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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421053/elevated-air-humidity-changes-soil-bacterial-community-structure-in-the-silver-birch-stand
#1
Marika Truu, Ivika Ostonen, Jens-Konrad Preem, Krista Lõhmus, Hiie Nõlvak, Teele Ligi, Katrin Rosenvald, Kaarin Parts, Priit Kupper, Jaak Truu
Soil microbes play a fundamental role in forest ecosystems and respond rapidly to changes in the environment. Simultaneously with the temperature increase the climate change scenarios also predict an intensified hydrological cycle for the Baltic Sea runoff region. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of elevated air humidity on the top soil microbial community structure of a silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) stand by using a free air humidity manipulation facility (FAHM). The bacterial community structures of bulk soil and birch rhizosphere were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing of bacteria-specific16S rRNA gene fragments and quantification of denitrification related genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400580/responses-of-denitrifying-bacterial-communities-to-short-term-waterlogging-of-soils
#2
Yong Wang, Yoshitaka Uchida, Yumi Shimomura, Hiroko Akiyama, Masahito Hayatsu
Agricultural soil is often subjected to waterlogging after heavy rainfalls, resulting in sharp and explosive increases in the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important greenhouse gas primarily released from agricultural soil ecosystems. Previous studies on waterlogged soil examined the abundance of denitrifiers but not the composition of denitrifier communities in soil. Also, the PCR primers used in those studies could only detect partial groups of denitrifiers. Here, we performed pyrosequencing analyses with the aid of recently developed PCR primers exhibiting high coverage for three denitrification genes, nirK, nirS, and nosZ to examine the effect of short-term waterlogging on denitrifier communities in soil...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392240/effect-of-home-construction-on-soil-carbon-storage-a-chronosequence-case-study
#3
Hamed Majidzadeh, B Graeme Lockaby, Robin Governo
Urbanization results in the rapid expansion of impervious surfaces, therefore a better understanding of biogeochemical consequences of soil sealing is crucial. Previous research documents a significant reduction in soil carbon and nitrogen content, however, it is unclear if this decrease is a result of top soil removal or long-term soil sealing. In this study, soil biogeochemical properties were quantified beneath homes built on a crawl space at two depths (0-10 cm, and 10-20 cm). All homes, 11-114 years in age, were sampled in the Piedmont region of Alabama and Georgia, USA...
April 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382933/clay-illuviation-provides-a-long-term-sink-for-c-sequestration-in-subsoils
#4
Gemma Torres-Sallan, Rogier P O Schulte, Gary J Lanigan, Kenneth A Byrne, Brian Reidy, Iolanda Simó, Johan Six, Rachel E Creamer
Soil plays a key role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Most current assessments of SOC stocks and the guidelines given by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) focus on the top 30 cm of soil. Our research shows that, when considering only total quantities, most of the SOC stocks are found in this top layer. However, not all forms of SOC are equally valuable as long-term stable stores of carbon: the majority of SOC is available for mineralisation and can potentially be re-emitted to the atmosphere...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376427/experimental-warming-and-antecedent-fire-alter-leaf-element-composition-and-increase-soil-c-n-ratio-in-sub-alpine-open-heathland
#5
A C White-Monsant, G J Clark, M A G Ng Kam Chuen, C Tang
Plant communities in alpine ecosystems worldwide are being altered by climate warming. In the alpine open heathland of the Bogong High Plains, Australia, warming and fire have affected the growth and phenology of plants, and have recently been found to alter soil nutrient availability. We examined the effects of nine years of passive warming by open-top chambers and nine years post-fire on (i) the soluble and extractable nutrients and toxic elements available for plant uptake in the soil and (ii) on the element composition of leaves of seven dominant sub-alpine open heathland plants...
April 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374907/a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-a-new-skin-care-regimen-on-skin-barrier-function-in-those-with-podoconiosis-in-ethiopia
#6
J Brooks, S J Ersser, F Cowdell, E Gardiner, A Mengistu, P J Matts
BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis affects an estimated 3 million people in Ethiopia with a further 19 million at risk. Volcanic soil and pathogens enter skin breaches in the feet causing inflammation, lymphoedema and hyperkeratosis. There is no robust evidence on optimal podoconiosis skin care regimens to improve SBF. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new, low-cost, evidence-based intervention to improve SBF in the lower limbs of those with podoconiosis. METHODS: A randomized control trial (RCT) was conducted over 3 months in two podoconiosis clinics (n=193)...
