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Roberto Negro, Eupremio Luigi Greco, Giacomo Greco
AIM: We investigated the effect of alogliptin and gliclazide on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Eighty patients with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c between 7.5% and 8.5% were randomized to receive either alogliptin (25 mg/daily) or gliclazide extended-release (30 mg/daily for HbA1c 7.5-8.0% and 60 mg/daily for HbA1c 8.0-8.5%) in combination with metformin for 4 months. At baseline and 4 months, clinical and laboratory parameters of EPCs were determined...
March 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Hanan A Alfawaz, Kaiser Wani, Abdullah M Alnaami, Yousef Al-Saleh, Naji J Aljohani, Omar S Al-Attas, Majed S Alokail, Sudhesh Kumar, Nasser M Al-Daghri
This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA) on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP) and GA + metformin (GA + Met) in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS) in subjects with prediabetes; 294 Saudis with prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/L) were initially randomized, 263 completed 6 months and 237 completed 12 months. They were allocated into three groups: GA group which received a standard lifestyle change education; ILMP which followed a rigorous lifestyle modification support on diet and physical activity; and a GA + Met group...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Faisal E Al Jofi, Tao Ma, Dong Guo, Monica P Schneider, Yan Shu, Hockin H K Xu, Abraham Schneider
BACKGROUND: Compelling evidence indicates that metformin, a low-cost and safe orally administered biguanide prescribed to millions of type 2 diabetics worldwide, induces the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) through the 5' adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. As a highly hydrophilic cationic compound, metformin uptake is facilitated by cell membrane organic cation transporters (OCTs) of the solute carrier 22A gene family...
March 16, 2018: Cytotherapy
Snehal N Mestry, Nitin B Gawali, Sarayu A Pai, Malvika S Gursahani, Jayesh B Dhodi, Renuka Munshi, Archana R Juvekar
BACKGROUND: Gentamicin is widely used as an antibiotic for the treatment of gram negative infections. Evidences indicates that oxidative stress is involved in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. In Ayurvedic medicine, Punica granatum Linn. is considered as 'a pharmacy unto itself". It has been claimed in traditional literature, to treat various kidney ailments due to its antioxidant potential. OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible mechanism of action of methanolic extract of P...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Yan Wang, Wenbin Xu, Zixun Yan, Weili Zhao, Jianqing Mi, Junmin Li, Hua Yan
BACKGROUND: Metformin is a commonly used drug for the treatment of diabetes. Accumulating evidence suggests that it exerts anti-tumor effects in many cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. METHODS: The anti-myeloma effects of metformin were evaluated using human MM cell lines (RPMI8226 and U266) in vitro and in vivo NOD-SCID murine xenograft MM model. Cell viability was assessed with CCK8 and cell proliferation was measured by EdU incorporation assay...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Rowena M Briones, Ajit K Sarmah
Detection of metformin, an antidiabetic drug and its transformation product guanylurea in various environmental matrices such as surface water and groundwater, coupled with their effects on aquatic organisms warrant an understanding of the compounds fate and behaviour in the environment. Batch studies were conducted with the aim of evaluating the sorption of these two emerging contaminants in six New Zealand agricultural soils of contrasting physico-chemical properties. Kinetic studies revealed that metformin and guanylurea sorption in Te Kowhai soil was very rapid initially achieving 90% sorption within the first 4 and 13h, respectively...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wenhua Xue, Zhirui Fan, Yuanzhe Li, Lifeng Li, Tengfei Zhang, Jingli Lu, Bingjun Ma, Zijia Zhu, Jingyao Lian, Chaoqi Zhang, Xiaoqin Song, Dongxu Sun, Yunkai Zhai, Ruitai Fan, Yang Cao, Xiaoming Deng, Jie Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The current study was designed to investigate the protective role of alkannin (ALK) on liver injury in diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice and explore its potential mechanisms. METHODS: An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. The levels of insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) were determined by commercial kits. The pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined by ELISA...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chunmei Xu, Junyu Zhao, Xiaojun Zhou, Rui Zhang, Tianyue Xie, Zhiwei Zou, Lin Liao, Jianjun Dong
Background: Liver enzyme abnormalities are common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Currently, the inverse relationship between elevated liver enzymes and antidiabetics intake may be explained by rigorous treatment and good control. However, few studies have directly explored the influence of antidiabetics on abnormal liver function, especially the comparison between two insulin sensitizers-thiazolidinediones and metformin. Materials And Methods: Databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP were searched...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Zhaodi Zheng, Wenzhen Zhu, Bingwu Yang, Rongfei Chai, Tingting Liu, Fenglin Li, Guanghui Ren, Shuhua Ji, Shan Liu, Guorong Li
Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic drug, exhibits anticancer effects which are mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine kinase (AKT) signaling pathway. However, its use in anticancer therapy combined with other natural products remains unclear. Flavone as the core structure of flavonoids has been demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis without causing serious side effect. Murine double minute X (MDMX) inhibits tumor suppressor gene p53 whose function is associated with the PI3K/AKT pathway...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Raju Bishwakarma, Wei Zhang, Yu-Li Lin, Yong-Fang Kuo, Victor J Cardenas, Gulshan Sharma
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with persistent systemic inflammation. Anti-inflammatory therapies have been shown to decrease acute exacerbations of COPD. The antidiabetic medication metformin decreases oxidative stress and inflammation and may benefit patients with COPD. We aimed at investigating the effect of metformin on health care utilizations in patients with coexisting COPD and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: We studied 5% Medicare beneficiaries with coexisting COPD and DM prescribed metformin or other antidiabetics during the period 2007-2010...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Jhohann Richard de Lima Benzi, Priscila Akemi Yamamoto, Jessica Hanna Stevens, Amanda Martins Baviera, Natália Valadares de Moraes
PURPOSE: We investigated the influence of diabetes mellitus (DM), glycemic control with insulin, cimetidine (Oct2 inhibitor) and metformin (Oct2 substrate) on the kinetic disposition of GAB in rats. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided in five groups and all animals received an oral dose of 50 mg/kg GAB: (vehicle + GAB), cimetidine + GAB (single dose of cimetidine [100 mg/kg] intraperitoneally 1 h before GAB), metformin + GAB (single dose of metformin 100 mg/kg by gavage concomitantly with GAB), DM + GAB (single dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) intravenously) and DM + GAB + insulin (single dose 40 mg/kg STZ intravenously and 2 IU insulin twice daily for 15 days)...
