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top soil

Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mervat A Abdel-Latif, Rab N Soomro, Khawar Hayat, Mohamed A E Mohamed, Bello M Bodinga, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
Protein quality plays a key role than quantity in growth, production, and reproduction of ruminants. Application of high concentration of dietary crude protein (CP) did not balance the proportion of these limiting amino acids (AA) at duodenal digesta of high producing dairy cow. Thus, dietary supplementation of rumen-protected AA is recommended to sustain the physiological, productive, and reproductive performance of ruminants. Poor metabolism of high CP diets in rumen excretes excessive nitrogen (N) through urine and feces in the environment...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuting Zhou, Lili Niu, Kai Liu, Shanshan Yin, Weiping Liu
Arsenic (As) in the environment is of concern due to its strong toxicity and high risks to the ecosystems and humans. In this study, soil samples across China collected in 2011 and 2016 were used to determine the concentrations of arsenic in arable soils. The median concentration of arsenic in surface soils was 9.7mg/kg. The inventory of arsenic in the Chinese agricultural surface soils was estimated to be 3.7×10(6)tons. In general, arsenic contamination was found higher in South and Northeast China than in other regions, with means of 18...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jens Lange, Oliver Olsson, Brian Sweeney, Barbara Herbstritt, Marco Reich, Pablo Alvarez-Zaldivar, Sylvain Payraudeau, Gwenaël Imfeld
This study evaluates the mobility and dissipation of two organic fluorescent tracers (uranine, UR and sulforhodamine-B, SRB) in soil from an agricultural field. Two plot experiments were conducted for 2.5months in 2012 and 2016 to compare the behavior of reactive fluorescent tracers (UR and SRB) to the chloroacetanilide herbicide S-metolachlor (S-MET) and bromide (BR), used as a traditional conservative tracer. SRB in top soil closely mimicked the gradual recession of S-MET, while BR overrated both top soil mobility and slow leaching of S-MET in the soil column...
October 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Joji Abraham, Kim Dowling, Singarayer Florentine
The environmental impact of toxic metal contamination from legacy mining activities, many of which had operated and were closed prior to the enforcement of robust environmental legislation, is of growing concern to modern society. We have carried out analysis of As and potentially toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soil of a legacy gold mining site in Maldon, Victoria, Australia, to reveal the status of the current metal concentration. The results revealed the median concentrations of metals from highest to lowest, in the order: Mn > Zn > As > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Hg > Cd...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Kristof Brenzinger, Katharina Kujala, Marcus A Horn, Gerald Moser, Cécile Guillet, Claudia Kammann, Christoph Müller, Gesche Braker
Continuously rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO2 (eCO2) concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations) at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE) sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N2O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO2 (aCO2)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ce Tang, Jian Wen, Wen Zhang, Jin-Song Su, Cai-Xiang Xie, Yi Zhang
In order to study the ecology suitability of Pterocephalus hookeri, and provide a reference for GAP planting location and regional development, the Maxent model and GIS technology were used to investigate ecology suitability regions for P. hookeri based on the distribution points collected from Chinese virtual herbarium, the references and field trips. The potential distribution areas mainly concentrated in the eastern Tibet, western Sichuan, southern Qinghai, northwest Yunnan, and southern Gansu. There were 7 major environmental factors to have obvious influence on ecology suitability distributions of P...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Istak Ahmed, Nibedita Das Pan, Jatan Debnath, Moujuri Bhowmik
Erosion-induced land degradation problem has emerged as a serious environmental issue across the world. Assessment of this problem through modelling can generate valuable quantitative information for the planners to identify priority areas for proper soil conservation measures. The Gumti River basin of Tripura falls under humid tropical climate and experiences soil erosion for a prolonged period which has turned into a major environmental issue. Increased sediment supply through top soil erosion is one of the major reasons for reduced navigability of this river...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yanyun Zhao, Yong Ding, Xiangyang Hou, Frank Yonghong Li, Wenjun Han, Xiangjun Yun
Soil represents the largest terrestrial organic carbon pool. To address global climate change, it is essential to explore the soil organic carbon storage patterns and their controlling factors. We investigated the soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in 48 grassland sites along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect (ESET) region, which covers the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion and Mongolia grasslands subregion. Specifically, we analyzed the SOCD in the top 30 cm soil layer and its relationships with climatic variables, soil texture, grazing intensity and community biomass productivity...
