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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453023/implications-of-altered-maternal-cytokine-concentrations-on-infant-outcomes-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#1
K D Sowell, J Y Uriu-Adams, J Van de Water, C D Chambers, C D Coles, J A Kable, L Yevtushok, N Zymak-Zakutnya, W Wertelecki, C L Keen
Excessive alcohol consumption has been shown to increase serum plasma levels of numerous immune cytokines. Maternal immune activation and elevated cytokines have been implicated in certain neurological disorders (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) in the offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated cytokines during pregnancy are a risk factor in women who gave birth to a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) or a child with neurobehavioral impairment, regardless of prenatal alcohol exposure...
August 12, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440216/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-and-youth-justice-a-prevalence-study-among-young-people-sentenced-to-detention-in-western-australia
#2
Carol Bower, Rochelle E Watkins, Raewyn C Mutch, Rhonda Marriott, Jacinta Freeman, Natalie R Kippin, Bernadette Safe, Carmela Pestell, Candy S C Cheung, Helen Shield, Lodewicka Tarratt, Alex Springall, Jasmine Taylor, Noni Walker, Emma Argiro, Suze Leitão, Sharynne Hamilton, Carmen Condon, Hayley M Passmore, Roslyn Giglia
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among young people in youth detention in Australia. Neurodevelopmental impairments due to FASD can predispose young people to engagement with the law. Canadian studies identified FASD in 11%-23% of young people in corrective services, but there are no data for Australia. DESIGN: Multidisciplinary assessment of all young people aged 10-17 years 11 months and sentenced to detention in the only youth detention centre in Western Australia, from May 2015 to December 2016...
February 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438595/effects-of-early-alcohol-exposure-on-functional-organization-and-microstructure-of-a-visual-tactile-integrative-circuit
#3
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Alexandre E Medina
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often have deficits associated with multisensory processing. Because ethanol disrupts activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, a process that is essential for refining connections during cortical development, we hypothesize that early alcohol exposure results in alterations in multisensory cortical networks, which could explain the multisensory processing deficits seen in FASD. Here, we use a gyrencephalic animal model to test the prediction that early alcohol exposure alters the functional connectivity and microstructural features of the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr), a visual-tactile integrative area...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432031/deferred-diagnosis-in-children-assessed-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#4
Katherine Flannigan, Kamaldeep Gill, Jacqueline Pei, Gail Andrew, Hasu Rajani, Audrey McFarlane, Teresa O'Riordan, Brent Symes, Carmen Rasmussen
Early intervention for individuals with FASD is paramount, thus exploring factors that affect the diagnostic process is critical. This process can be complicated by challenges gathering background information, accurately evaluating higher-level cognitive skills across ages, and teasing apart the impact of life adversities from the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. This study is a retrospective file review of 154 children (44% female; mean age 8.4 years, range 1.0 to 16.9) deferred at their first FASD assessment, and 51 (43% female; mean 9...
February 12, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411031/prevalence-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-in-4-us-communities
#5
Philip A May, Christina D Chambers, Wendy O Kalberg, Jennifer Zellner, Haruna Feldman, David Buckley, David Kopald, Julie M Hasken, Ronghui Xu, Gordon Honerkamp-Smith, Howard Taras, Melanie A Manning, Luther K Robinson, Margaret P Adam, Omar Abdul-Rahman, Keith Vaux, Tamison Jewett, Amy J Elliott, Julie A Kable, Natacha Akshoomoff, Daniel Falk, Judith A Arroyo, Dale Hereld, Edward P Riley, Michael E Charness, Claire D Coles, Kenneth R Warren, Kenneth Lyons Jones, H Eugene Hoyme
Importance: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are costly, life-long disabilities. Older data suggested the prevalence of the disorder in the United States was 10 per 1000 children; however, there are few current estimates based on larger, diverse US population samples. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, including fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, in 4 regions of the United States...
February 6, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411016/implications-of-higher-than-expected-prevalence-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#6
EDITORIAL
Shannon Lange, Jürgen Rehm, Svetlana Popova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408587/fetal-regional-brain-protein-signature-in-fasd-rat-model
#7
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Hendrik Wesseling, Lara M Siebert, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe neurodevelopmental deficits in children exposed to alcohol in utero. We hypothesized that gestational alcohol significantly alters fetal brain regional protein signature. Pregnant rats were binge-treated with alcohol or pair-fed and nutritionally-controlled. Mass spectrometry identified 1,806, 2,077, and 1,456 quantifiable proteins in the fetal hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum, respectively. A stronger effect of alcohol exposure on the hippocampal proteome was noted: over 600 hippocampal proteins were significantly (P < 0...