March 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Warren R Heymann
A 75-year-old man had been monitoring his glucose using a blood glucose monitoring system at the same body site for at least 20 years (>7300 needlesticks). The asymptomatic skin lesion had been present for many years. He used the same site because it hurt less than the fingers and bled well. His medical history was remarkable for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and a pacemaker. His medications included glipizide, metformin, carvedilol, furosemide, lisinopril, amlodipine, clopidogrel, and aspirin...
2018: Skinmed
Inês Amaral, Cláudia Silva, Ana Correia-Branco, Fátima Martel
This work aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on cellular glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells, as a mechanism contributing to its anticancer properties. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive (MCF-7) and triple-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines were used as in vitro models of breast cancer. Short-term (26 min) exposure of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to metformin inhibited uptake of3 H-deoxy-D-glucose (3 H-DG). In contrast, long-term (24 h) exposure to metformin (5 μM-1 mM) concentration-dependently increased3 H-DG uptake in both cell lines...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kanwal Rehman, Kiran Saeed, Syeda Mehak Munawar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that is associated with variable degrees of glucose intolerance, impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production. The aim of present study was to investigate the therapeutic potentials of resveratrol (RSV) alone and/or in combination with vitamin-E (Vit-E) against hyperglycemia-induced modulations using experimentally alloxan-induced diabetic animal model. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes mellitus in white albino rats and metformin (MF) was used as standard anti-diabetic drug to compare the therapeutic potentials of RSV (alone and/or with Vit-E) by estimating the effect of treatment on glycemia, insulin resistance, liver and kidney function biomarkers, anti-oxidant status, and serum levels of calcium and magnesium...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Gian Paolo Fadini, Mayur Sarangdhar, Angelo Avogaro
INTRODUCTION: In the SAVOR-TIMI trial, the risk of heart failure (HF) was increased by 27% in T2D patients randomized to the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i) saxagliptin. Other studies have provided inconsistent results regarding this association. Herein, we performed a pharmacovigilance analysis of the rate of HF associated with DPP4is, focusing on stimulated reporting and moderation by drug-drug interactions. METHODS: We mined the FDA adverse event (AE) reporting system (FAERS) from 2004q1 to 2017q3, including a total of 9906,642 AE reports...
March 16, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Xiaoyan Wang, Ronghua Li, Xintong Zhao, Xiaojing Yu, Qing Sun
Although metformin (MET) may be useful for the treatment of psoriasis, the mechanisms underlying its method of action have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, the relationship between MET function and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the underlying mechanism were explored in human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). HaCaT cells were incubated with MET at 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 mM for 24 h. The cell viability was evaluated by the CCK-8 assay. The cell apoptosis rate and intracellular ROS levels were examined using flow cytometry...
March 17, 2018: Inflammation
Danielle Crawley, Hans Garmo, Sarah Rudman, Pär Stattin, Björn Zethelius, Jo Armes, Lars Holmberg, Jan Adolfsson, Mieke Van Hemelrijck
OBJECTIVES: Both prostate cancer (PCa) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are increasingly prevalent conditions, which frequently coexist in men. Here, we set out to specifically examine the impact of a PCa diagnosis and its treatment on T2DM treatment. SETTING: This study uses observational data from Prostate Cancer database Sweden Traject. PARTICIPANTS: The study was undertaken in a cohort of 16 778 men with T2DM, of whom 962 were diagnosed with PCa during mean follow-up of 2...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Eva Tseng, Hsin-Chieh Yeh, Nisa M Maruthur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Diabetes Care
Anita D Misra-Hebert, Kevin M Pantalone, Xinge Ji, Alex Milinovich, Tanujit Dey, Kevin M Chagin, Janine M Bauman, Michael W Kattan, Robert S Zimmerman
OBJECTIVE: To identify severe hypoglycemia events, defined as emergency department visits or hospitalizations for hypoglycemia, in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving care in a large health system and to identify patient characteristics associated with severe hypoglycemia events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from January 2006 to December 2015 using the electronic medical record in the Cleveland Clinic Health System (CCHS)...
March 16, 2018: Diabetes Care
Johan Jendle, Xin Fang, Yang Cao, Leif Bojö, Bo K Nilsson, Fredric Hedberg, Irene Santos-Pardo, Thomas Nyström
In this post hoc study, we aimed to investigate liraglutide treatment on repetitive 24-hour blood pressure (BP) in patients with type II diabetes. Sixty-two individuals with type II diabetes (45 males) were randomized to 1.8 mg liraglutide once daily or 4 mg glimepiride together with 1 g metformin twice daily. Ambulatory 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure (sBP/dBP) was repetitively measured at baseline, 2 weeks, and 18 weeks. Outcomes were evaluated as treatment change from baseline, 2 weeks, and 18 weeks...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
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