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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029367/genetic-diversity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-surface-protein-1-block-2-glutamate-rich-protein-and-sexual-stage-antigen-pfs25-from-chandigarh-north-india
#1
Hargobinder Kaur, Rakesh Sehgal, Kapil Goyal, Nikita Makkar, Richa Yadav, Praveen K Bharti, Neeru Singh, Nilanju P Sarmah, Pradymna K Mohapatra, Jagadish Mahanta, Devendra Bansal, Ali A Sultan, Jagat R Kanwar
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the genetic diversity of P. falciparum in residual transmission foci of northern India. METHODS: Clinically suspected malaria patients were screened for malaria infection by microscopy. 48 P. falciparum-infected patients were enrolled from two tertiary care hospitals in Chandigarh, India. Blood samples were collected from enrolled patients, genomic DNA extraction and nested PCR was performed for further species confirmation. Sanger sequencing was carried out using block 2 region of msp1, R2 region of glurp and pfs25 specific primers...
October 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029312/prefusion-f-postfusion-f-g-antibodies-and-disease-severity-in-infants-and-young-children-with-acute-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#2
Cristina Capella, Supranee Chaiwatpongsakorn, Erin Gorrell, Zachary A Risch, Fang Ye, Sara E Mertz, Sara M Johnson, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Octavio Ramilo, Asuncion Mejias, Mark E Peeples
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Maternally-derived RSV-specific antibodies play a role in protection against RSV infection in early life, but data regarding the concentration and specificity of those antibodies are incomplete. Methods: We prospectively enrolled a cohort of previously healthy infants and young children hospitalized (n=45) or evaluated as outpatients (n=20) for RSV infection, and healthy non-infected age-matched controls (n=18)...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029149/no-clinical-benefit-of-empirical-antimicrobial-therapy-for-pediatric-diarrhea-in-a-high-usage-high-resistance-setting
#3
Vu Thuy Duong, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Pham Van Minh, James I Campbell, Hoang Le Phuc, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Le Thi Phuong Tu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Le Thi Quynh Nhi, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Nguyen Minh Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, Lu Lan Vi, Corinne N Thompson, Guy E Thwaites, Ruklanthi de Alwis, Stephen Baker
Background: Pediatric diarrheal disease presents a major public health burden in low-middle income countries. The clinical benefits of empirical antimicrobial treatment for diarrhea are unclear in settings that lack reliable diagnostics and have high antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Methods: We conducted a prospective multi-center cross-sectional study of pediatric patients hospitalized with diarrhea containing blood and/or mucus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Clinical parameters, including disease outcome and treatment, were measured...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029147/maternal-and-fetal-outcomes-among-pregnant-women-with-human-monkeypox-infection-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#4
Placide K Mbala, John W Huggins, Therese Riu-Rovira, Steve M Ahuka, Prime Mulembakani, Anne W Rimoin, James W Martin, Jean-Jacques T Muyembe
Human monkeypox is an endemic disease in rain-forested regions of central Democratic Republic of Congo. We report fetal outcomes for 1 of 4 pregnant women who participated in an observational study at the General Hospital of Kole (Sankuru Province), where 222 symptomatic subjects were followed between 2007 and 2011. Of the 4 pregnant women, 1 gave birth to a healthy infant, 2 had miscarriages in the first trimester, and 1 had fetal death, with the macerated stillborn showing diffuse cutaneous maculopapillary skin lesions involving the head, trunk and extremities, including palms of hands and soles of feet...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029117/the-european-registry-for-patients-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-euromacs-of-the-european-association-for-cardio-thoracic-surgery-eacts-second-report
#5
Theo M M H de By, Paul Mohacsi, Brigitta Gahl, Armin Zittermann, Thomas Krabatsch, Finn Gustafsson, Pascal Leprince, Bart Meyns, Ivan Netuka, Kadir Caliskan, Evaristo Castedo, Francesco Musumeci, André Vincentelli, Roland Hetzer, Jan Gummert
OBJECTIVES: The European Registry for Patients with Mechanical Circulatory Support (EUROMACS) was founded in Berlin, Germany. EUROMACS is supported fully by the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) and, since 2014, has functioned as a committee of the EACTS. The purpose of having the EUROMACS as a part of the EACTS is to accumulate clinical data related to long-term mechanical circulatory support for scientific purposes and to publish annual reports. METHODS: Participating hospitals contributed surgical and cardiological pre-, peri- and long-term postoperative data of mechanical circulatory support implants to the registry...