April 4, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365562/responses-of-mixed-methanotrophic-consortia-to-variable-cu-2-fe-2-ratios
#7
Karthigeyan Chidambarampadmavathy, Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, Roger Huerlimann, Gregory E Maes, Kirsten Heimann
Methane mitigation in landfill top cover soils is mediated by methanotrophs whose optimal methane (CH4) oxidation capacity is governed by environmental and complex microbial community interactions. Optimization of CH4 remediating bio-filters need to take microbial responses into account. Divalent copper (Cu(2+)) and iron (Fe(2+)) are present in landfills at variable ratios and play a vital role in methane oxidation capacity and growth of methanotrophs. This study, as a first of its kind, therefore quantified effects of variable Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) (5:5, 5:25 and 5:50 μM) ratios on mixed methanotrophic communities enriched from landfill top cover (LB) and compost soils (CB)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346905/modeling-the-terrestrial-n-processes-in-a-small-mountain-catchment-through-inca-n-a-case-study-in-taiwan
#8
Meng-Chang Lu, Chung-Te Chang, Teng-Chiu Lin, Lih-Jih Wang, Chiao-Ping Wang, Ting-Chang Hsu, Jr-Chuan Huang
Riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is an important indicator of trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. High riverine DIN export in Taiwan, ~3800kg-Nkm(-2)yr(-1), which is ~18 times higher than the global average, urges the need of thorough understanding of N cycling processes. We applied INCA-N (Integrated Nitrogen Catchment Model) to simulate riverine DIN export and infer terrestrial N processes using weekly rainwater and streamwater samples collected at the Fushan Experimental Forest (FEF) of northern Taiwan...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340453/long-term-nitrogen-deposition-increases-heathland-carbon-sequestration
#9
Chris D Field, Chris D Evans, Nancy B Dise, Jane R Hall, Simon J M Caporn
The large increases in reactive nitrogen (N) deposition in developed countries since the Industrial Revolution have had a marked impact on ecosystem functioning, including declining species richness, shifts in species composition, and increased N leaching. A potential mitigation of these harmful effects is the action of N as a fertiliser, which, through increasing primary productivity (and subsequently, organic matter production), has the potential to increase ecosystem carbon (C) storage. Here we report the response of an upland heath to 10years of experimental N addition...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338970/woody-plant-ecosystems-under-climate-change-and-air-pollution-response-consistencies-across-zonobiomes
#10
R Matyssek, A R Kozovits, G Wieser, J King, H Rennenberg
Forests store the largest terrestrial pools of carbon (C), helping to stabilize the global climate system, yet are threatened by climate change (CC) and associated air pollution (AP, highlighting ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)). We adopt the perspective that CC-AP drivers and physiological impacts are universal, resulting in consistent stress responses of forest ecosystems across zonobiomes. Evidence supporting this viewpoint is presented from the literature on ecosystem gross/net primary productivity and water cycling...
March 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337415/a-modification-of-the-constant-head-permeameter-to-measure-saturated-hydraulic-conductivity-of-highly-permeable-media
#11
Jelmer J Nijp, Klaas Metselaar, Juul Limpens, Harm P A Gooren, Sjoerd E A T M van der Zee
The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks ) is a key characteristic of porous media, describing the rate of water flow through saturated porous media. It is an indispensable parameter in a broad range of simulation models that quantify saturated and/or unsaturated water flow. The constant-head permeameter test is a common laboratory method to determine Ks on undisturbed soil samples collected from the field. In this paper we show that the application of this conventional method may result in a biased Ks in the case of highly permeable media, such as the top layer of Sphagnum peat and gravel...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334674/organochlorine-pesticides-in-soil-air-and-vegetation-at-and-around-a-contaminated-site-in-southwestern-china-concentration-transmission-and-risk-evaluation
#12
Yanyan Fang, Zhiqiang Nie, Qingqi Die, Yajun Tian, Feng Liu, Jie He, Qifei Huang
Remediation and management of contaminated sites have become a prevalent problem under the current situation in China. The present study was conducted to investigate the concentration, transmission, and health risk of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil, air, and vegetation at and around a typical pesticide-contaminated site located in southwestern China. Exchange flux between soil and air was calculated to investigate the transmission of OCPs. Hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCHs, top soil: 19.1 mg/kg d.w., air: 52...
