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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749613/linked-selection-demography-and-the-evolution-of-correlated-genomic-landscapes-in-birds-and-beyond
#1
Reto Burri
Selection has a deep impact on the distribution of genetic diversity and population differentiation along the genome (the genomic landscapes of diversity and differentiation), reducing diversity and elevating differentiation not only at the sites it targets, but also at linked neutral sites. Fuelled by the high-throughput sequencing revolution, these genomic footprints of selection have been extensively exploited over the past decade with the aim to identify genomic regions involved in adaptation and speciation...
August 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749607/assessment-of-relationship-between-xerostomia-and-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Goli Chamani, Mohammad Reza Shakibi, Mohammad Reza Zarei, Maryam Rad, Adeleh Pouyafard, Ardavan Parhizkar, Mojdeh Mansoori
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between xerostomia and Oral-Health Related Quality of Life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred patients with rheumatoid arthritis were assessed using Fox and OHIP-14 questionnaires concerning xerostomia and Oral-Health Related Quality of Life respectively. The sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) was determined via an intra-oral exam. In addition, intergroup comparisons were evaluated using T-test, Chi-square, regression and Tukey analysis...
July 27, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749603/protection-motivation-theory-in-predicting-intention-to-receive-cervical-cancer-screening-in-rural-chinese-women
#3
Yang Bai, Qing Liu, Xinguang Chen, Yanduo Gao, Huiyun Gong, Xiaodong Tan, Min Zhang, Jiyu Tuo, Yuling Zhang, Qunying Xiang, Fenghua Deng, Guiling Liu
OBJECTIVE: Despite the significance of cervical cancer screening, motivating more women to participate remains a challenge in resource-limited settings. In this study, we tested the protection motivation theory (PMT) in predicting screening intentions. METHODS: Participants were women from Wufeng, a typical rural county in China. Participants (n=3000) with no cervical cancer history were recruited from 10 randomly selected villages. As mediating variables, six PMT constructs (Perceived Risk, Fear Arousal, Perceived Severity, Response Efficacy, Response Cost and Self-Efficacy) were measured using the standardized questionnaire...
July 27, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749600/pyretis-a-well-done-medium-sized-python-library-for-rare-events
#4
Anders Lervik, Enrico Riccardi, Titus S van Erp
Transition path sampling techniques are becoming common approaches in the study of rare events at the molecular scale. More efficient methods, such as transition interface sampling (TIS) and replica exchange transition interface sampling (RETIS), allow the investigation of rare events, for example, chemical reactions and structural/morphological transitions, in a reasonable computational time. Here, we present PyRETIS, a Python library for performing TIS and RETIS simulations. PyRETIS directs molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in order to sample rare events with unbiased dynamics...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749596/climate-change-climate-justice-and-environmental-health-implications-for-the-nursing-profession
#5
Patrice K Nicholas, Suellen Breakey
PURPOSE: Climate change is an emerging challenge linked to negative outcomes for the environment and human health. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing recognition of the need to address climate change and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions implicated in the warming of our planet. There are also deleterious health outcomes linked to complex climate changes that are emerging in the 21st century. This article addresses the social justice issues associated with climate change and human health and discussion of climate justice...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749544/combined-eeg-fmri-and-esi-improves-localisation-of-paediatric-focal-epilepsy
#6
Maria Centeno, Tim M Tierney, Suejen Perani, Elhum A Shamshiri, Kelly StPier, Charlotte Wilkinson, Daniel Konn, Serge Vulliemoz, Frédéric Grouiller, Louis Lemieux, Ronit M Pressler, Christopher A Clark, J Helen Cross, David W Carmichael
Objective Surgical treatment in epilepsy is effective if the epileptogenic zone (EZ) can be correctly localized and characterized. Here we use simultaneous Electroencephalography-functional MRI (EEG-fMRI) data to derive EEG-fMRI and Electrical Source Imaging (ESI) maps. Their yield and their individual and combined ability to 1) localize the epileptogenic zone and 2) predict seizure outcome was then evaluated. Methods Fifty-three children with drug-resistant epilepsy underwent EEG-fMRI. Interictal discharges were mapped using both EEG-fMRI haemodynamic responses and Electrical Source Imaging (ESI)...