September 29, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029102/nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment-for-adult-patients-with-hbeag-positive-chronic-infection-with-genotype-c-hepatitis-b-virus-a-nationwide-real-life-study
#6
Young Chang, Won Hyeok Choe, Dong Hyun Sinn, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Sang Hoon Ahn, Hyewon Lee, Jae-Jun Shim, Dae Won Jun, Soo Young Park, Joon Yeul Nam, Eun Ju Cho, Su Jong Yu, Dong Ho Lee, Jeong Min Lee, Yoon Jun Kim, So Young Kwon, Seung Woon Paik, Jung-Hwan Yoon
Background/Aim: Antiviral treatment for patients in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still controversial. We assessed whether antiviral treatment reduces liver disease progression in those patients. Methods: This study included consecutive patients that tested positive for HBeAg with an HBV DNA >20,000 IU/mL, ALT <40 IU/L and without evidence of cirrhosis in eight large-volume hospitals in Korea. The primary endpoint was the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the secondary endpoint was the development of cirrhosis...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029099/biomarkers-of-mineral-and-bone-metabolism-and-20-year-risk-for-hospitalization-with-infection-the-aric-study
#7
Junichi Ishigami, Bernard G Jaar, Casey M Rebholz, Morgan E Grams, Erin D Michos, Myles Wolf, Csaba P Kovesdy, Shinichi Uchida, Josef Coresh, Pamela L Lutsey, Kunihiro Matsushita
Context: Mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may be relevant in the etiology of infection. Objective: To determine whether MBD biomarkers were associated with incidence of hospitalization with infection. We also assessed the cross-sectional association between levels of MBD biomarkers and kidney function. Design: Setting, Participants: Community-based cohort study using 11,218 participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 ml/min/1...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029072/detection-of-optra-in-the-african-continent-tunisia-within-a-mosaic-enterococcus-faecalis-plasmid-from-urban-wastewaters
#8
Ana R Freitas, Houyem Elghaieb, Ricardo León-Sampedro, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Carla Novais, Teresa M Coque, Abdennaceur Hassen, Luisa Peixe
Objectives: Oxazolidinone resistance is a serious limitation in the treatment of MDR Enterococcus infections. Plasmid-mediated oxazolidinone resistance has been strongly linked to animals where the use of phenicols might co-select resistance to both antibiotic families. Our goal was to assess the diversity of genes conferring phenicol/oxazolidinone resistance among diverse enterococci and to characterize the optrA genetic environment. Methods: Chloramphenicol-resistant isolates (>16 mg/L, n = 245) from different sources (hospitals/healthy humans/wastewaters/animals) in Portugal, Angola and Tunisia (1996-2016) were selected...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029055/prognostic-models-for-9-month-mortality-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#9
Le Thi Phuong Thao, A Dorothee Heemskerk, Ronald B Geskus, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Maxine Caws, Nguyen Huu Lan, Do Dang Anh Thu, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Jeremy Day, Jeremy J Farrar, M Estee Torok, Nguyen Duc Bang, Guy E Thwaites, Marcel Wolbers
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. We developed and validated prognostic models for 9-month mortality in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected adults with TBM. Methods: We included 1699 subjects from four randomized clinical trials and one prospective observational study conducted at two major referral hospitals in Southern Vietnam from 2001-2015. Modelling was based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029021/aetiological-heterogeneity-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas-the-role-of-human-papillomavirus-infections-smoking-and-alcohol
#10
Nada J Farsi, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Nicolas Schlecht, Geneviève Castonguay, Paul Allison, Phuc Félix Nguyen-Tan, Denis Soulieres, Francois Coutlée, Michael Hier, Sreenath Madathil, Eduardo L Franco, Belinda Nicolau
Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the main risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a causal role in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), a subset of HNSCC. We assessed the independent effects of tobacco, alcohol, and HPV infection on OPC risk in the Head and Neck Cancer(HeNCe) Life study, a hospital-based case-control study of HNSCC with frequency-matched controls by age and sex from four Montreal hospitals. Interviewers collected information on socio-demographic and behavioural factors...