2017: PloS One
Richard Baidoo, Tesfamariam Mekete Mengistu, Janete A Brito, Robert McSorley, Robert H Stamps, William T Crow
Pasteuria penetrans is considered as the primary agent responsible for soil suppressiveness to root-knot nematodes widely distributed in many agricultural fields. A preliminary survey on a Pittosporum tobira field where the grower had experienced a continuous decline in productivity caused by Meloidogyne incognita showed that the nematode was infected with Pasteuria penetrans. For effective control of the nematode, the bacterium and the host must coexist in the same root zone. The vertical distribution of Pasteuria penetrans and its relationship with the nematode host in the soil was investigated to identify (i) the vertical distribution of P...
September 2017: Journal of Nematology
Marie Lefrancq, Sylvain Payraudeau, Benoît Guyot, Maurice Millet, Gwenaël Imfeld
Evaluating pesticide degradation and transport in the soil-surface water continuum remains challenging at the catchment scale. Here we investigated the dissipation of the chiral herbicide S-metolachlor (SM) in soil in relation to its transport in runoff. Analyses of SM, transformation products (TPs, i.e. MESA and MOXA), and enantiomers were combined to determine SM degradation at plot and catchment scales. Assisted by modelling, we found that the main dissipation pathways of SM at the plot scale were degradation (71%), volatilization (5%), leaching (8%) and runoff (3%), while 13% of SM persisted in top-soil...
October 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
R Scott Winton, Neal Flanagan, Curtis J Richardson
Tropical wetlands are thought to be the most important source of interannual variability in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations, yet sparse data prevents them from being incorporated into Earth system models. This problem is particularly pronounced in the neotropics where bottom-up models based on water table depth are incongruent with top-down inversion models suggesting unaccounted sinks or sources of CH4. The newly documented vast areas of peatlands in the Amazon basin may account for an important unrecognized CH4 source, but the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of CH4 dynamics from these systems remain poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
Kunal Dutta, Sergey Shityakov, Prangya P Das, Chandradipa Ghosh
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of environmental pollutant that are given top priority to maintain water and soil quality to the most amenable standard. Biodegradation of PAHs by bacteria is the convenient option for decontamination on site or off site. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify naturally occurring bacteria having mixed PAHs biodegradation ability. The newly isolated Pseudomonas putida strain KD6 was found to efficiently degrade 97.729% of 1500 mg L(-1) mixed PAHs within 12 days in carbon-deficient minimal medium (CSM)...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
Yoseph T Delelegn, Witoon Purahong, Amila Blazevic, Birru Yitaferu, Tesfaye Wubet, Hans Göransson, Douglas L Godbold
Land use change alters biodiversity and soil quality and thus affects ecosystem functions. This study investigated the effects of changes in land use on major soil quality indicators. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0-10 cm (top soil) under four major land uses (cropland, grassland, area exclosure, eucalyptus plantation) with similar land use change histories for analysis, and soil from a nearby natural forest was used as a reference. Land use change from natural forest to cropland and grassland significantly decreased major soil quality indicators such as soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), molybdate-reactive bicarbonate-extractable P, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore density, but compared to the cropland, change to area exclosure and eucalyptus plantation significantly improved SOC, TSN and soil aggregate stability (SAS)...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Elissa S Ballman, Judith A Collins, Francis A Drummond
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive vinegar fly and pest of soft fruits in North America, including wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Maine. Despite its presence in the continental United States for 9 yr, little is known about its natural enemy complex. Here we report the results of a 3-yr study designed to identify naturally-occurring predators in Maine's wild blueberry fields. Experiments were conducted to determine pupation site and pupation depth to understand D...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Wu Xiong, Alexandre Jousset, Sai Guo, Ida Karlsson, Qingyun Zhao, Huasong Wu, George A Kowalchuk, Qirong Shen, Rong Li, Stefan Geisen