January 31, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398060/utility-of-genetic-testing-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#8
Saumya S Jamuar, Jonathan D Picker, Joan M Stoler
OBJECTIVE: To study the utility of genetic evaluation and testing in patients with suspected fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients (n = 36) referred for evaluation for suspected FASD to the genetics clinic at Boston Children's Hospital between January 2006 and January 2013. Records of all patients were reviewed to obtain the medical history, family history, examination findings, and investigations, including genetic testing...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391132/neonatal-ethanol-and-choline-treatments-alter-the-morphology-of-developing-rat-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-in-opposite-directions
#9
C M Goeke, M L Roberts, J G Hashimoto, D A Finn, M Guizzetti
Some of the neurobehavioral deficits identified in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) have been recapitulated in a binge model of gestational third trimester-equivalent ethanol (EtOH) exposure, in which Sprague-Dawley rats are intragastrically intubated between post-natal day (PD) 4 and PD9 with high doses of EtOH. In this model, the ameliorating effects of choline (Chol) administration on hippocampus-dependent behaviors altered by EtOH have also been extensively documented. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EtOH (5 g/kg/day) and/or Chol (100 mg/kg/day) on morphometric parameters of CA1 pyramidal neurons by Golgi-Cox staining followed by Neurolucida tracing and analysis...
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384835/screening-and-brief-intervention-to-prevent-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#10
Irene Kane, Ann M Mitchell, Deborah Finnell, Holly Hagle, Kathy Puskar, Brayden Kameg, Emily Knapp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370546/an-environmental-scan-of-the-role-of-nurses-in-preventing-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#11
Ann M Mitchell, Diane K King, Brayden Kameg, Holly Hagle, Dawn Lindsay, Bridget L Hanson, Irene Kane, Kathy Puskar, Susan Albrecht, Carolyn Shaputnic, Becky R Porter, Alexandra E Edwards, Emily Knapp
Nurses are in an ideal position to talk to their patients of reproductive age about alcohol use and encourage the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Effective conversations can be efficiently included in the clinical encounter to identify alcohol misuse and offer appropriate follow-up. This report presents results of an environmental scan of resources relevant to nursing professionals and nurses' role in addressing alcohol misuse. Gaps in nursing education and practice guidelines with regard to defining the nursing role in preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies were revealed...
January 25, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370535/effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-pae-insights-into-fasd-using-pae-mouse-models
#12
Berardino Petrelli, Joanne Weinberg, Geoffrey G Hicks
The potential impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) varies considerably among exposed individuals, with some displaying serious alcohol-related effects and others showing few or even no overt signs of a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). In animal models variables such as nutrition, genetic background, health, other drugs, and stress, as well as dosage, duration and gestational timing of alcohol exposure can all be controlled in a way not possible in a clinical situation. In this review we examine mouse PAE models and focus on those with demonstrated craniofacial malformations, abnormal brain development, or behavioural phenotypes that may be considered FASD-like outcomes...
January 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344313/dna-methylation-as-a-predictor-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#13
Alexandre A Lussier, Alexander M Morin, Julia L MacIsaac, Jenny Salmon, Joanne Weinberg, James N Reynolds, Paul Pavlidis, Albert E Chudley, Michael S Kobor
Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a developmental disorder that manifests through a range of cognitive, adaptive, physiological, and neurobiological deficits resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. Although the North American prevalence is currently estimated at 2-5%, FASD has proven difficult to identify in the absence of the overt physical features characteristic of fetal alcohol syndrome. As interventions may have the greatest impact at an early age, accurate biomarkers are needed to identify children at risk for FASD...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341271/review-shows-that-early-fetal-alcohol-exposure-may-cause-adverse-effects-even-when-the-mother-consumes-low-levels
#14
Ihsan Sarman
AIM: Studies are increasingly focusing on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on child health. The aim of this review was to provide paediatricians with new insights to help them communicate key messages about avoiding alcohol during pregnancy. METHODS: Inspired by the 7th International Conference on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, which focused on integrating research, policy and practice, we studied English language papers published since 2010 on how early PAE triggered epigenetic mechanisms that had an impact on the development of some chronic diseases...