September 28, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028998/high-cryptococcal-antigen-titers-in-blood-are-predictive-of-subclinical-cryptococcal-meningitis-among-hiv-infected-patients
#11
Rachel M Wake, Erika Britz, Charlotte Sriruttan, Ivy Rukasha, Tanvier Omar, David C Spencer, Jeremy S Nel, Sello Mashamaite, Adeboye Adelekan, Tom M Chiller, Joseph N Jarvis, Thomas S Harrison, Nelesh P Govender
Background: High mortality rates among asymptomatic cryptococcal antigen (CrAg)-positive patients identified through CrAg screening, despite pre-emptive fluconazole, may be due to undiagnosed cryptococcal meningitis. Methods: Symptoms were reviewed in CrAg-positive patients identified through screening 19,233 individuals with CD4 cell counts < 100 cells/µL at 17 clinics and 3 hospitals in Johannesburg from September 2012 until September 2015, and 2 of these hospitals until June 2016...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028977/evolving-understanding-of-the-causes-of-pneumonia-in-adults-with-special-attention-to-the-role-of-pneumococcus
#12
Daniel M Musher, Michael S Abers, John G Bartlett
Before 1945, Streptococcus pneumoniae caused more than 90% of cases of pneumonia in adults. After 1950, the proportion of pneumonia caused by pneumococcus began to decline. Pneumococcus has continued to decline; at present, this organism is identified in fewer than fewer10%-15% of cases. This proportion is higher in Europe, a finding likely related to differences in vaccination practices and smoking. Gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Legionella are each identified in 2%-5% of patients with pneumonia who require hospitalization...
September 27, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028970/poor-obstetric-and-infant-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-with-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-the-tshepiso-study
#13
Nicole Salazar-Austin, Jennifer Hoffmann, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Ziyaad Waja, Sanjay Lala, Christopher Hoffmann, Kelly E Dooley, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson
Background: Prior to the wide availability of antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disease among pregnant women resulted in poor maternal and neonatal outcomes including high rates of mother-to-child transmission of both HIV and TB. We aimed to describe the impact of TB among HIV-infected mothers on obstetric and infant outcomes in a population with access to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed HIV-infected pregnant women with and without TB disease from January 2011 through January 2014 in Soweto, South Africa...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028950/epidemiology-and-relative-severity-of-influenza-subtypes-in-singapore-in-the-post-pandemic-period-from-2009-to-2010
#14
Ee Hui Goh, Lili Jiang, Jung Pu Hsu, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Wei Yen Lim, Meng Chee Phoon, Yee Sin Leo, Ian G Barr, Vincent Tak Kwong Chow, Vernon J Lee, Cui Lin, Raymond Lin, Sapna P Sadarangani, Barnaby Young, Mark I-Cheng Chen
Background: After 2009, pandemic influenza A(H1N1) [A(H1N1)pdm09] cocirculated with A(H3N2) and B in Singapore. Methods: A cohort of 760 participants contributed demographic data and up to 4 blood samples each from October 2009 to September 2010. We compared epidemiology of the 3 subtypes and investigated evidence for heterotypic immunity through multivariable logistic regression using a generalized estimating equation. To examine age-related differences in severity between subtypes, we used LOESS (locally weighted smoothing) plots of hospitalization to infection ratios and explored birth cohort effects referencing the pandemic years (1957; 1968)...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028938/impact-of-the-us-maternal-tetanus-diphtheria-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccination-program-on-preventing-pertussis-in-infants-2-months-of-age-a-case-control-evaluation
#15
Tami H Skoff, Amy E Blain, James Watt, Karen Scherzinger, Melissa McMahon, Shelley M Zansky, Kathy Kudish, Paul R Cieslak, Melissa Lewis, Nong Shang, Stacey W Martin