Soil microbes are essential for soil fertility. However, most studies focus on bacterial and/or fungal communities, while the top-down drivers of this microbiome composition, protists, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how soil amendments affect protist communities and inferred potential interactions with bacteria and fungi. Specific fertilization treatments impacted both the structure and function of protist communities. Organic fertilizer amendment strongly reduced the relative abundance of plant pathogenic protists and increased bacterivorous and omnivorous protists...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
Nuria Lozano, Clifford P Rice, Mark Ramirez, Alba Torrents
Triclocarban [N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) urea] (TCC) is an antimicrobial agent utilized in a variety of consumer products. It is commonly released into domestic wastewaters and upon treatment, it is known to accumulate in biosolids. This study examines the occurrence of TCC in biosolids and its long-term fate in biosolid-treated soils. TCC levels in the biosolids from a large waste water treatment plant (WWTP) over 2 years showed little variability at 18,800 ± 700 ng g(-1) dry wt. (mean ± SEM)...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M L Pretorius, C W Van Huyssteen, L R Brown
A relationship between soil organic carbon and soil color is acknowledged-albeit not a direct one. Since heightened carbon contents can be an indicator of wetlands, a quantifiable relationship between color and carbon might assist in determining wetland boundaries by rapid, field-based appraisal. The overarching aim of this initial study was to determine the potential of top soil color to indicate soil organic carbon, and by extension wetland boundaries, on a sandy coastal plain in South Africa. Data were collected from four wetland types in northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Babak Vazirianzadeh, Amir Jalali, Mostafa Chrom, Alireza Mohammady, Hassan Vatandoost, Forozan Panahi
BACKGROUND: The different features of scorpions can be successfully described by their nesting and burrowing behaviors. There is little information about burrowing activity of Iranian scorpions. METHODS: The current study was performed to compare the burrowing behavior between two burrowing Iranian scorpions, Scorpio maurus and Odonthubutus bidentatus by describing 30 nests of each species regarding collecting the scorpions. RESULTS: Scorpio maurus and O...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Wenjie Wang, Zhaoliang Zhong, Qiong Wang, Humei Wang, Yujie Fu, Xingyuan He
Despite vital importance in soil conditioning and a proxy for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF), glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contribution to soil carbon and nutrients at vertical soil profiles and underlying mechanism were not well-defined yet. Thus, 360 soil samples were collected from 72 farmland 1-m soil profiles in northeastern China, and soil physiochemical properties, nutrients, glomalin characteristics, local climates were determined. Linear decreases of glomalin amounts were observed from the top to deep soils, and glomalin/SOC (glomalin ratio to total SOC) in the 80-100 cm soil (EEG, easily-extracted GRSP, 2...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Galina A Semenova, Irina R Fomina, Anatoly A Kosobryukhov, Valery Yu Lyubimov, Ekaterina S Nadezhkina, Tamara I Balakhnina
The ultrastructure of mesophyll cells was studied in leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. cv. "Trizo" seedlings after two weeks of growth on soil contaminated by Pb and/or Se. The soil treatments: control; (Pb1) 50mgkg(-1); (Pb2) 100mgkg(-1); (Se1) 0.4mgkg(-1); (Se2) 0.8mgkg(-1); (Pb1+Se1); (Pb1+Se2); (P2+Se1); and (Pb2+Se2) were used. Light and other conditions were optimal for plant growth. The (Se1)-plants showed enhanced growth and biomass production; (Pb1+Se1)-plants did not lag behind the controls, though O2 evolution decreased; chlorophyll content did not differ statistically in these treatments...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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