang Zhang, Qingqing Zhao, Qiongqiong Lu, Jia Jia, Baoshan Cui, Xinhui Liu
This study was carried out in three kinds of salt marshes according to the vegetation covers, including Phragmites australis salt marsh (PSM), Suaeda salus salt marsh (SSM) and Tamarix chinensis-Suaeda salus salt marsh (TSSM). We applied allometric function, exponential function and logistic function to model the depth distribution of the SOCv and SOCc for each salt marsh, respectively. The results showed that the exponential function fits the depth distribution of the SOCv more well than other two functions...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Masanobu Mori, Kin-Ichi Tsunoda, Shoichi Aizawa, Yoichi Saito, Yuko Koike, Takahiro Gonda, Shunji Abe, Kyuma Suzuki, Yumi Yuasa, Toshihiro Kuge, Hideki Tanaka, Hajime Arai, Shun Watanabe, Seiichi Nohara, Yoshitaka Minai, Yukiko Okada, Seiya Nagao
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident has resulted in the contamination of the environment in Gunma Prefecture with radioisotope cesium (radio-Cs, (134)Cs and (137)Cs). Concentrations of radio-Cs >500Bqkg(-1) were found in wakasagi (Hypomesus nipponensis) in Lake Onuma at the top of Mount (Mt.) Akagi in August 2011. To explain the mechanism of this contamination, monitoring studies have been conducted around Lake Onuma by measuring radio-Cs concentrations in samples of fish, aquatic plants, plankton, lake water, lake sediments, and surrounding soil...
October 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Travis W Shaddox, Jason K Kruse, Grady L Miller, Peter Nkedi-Kizza, Jerry B Sartain
United States Golf Association putting greens are susceptible to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching. Inorganic soil amendments are used to increase moisture and nutrient retention and may influence N and P leaching. This study was conducted to determine whether N and P leaching could be reduced using soil amendments and surfactant-modified soil amendments. Treatments included a control (sand), sand-peat, zeolite, calcined clay, hexadecyltrimethylammonium-zeolite, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium-calcined clay...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Rosangela Tozzoli, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Federica Gigliucci, Gianfranco Brambilla, Marina Monini, Edoardo Vignolo, Alfredo Caprioli, Stefano Morabito
AIMS: to investigate the presence of genomic traits associated with a set of enteric viruses as well as pathogenic Escherichia coli in Top Soil Improvers (TSI) from Italy METHODS: 24 TSI samples originating from municipal sewage sludges, pig manure, green and household wastes were analysed by Real Time PCR for the presence of Hepatitis E virus, porcine and human adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus and diarrheagenic E. coli. RESULTS: None of the samples was found positive for Hepatitis E virus, and rotavirus...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jordan Lestina, Maxwell Cook, Sunil Kumar, Jeffrey Morisette, Paul J Ode, Frank Peairs
Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) has long been a significant insect pest of spring, and more recently, winter wheat in the northern Great Plains. Wheat stem sawfly was first observed infesting winter wheat in Colorado in 2010 and, subsequently, has spread rapidly throughout wheat production regions of the state. Here, we used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to generate habitat suitability maps in order to predict the risk of crop damage as this species spreads throughout the winter wheat-growing regions of Colorado...
September 22, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Yoshiaki Ueda, Katharina Frindte, Claudia Knief, Md Ashrafuzzaman, Michael Frei
Microbes constitute a vital part of the plant holobiont. They establish plant-microbe or microbe-microbe associations, forming a unique microbiota with each plant species and under different environmental conditions. These microbial communities have to adapt to diverse environmental conditions, such as geographical location, climate conditions and soil types, and are subjected to changes in their surrounding environment. Elevated ozone concentration is one of the most important aspects of global change, but its effect on microbial communities living on plant surfaces has barely been investigated...
2016: PloS One
Subhadip Ghosh, Bryant C Scharenbroch, Lai Fern Ow
Soil is the largest pool of organic carbon in terrestrial systems and plays a key role in carbon cycle. Global population living in urban areas are increasing substantially; however, the effects of urbanization on soil carbon storage and distribution are largely unknown. Here, we characterized the soil organic carbon (SOC) in roadside soils across the city-state of Singapore. We tested three hypotheses that SOC contents (concentration and density) in Singapore would be positively related to aboveground tree biomass, soil microbial biomass and land-use patterns...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Liangliang Wei, Kun Wang, Daniel R Noguera, Junqiu Jiang, Ben Oyserman, Ningbo Zhao, Qingliang Zhao, Fuyi Cui
Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) systems rely on extensive physical and biogeochemical processes in the vadose zone and aquifer for water quality improvement. In this study, the distribution, quantitative changes, as well as the speciation characteristics of heavy metals in different depth of soils of a two-year operated lab-scale SAT was explored. A majority of the heavy metals in the recharged secondary effluent were efficiently trapped by the steady-state operated SAT (removal efficiency ranged from 74.7% to 98...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Xiaoyu Wang, Brian G McConkey, A J VandenBygaart, Jianling Fan, Alan Iwaasa, Mike Schellenberg
Grazing potentially alters grassland ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage and cycles, however, the overall direction and magnitude of such alterations are poorly understood on the Northern Great Plains (NGP). By synthesizing data from multiple studies on grazed NGP ecosystems, we quantified the response of 30 variables to C and N pools and fluxes to grazing using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Results showed that grazing enhanced soil C (5.2 ± 4.6% relative) and N (11.3 ± 9.1%) pools in the top layer, stimulated litter decomposition (26...