Background: Infants aged <1 year are at highest risk for pertussis-related morbidity and mortality. In 2012, Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccine was recommended for women during each pregnancy to protect infants in the first months of life; data on effectiveness of this strategy are currently limited. Methods: We conducted a case-control evaluation among pertussis cases <2 months old with cough onset between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2014 from 6 US Emerging Infection Program Network states...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028814/diversity-and-microevolution-of-crispr-loci-in-helicobacter-cinaedi
#16
Junko Tomida, Yuji Morita, Keigo Shibayama, Ken Kikuchi, Tomohiro Sawa, Takaaki Akaike, Yoshiaki Kawamura
Helicobacter cinaedi is associated with nosocomial infections. The CRISPR-Cas system provides adaptive immunity against foreign genetic elements. We investigated the CRISPR-Cas system in H. cinaedi to assess the potential of the CRISPR-based microevolution of H. cinaedi strains. A genotyping method based on CRISPR spacer organization was carried out using 42 H. cinaedi strains. The results of sequence analysis showed that the H. cinaedi strains used in this study had two CRISPR loci (CRISPR1 and CRISPR2). The lengths of the consensus direct repeat sequences in CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 were both 36 bp-long, and 224 spacers were found in the 42 H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028812/occurrence-of-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-across-the-gulf-corporation-council-countries-four-years-update
#17
Mahmoud Aly, Mohamed Elrobh, Maha Alzayer, Sameera Aljuhani, Hanan Balkhy
The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections has become a global issue of dire concerns. MERS-CoV infections have been identified in many countries all over the world whereas high level occurrences have been documented in the Middle East and Korea. MERS-CoV is mainly spreading across the geographical region of the Middle East, especially in the Arabian Peninsula, while some imported sporadic cases were reported from the Europe, North America, Africa, and lately Asia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028691/job-burnout-reduces-hand-hygiene-compliance-among-nursing-staff
#18
Georgios Manomenidis, Efharis Panagopoulou, Anthony Montgomery
OBJECTIVES: Health professional burnout has been associated with suboptimal care and reduced patient safety. However, the extent to which burnout influences hand hygiene compliance among health professionals has yet to be explored. The aim of the study was to examine whether job burnout reduces hand washing compliance among nursing staff. METHODS: A diary study was conducted. Forty registered nurses working in a general city hospital in Thessaloniki, Greece, completed a questionnaire, while they were monitored for hand hygiene compliance following the World Health Organization protocol for hand hygiene assessment...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028662/stool-xpert-mtb-rif-and-urine-lipoarabinomannan-lam-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-hiv-infected-children
#19
Sylvia M Lacourse, Patricia B Pavlinac, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, Cyrus Mugo, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Judd L Walson, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Julius Oyugi, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB ) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. METHODS: Hospitalized, HIV-infected children ≤12 years enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880) comparing urgent to poststabilization ART initiation in Kenya underwent TB evaluation...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028656/costs-and-benefits-of-on-demand-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-analysis-of-the-anrs-ipergay-study-with-a-one-year-follow-up
#20
Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Pierre Mutuon, Isabelle Charreau, Cecile Tremblay, Daniela Rojas, Gilles Pialoux, Christian Chidiac, Catherine Capitant, Bruno Spire, Laurent Cotte, Julie Chas, Laurence Meyer
OBJECTIVES: We undertook the economic evaluation of the double-blind randomized ANRS-IPERGAY trial which showed the efficacy of on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate (TDF-FTC) in preventing HIV infection among high risk men-who have-sex-with-men (MSM). DESIGN & METHODS: The economic evaluation was prospective. Counseling, drugs (TDF-FTC at &OV0556;500.88 for 30 tablets), tests, visits and hospital admissions were valued based on in-trial use...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
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