March 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334022/effects-of-clothianidin-on-aquatic-communities-evaluating-the-impacts-of-lethal-and-sublethal-exposure-to-neonicotinoids
#13
Jesse C Miles, Jessica Hua, Maria S Sepulveda, Christian H Krupke, Jason T Hoverman
The widespread usage of neonicotinoid insecticides has sparked concern over their effects on non-target organisms. While research has largely focused on terrestrial systems, the low soil binding and high water solubility of neonicotinoids, paired with their extensive use on the landscape, puts aquatic environments at high risk for contamination via runoff events. We assessed the potential threat of these compounds to wetland communities using a combination of field surveys and experimental exposures including concentrations that are representative of what invertebrates experience in the field...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326783/leaching-of-diuron-hexazinone-and-sulfometuron-methyl-applied-alone-and-in-mixture-in-soils-with-contrasting-textures
#14
Fabricia Cristina Dos Reis, Valdemar Luiz Tornisielo, Rodrigo Floriano Pimpinato, Bianca A B Martins, Ricardo Victória Filho
When herbicides are applied in mixture, interactions among them could potentially promote changes in herbicide behavior in the soil. Thus, application mode (isolated or in mixture) and soil texture (sandy or clayey) were investigated in the total leaching of the commercial mixture diuron + hexazinone + sulfometuron-methyl, and of each isolated compound. Experiments in soil columns also evaluated the movement of each herbicide and mixtures across soil layers. In the sandy soil, the greatest total leaching was observed with hexazinone compared to diuron and sulfometuron...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318700/effects-of-warming-and-nitrogen-deposition-on-ch4-co2-and-n2o-emissions-in-alpine-grassland-ecosystems-of-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#15
Zhenzhen Zhao, Shikui Dong, Xiaoman Jiang, Shiliang Liu, Hanzhong Ji, Yu Li, Yuhui Han, Wei Sha
Increases in nitrogen (N) deposition along with climate warming can change the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in the soil, and alter greenhouse gases (GHGs) fluxes. To examine how N deposition and warming affect GHGs (CH4, CO2 and N2O) fluxes in alpine grasslands, we conducted experiments in an alpine meadow (AM), alpine-steppe (AS), and alpine cultivated grassland (CG) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). We simulated N deposition by treating soil with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) (8kgNha(-1)year(-1)), a warming treatment using an open top chamber (OTC) was carried out, and a combined treatment of warming and N deposition (8kgNha(-1)year(-1)) was conducted...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317257/top-down-control-of-carbon-sequestration-grazing-affects-microbial-structure-and-function-in-salt-marsh-soils
#16
Peter Mueller, Dirk Granse, Stefanie Nolte, Hai Thi Do, Magdalena Weingartner, Stefan Hoth, Kai Jensen
Tidal wetlands have been increasingly recognized as long-term carbon sinks in recent years. Work on carbon sequestration and decomposition processes in tidal wetlands focused so far mainly on effects of global-change factors such as sea-level rise and increasing temperatures. However, little is known about effects of land use, such as livestock grazing, on organic matter decomposition and ultimately carbon sequestration. The present work aims at understanding the mechanisms by which large herbivores can affect organic matter decomposition in tidal wetlands...
March 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290573/emerging-investigator-series-dual-role-of-organic-matter-in-the-anaerobic-degradation-of-triclosan
#17
Lin Wang, Shengnan Xu, Bo Pan, Yu Yang
Triclosan (TCS), one of the most widely used antimicrobial agents, has been listed among the top 10 contaminants in US rivers. Environmental persistence, endocrine disruption effects, and the antibiotic resistance induction capacity of TCS attract interest in its environmental fate and degradation. Herein, we found that TCS can be anaerobically degraded at pH 9 by a metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella putrefaciens CN32. The degradation was substantially facilitated by low-concentration (0-15 mg C per L) organic matter (OM) extracted from a peat soil, whereas TCS degradation was inhibited by further increased concentration (15-100 mg C per L) of OM...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288930/assessing-the-effect-of-oral-exposure-to-paenibacillus-alvei-a-potential-biocontrol-agent-in-male-non-pregnant-pregnant-animals-and-the-developing-rat-fetus
#18
Robert L Sprando, Thomas Black, Nicholas Olejnik, Zachary Keltner, Vanessa Topping, Martine Ferguson, Darcy Hanes, Eric Brown, Jie Zheng
Paenibacillus alvei, a naturally occurring soil microorganism, may be used in the control and/or elimination of human/animal pathogens present on/within produce commodities associated with human consumption. The safety of oral exposure to P. alvei in male, nulliparous females, the pregnant dam and developing fetus was assessed. Adult male and female rats received a single oral dose (gavage) of P. alvei and tissues were collected at post exposure days 0, 3 and 14. To evaluate the effect of the test organism on fetal development, sperm positive female rats received the test organism every 3 days thereafter throughout gestation...
March 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287495/a-self-powered-and-autonomous-fringing-field-capacitive-sensor-integrated-into-a-micro-sprinkler-spinner-to-measure-soil-water-content
#19
Eduardo Ferreira da Costa, Nestor E de Oliveira, Flávio J O Morais, Pedro Carvalhaes-Dias, Luis Fernando C Duarte, Andreu Cabot, J A Siqueira Dias
We present here the design and fabrication of a self-powered and autonomous fringing field capacitive sensor to measure soil water content. The sensor is manufactured using a conventional printed circuit board and includes a porous ceramic. To read the sensor, we use a circuit that includes a 10 kHz triangle wave generator, an AC amplifier, a precision rectifier and a microcontroller. In terms of performance, the sensor's capacitance (measured in a laboratory prototype) increases up to 5% when the volumetric water content of the porous ceramic changed from 3% to 36%, resulting in a sensitivity of S = 15...
March 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285856/seasonal-responses-of-soil-respiration-to-warming-and-nitrogen-addition-in-a-semi-arid-alfalfa-pasture-of-the-loess-plateau-china
#20
Chao Fang, Jian-Sheng Ye, Yanhong Gong, Jiuying Pei, Ziqiang Yuan, Chan Xie, Yusi Zhu, Yueyuan Yu
Responses of soil respiration (Rs) to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition and warming will have far-reaching influences on global carbon (C) cycling. However, the seasonal (growing and non-growing seasons) difference of Rs responses to warming and N deposition has rarely been investigated. We conducted a field manipulative experiment in a semi-arid alfalfa-pasture of northwest China to evaluate the response of Rs to nitrogen addition and warming from March 2014 to March 2016. Open-top chambers were used to elevate temperature and N was enriched at a rate of 4...
March 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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