January 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336488/neonatal-ethanol-exposure-causes-behavioral-deficits-in-young-mice
#15
Wenhua Xu, Andrew B Hawkey, Hui Li, Lu Dai, Howard H Brim, Jacqueline A Frank, Jia Luo, Susan Barron, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND: Fetal ethanol (ETOH) exposure can damage the developing central nervous system and lead to cognitive and behavioral deficits, known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). ETOH exposure to mouse pups during early neonatal development was used as a model of ETOH exposure that overlaps the human third trimester "brain growth spurt" - a model that has been widely used to study FASD in rats. METHODS: C57BL/6 male and female mice were exposed to ETOH (4 g/kg/day) on postnatal days (PD) 4-10 by oral intubation...
January 16, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327278/nicotinamide-inhibits-ethanol-induced-caspase-3-and-parp-1-over-activation-and-subsequent-neurodegeneration-in-the-developing-mouse-cerebellum
#16
Alessandro Ieraci, Daniel G Herrera
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the principal preventable cause of mental retardation in the western countries resulting from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Ethanol-induced massive neuronal cell death occurs mainly in immature neurons during the brain growth spurt period. The cerebellum is one of the brain areas that are most sensitive to ethanol neurotoxicity. Currently, there is no effective treatment that targets the causes of these disorders and efficient treatments to counteract or reverse FASD are desirable...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321611/acetaldehyde-inhibits-retinoic-acid-biosynthesis-to-mediate-alcohol-teratogenicity
#17
Yehuda Shabtai, Liat Bendelac, Halim Jubran, Joseph Hirschberg, Abraham Fainsod
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy induces Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which has been proposed to arise from competitive inhibition of retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis. We provide biochemical and developmental evidence identifying acetaldehyde as responsible for this inhibition. In the embryo, RA production by RALDH2 (ALDH1A2), the main retinaldehyde dehydrogenase expressed at that stage, is inhibited by ethanol exposure. Pharmacological inhibition of the embryonic alcohol dehydrogenase activity, prevents the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde that in turn functions as a RALDH2 inhibitor...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316477/challenges-of-diagnosing-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-in-foster-and-adopted-children
#18
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Laura Garrison, Shikhar Shrestha, Janet Sharkis, Rajesh Miranda, Karen Rogers
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) might be 10-15 times more prevalent among foster/adopted children compared to the general population; however, many of these children remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. The lack of confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may be a key barrier to diagnosis. Our sample included 681 patients evaluated for FASD, according to the University of Washington 4-Digit Diagnostic Code, at a pediatric specialty clinic. Guardianship status and other patient characteristics were evaluated by multinomial logistic regression as potential predictors of being classified into one of the following FASD groups: 1) full or partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS/pFAS; n = 97); 2) Static Encephalopathy/Alcohol-Exposed (SE/AE) or Neurobehavioral Disorder/Alcohol-Exposed (ND/AE) (n = 135); and 3) some features of FASD (equivalent to pFAS, SE/AE or ND/AE phenotypes) but unknown PAE (n = 449)...
August 24, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313400/gofar-improving-attention-behavior-and-adaptive-functioning-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-brief-report
#19
Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Elles Taddeo, Dorothy Strickland
OBJECTIVE: This brief report describes the GoFAR intervention designed to improve attention, behavior, and adaptive functioning in children with FASD, ages 5 to 10 years. METHODS: Thirty children were randomized to one of three conditions: GoFAR; FACELAND, and CONTROL; 25 completed the interventions. Over 10 sessions children and caregivers learned a metacognitive strategy (FAR) designed to improve cognitive control of behavior and adaptive functioning and practiced it during behavior analog therapy...
January 9, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304784/ethical-aspects-of-diagnosis-and-interventions-for-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd-and-their-families
#20
Gert Helgesson, Göran Bertilsson, Helena Domeij, Gunilla Fahlström, Emelie Heintz, Anders Hjern, Christina Nehlin Gordh, Viviann Nordin, Jenny Rangmar, Ann-Margret Rydell, Viveka Sundelin Wahlsten, Monica Hultcrantz
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term covering several conditions for which alcohol consumption during pregnancy is taken to play a causal role. The benefit of individuals being identified with a condition within FASD remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to identify ethical aspects and consequences of diagnostics, interventions, and family support in relation to FASD. METHODS: Ethical aspects relating to diagnostics, interventions, and family support regarding FASD were compiled and discussed, drawing on a series of discussions with experts in the field, published literature, and medical ethicists...
January 5, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
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