2016: Scientific Reports
Andrew J Trant, Wiebe Nijland, Kira M Hoffman, Darcy L Mathews, Duncan McLaren, Trisalyn A Nelson, Brian M Starzomski
Human occupation is usually associated with degraded landscapes but 13,000 years of repeated occupation by British Columbia's coastal First Nations has had the opposite effect, enhancing temperate rainforest productivity. This is particularly the case over the last 6,000 years when intensified intertidal shellfish usage resulted in the accumulation of substantial shell middens. We show that soils at habitation sites are higher in calcium and phosphorous. Both of these are limiting factors in coastal temperate rainforests...
2016: Nature Communications
Torsten W Berger, Alexander Muras
Release of stored sulfur may delay the recovery of soil pH from Acid Rain. It is hypothesized that analyzing the micro-spatial heterogeneity of soil columns downhill of a beech stem enables predictions of soil recovery as a function of historic acid loads and time. We demonstrated in a very simplified approach, how these two different factors may be untangled from each other using synthetic data. Thereafter, we evaluated the stated hypothesis based upon chemical soil data with increasing distance from the stem of beech trees...
2016: Modeling Earth Systems and Environment
Ludovico Pontoni, Eric D van Hullebusch, Massimiliano Fabbricino, Giovanni Esposito, Francesco Pirozzi
A micro-contamination phenomenon was reproduced and studied at lab-scale, mimicking the irrigation of a standard artificial soil with a water solution containing three Heavy Metals (HMs) at trace concentration level. To assess the dynamics of micro-pollutants accumulation and migration trough the soil, the organic matter in the soil was varied, together with sodicity of the irrigation water. Accumulation of the investigated contaminants was observed mainly in the top layer (≤1 cm) of the irrigated soil. This was attributed to the high interaction capacity of the soil compared to the low HM concentrations in the water phase...
November 2016: Chemosphere
Xun-Wen Chen, James Tsz-Fung Wong, Anna Oi-Wah Leung, Charles Wang-Wai Ng, Ming-Hung Wong
Engineered sanitary landfills are becoming more and more common worldwide. Ecosystem restoration of capped sanitary landfills is essential to restore the disturbed environment. Comparing plant communities, as well as bacterial communities, in landfills and natural areas, offers an efficient way to assess the restoration status. However, such studies on the restored engineered landfills are limited. Here we present an ecological restoration case in an engineered landfill in a subtropical region. Part of the South East New Territories (SENT) landfill in Hong Kong was capped and restored, by using 16 plant species growing on top of the final cover soil, during 1997-1999...
August 22, 2016: Waste Management
Xiukang Wang, Yingying Xing
Mulching and nitrogen are critical drivers of crop production for smallholders of the Loess Plateau in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mulching and nitrogen fertilizer on the soil water content, soil nitrate-N content and vertical distribution in maize root-zone. The experiment was conducted over two consecutive years and used randomly assigned field plots with three replicates. The six treatments consisted of no fertilizer without plastic film (CK), plastic film mulching with no basal fertilizer and no top dressing (MN0), basal fertilizer with no top dressing and no mulching (BN1), plastic film mulching and basal fertilizer with no top dressing (MN1), basal fertilizer and top dressing with no mulching (BN2) and plastic film mulching with basal fertilizer and top dressing (MN2)...
2016: PloS One
C Lindim, J van Gils, D Georgieva, O Mekenyan, I T Cousins
An emissions inventory for top consumed human pharmaceuticals in Sweden was done based on national consumption data, human metabolic rates and wastewater treatment removal rates. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface waters in Swedish river basins were predicted using estimated emissions from the inventory and river discharges. Our findings indicate that the top ten emitted pharmaceuticals in our study set of 54 substances are all emitted in amounts above 0.5ton/y to both surface waters and soils. The highest emissions to water were in decreasing order for Metformin, Furosemide, Gabapentin, Atenolol and Tramadol...
August 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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