July 27, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749529/effect-and-acceptance-of-silver-diamine-fluoride-treatment-on-dental-caries-in-primary-teeth
#7
Jennifer Clemens, Jaana Gold, Jeffrey Chaffin
OBJECTIVES: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) treatment has been identified as a potential solution to address the dental public health issues of untreated dental caries and insufficient access to care. The current study assessed the effectiveness of 38 percent SDF in arresting active dental caries lesions and in reducing or preventing associated dental pain and infections in young, at-risk children. METHODS: We enrolled 32 children aged 2-5 years with 118 active caries lesions in primary teeth from a community dental clinic in Oregon...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749524/academic-outcomes-and-cognitive-performance-in-problematic-internet-users
#8
María Marín Vila, José Luis Carballo Crespo, Ainhoa Coloma Carmona
Only few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use (PIU) and cognitive and academic performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in academic and cognitive performance (perception, attention, memory, verbal fluency and abstract reasoning) between adolescents with and without PIU. A total of 575 students from different high schools of the region of Alicante participated. Students were divided into two groups: adolescents with and without PIU (PIU and NPIU, respectively)...
July 13, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749508/linking-hygroscopicity-and-the-surface-microstructure-of-model-inorganic-salts-simple-and-complex-carbohydrates-and-authentic-sea-spray-aerosol-particles
#9
Armando D Estillore, Holly S Morris, Victor W Or, Hansol D Lee, Michael R Alves, Meagan A Marciano, Olga Laskina, Zhen Qin, Alexei V Tivanski, Vicki H Grassian
Individual airborne sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles show diversity in their morphologies and water uptake properties that are highly dependent on the biological, chemical, and physical processes within the sea subsurface and the sea surface microlayer. In this study, hygroscopicity data for model systems of organic compounds of marine origin mixed with NaCl are compared to data for authentic SSA samples collected in an ocean-atmosphere facility providing insights into the SSA particle growth, phase transitions and interactions with water vapor in the atmosphere...
July 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749506/the-origin-of-high-electrocatalytic-activity-of-hydrogen-peroxide-reduction-reaction-by-a-g-c3n4-hopg-sensor
#10
C G Gomez, A M Silva, M C Strumia, L B Avalle, M I Rojas
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was synthesized from a low-cost precursor by means of a thermal process. The product was characterized by several spectroscopic techniques and the crystallinity was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. In the manufacture of the sensor, g-C3N4 was chemically exfoliated and a film was placed on the surface of a Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG). We compared the electrocatalytic activities of g-C3N4/HOPG and pristine HOPG surfaces as sensors for H2O2 quantification in buffer solution at pH 7...
July 27, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749495/characterization-of-a-highly-efficient-antibiotic-degrading-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-obtained-from-an-uncultured-member-of-a-permafrost-community
#11
Marcelo Monteiro Pedroso, Christopher Selleck, Charmaine Enculescu, Jeffrey R Harmer, Nataša Mitić, Whitney R Craig, Waleed Helweh, Philip Hugenholtz, Gene W Tyson, David L Tierney, James A Larrabee, Gerhard Schenk
Antibiotic resistance is a major global health problem, one that threatens to derail the benefits garnered from arguably the greatest success of modern medicine, the discovery of antibiotics. Among the most potent agents contributing to antibiotic resistance are metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The discovery of MBL-like enzymes in microorganisms that are not in contact with the human population is of particular concern as these proteins already have the in-built capacity to inactivate antibiotics, even though they may not need MBL activity for their survival...
July 27, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749484/communication-related-allegations-against-physicians-caring-for-premature-infants
#12
J Nguyen, H Muniraman, M Cascione, R Ramanathan
OBJECTIVE: Maternal-fetal medicine physicians (MFMp) and neonatal-perinatal medicine physicians (NPMp) caring for premature infants and their families are exposed to significant risk for malpractice actions. Effective communication practices have been implicated to decrease litigious intentions but the extent of miscommunication as a cause of legal action is essentially unknown in this population. Analysis of communication-related allegations (CRAs) may help toward improving patient care and physician-patient relationships as well as decrease litigation risks...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749438/synthesis-and-identification-of-novel-berberine-derivatives-as-potent-inhibitors-against-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#13
Yan-Xiang Wang, Lu Liu, Qing-Xuan Zeng, Tian-Yun Fan, Jian-Dong Jiang, Hong-Bin Deng, Dan-Qing Song
Twenty-three new berberine (BBR) analogues defined on substituents of ring D were synthesized and evaluated for their activity for suppression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that suitable tertiary/quaternary carbon substitutions at the 9-position or rigid fragment at position 10 might be beneficial for enhancing their anti-inflammatory potency. Among them, compounds 2d, 2e, 2i and 2j exhibited satisfactory inhibitory potency against NF-κB activation, with an inhibitory rate of around 90% (5 μM), much better than BBR...
July 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749410/awareness-of-the-risk-of-exposure-to-infectious-material-and-the-behaviors-of-polish-paramedics-with-respect-to-the-hazards-from-blood-borne-pathogens-a-nationwide-study
#14
Anna Garus-Pakowska, Mariusz Górajski, Franciszek Szatko
(1) Background: To determine paramedics' frequency of contact with blood and other body fluids, as well as the analysis of knowledge of paramedics about blood-borne infections, their attitudes to patients infected with blood-borne viruses, and the post-exposure procedures implemented by paramedics; (2) Methods: An anonymous questionnaire among 190 paramedics working in various health care facilities in Poland (adjusted response rate, 76.3%); (3) Results: 78% of paramedics had contact with potentially infectious material at least several times a week...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749397/action-oriented-colour-coded-foot-length-calliper-for-primary-healthcare-workers-as-a-proxy-for-birth-weight-gestational-period
#15
Asha K Pratinidhi, Abhijit C Bagade, Satish V Kakade, Hemangi P Kale, Vinayak Y Kshirsagar, Rohini Babar, Shilpa Bagal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Foot length of the newborn has a good correlation with the birth weight and is recommended to be used as a proxy measure. There can be variations in the measurement of foot length. A study was, therefore, carried out to develop a foot length calliper for accurate foot length measurement and to find cut-off values for birth weight and gestational age groups to be used by primary healthcare workers. METHODS: This study was undertaken on 645 apparently healthy newborn infants with known gestational age...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749396/validity-of-broselow-tape-for-estimating-weight-of-indian-children
#16
Vivek Shah, Sandeep B Bavdekar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The Broselow tape has been validated in both ambulatory and simulated emergency situations in the United States and is believed to reduce complications arising from inaccurate drug dosing and equipment sizing in paediatric population. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the actual weight and weight determined by Broselow tape in the Indian children and to derive an equation for determination of weight based on height in the Indian children...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749393/adverse-effects-drug-load-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-patients-with-epilepsy-monotherapy-versus-polytherapy
#17
Rupa Joshi, Manjari Tripathi, Pooja Gupta, Sheffali Gulati, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Although the need for a combination of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the treatment of epilepsy is well justified, but an associated increase in adverse effects (AEs) lends a restriction to polytherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate AEs and drug load (prescribed daily dose/defined daily doses) of AEDs in patients with epilepsy (PWE). METHODS: Consecutive PWEs attending Epilepsy clinic in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India, were enrolled in the study...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749390/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-india-current-evidence-on-diagnosis-management
#18
REVIEW
Rajendra Prasad, Abhijeet Singh, Viswesvaran Balasubramanian, Nikhil Gupta
Emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has significantly threatened to jeopardize global efforts to control TB, especially in HIV endemic regions. XDR-TB is mainly an iatrogenically created issue, and understanding the epidemiological and risk factors associated with it is of paramount importance in curbing this menace. Emergence of this deadly phenomenon can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and effective treatment with second-line drugs in rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) as well as multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749380/handling-interference-effects-in-foraging-with-bucket-brigades
#19
Wonki Lee, DaeEun Kim
Many kinds of bio-inspired tasks have been tested with swarm robotics and task partitioning is one of challenging subjects. In nature, it is well known that some colonies of social insects such as honeybees, termites, and ants use task partitioning strategies for their survival. In this paper, we demonstrate an effect of task partitioning strategy called bucket brigade that uses the direct transfer of materials or food between a pair of workers. We propose a task partitioning strategy based on moving speeds of agents for the foraging task...
July 27, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749371/probing-dimensionality-using-a-simplified-4-probe-method
#20
Snorre Braathen Kjeldby Braathen Kjeldby, Otto Magnus Evenstad, Simon Phillip Cooil, Justin William Wells
4-probe electrical measurements have been in existence for many decades. One of the most useful aspects of the 4-probe method is that it is not only possible to find the resistivity of a sample (independently of the contact resistances), but that it is also possible to probe the dimensionality of the sample. In theory, this is straightforward to achieve, by measuring the 4-probe resistance as a function of probe separation. In practice, it is challenging to move all four probes with sufficient precision over the necessary range...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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