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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Christie L M Petrenko, Michelle E Alto
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are present across countries and cultures, with prevalence rates threatening to rise in the coming years. In order to support children and families with FASD around the world, researchers must work to disseminate and implement evidence-based interventions. However, each cultural context presents unique elements and barriers to the implementation process. This review considers the challenges of addressing FASD in an international context. It summarizes existing FASD interventions that have empirical support in the domains of parenting and education, attention and self-regulation, adaptive functioning, and nutrition and medication...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Philip A May, Anna-Susan Marais, Marlene M de Vries, Wendy O Kalberg, David Buckley, Julie M Hasken, Colleen M Adnams, Ronel Barnard, Belinda Joubert, Marise Cloete, Barbara Tabachnick, Luther K Robinson, Melanie A Manning, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Heidre Bezuidenhout, Soraya Seedat, Charles D H Parry, H Eugene Hoyme
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in a fifth sample in a South African community. METHODS: An active case ascertainment approach was employed among all first grade learners in this community (n=862). Following individual examination by clinical geneticists/dysmorphologists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal interviews, final diagnoses were made in multidisciplinary case conferences...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jeffrey R Wozniak, Bryon A Mueller, Sarah N Mattson, Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Kenneth L Jones, Christopher J Boys, Kelvin O Lim, Edward P Riley, Elizabeth R Sowell
: Consistent with well-documented structural and microstructural abnormalities in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), recent studies suggest that functional connectivity (FC) may also be disrupted. We evaluated whole-brain FC in a large multi-site sample, examined its cognitive correlates, and explored its potential to objectively identify neurodevelopmental abnormality in individuals without definitive dysmorphic features. Included were 75 children with PAE and 68 controls from four sites...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Miguel Del Campo, Kenneth Lyons Jones
The fetal alcohol spectrum of disorders (FASD) includes four diagnostic categories for the clinical consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the unborn child. Physical features are necessary for the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial pFAS. Moreover, these features are specific and a diagnosis of FAS can be made even in the absence of knowledge of PAE. Not only growth deficits, microcephaly and the 3 facial features (short palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum and narrow vermillion of the upper lip) are characteristic, since other dysmorphic features particularly in the hands are key to the recognition of FAS...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Zoe H Larsen, Praveen Chander, Jason A Joyner, Crina M Floruta, Tess L Demeter, Jason P Weick
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in animal models results in excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) imbalance in neocortex due to alterations in the GABAergic interneuron (IN) differentiation and migration. Thus, E/I imbalance is a potential cause for intellectual disability in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), but whether ethanol (EtOH) changes glutamatergic and GABAergic IN specification during human development remains unknown. Here, we created a human cellular model of PAE/FASD and tested the hypothesis that EtOH exposure during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons (hPSNs) would cause the aberrant production of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, resulting in E/I imbalance...
September 26, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Angelina Paolozza, Douglas P Munoz, Donald Brien, James N Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Saccades are rapid eye movements that bring an image of interest onto the retina. Previous research has found that in healthy individuals performing eye movement tasks, the location of a previous visual target can influence performance of the saccade on the next trial. This rapid behavioral adaptation represents a form of immediate neural plasticity within the saccadic circuitry. Our studies have shown that children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are impaired on multiple saccade measures...
September 22, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Svetlana Popova, Shannon Lange, Larry Burd, Seungree Nam, Jürgen Rehm
The current study aimed to estimate the cost associated with special education among children (5 to 14 years) with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in elementary and middle school by sex, age group, and province and territory in Canada. It was estimated that there were 6,520 students with FASD receiving special education in Canada in 2011-2012. The cost of special education among these students was 53.5 million Canadian dollars. Implications for decision- and policymakers, educational systems and school staff are discussed...
July 2, 2016: Exceptionality
Shery Goril, Dora Zalai, Louise Scott, Colin M Shapiro
OBJECTIVES: Caregivers describe significant sleep disturbances in the vast majority of children and adolescents, which is diagnosed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but objective data on sleep disorders in this population are almost completely lacking. Animal models suggest that intrauterine alcohol exposure may disrupt sleep wake patterns, cause sleep fragmentation, and specifically affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus, thus disrupting melatonin secretion. The objective of this pioneering study was to evaluate sleep and melatonin abnormalities in children with FASD using objective, gold-standard measures...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
Annika C Montag, Andrew D Hull, Lyubov Yevtushok, Natalya Zymak-Zakutnya, Zoryana Sosyniuk, Viktor Dolhov, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Wladimir Wertelecki, Christina D Chambers
BACKGROUND: Early detection of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is desirable to allow earlier and more comprehensive interventions to be initiated for the mother and infant. We examined prenatal ultrasound as an early method of detecting markers of the physical features and neurobehavioral deficits characteristic of FASD. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort of pregnant women in Ukraine was recruited as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders...
September 30, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Yi Young Kim, Ivan Roubal, Youn Soo Lee, Jin Seok Kim, Michael Hoang, Nathan Mathiyakom, Yong Kim
Adverse effect of alcohol on neural function has been well documented. Especially, the teratogenic effect of alcohol on neurodevelopment during embryogenesis has been demonstrated in various models, which could be a pathologic basis for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). While the developmental defects from alcohol abuse during gestation have been described, the specific mechanisms by which alcohol mediates these injuries have yet to be determined. Recent studies have shown that alcohol has significant effect on molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms in embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation including genes involved in neural development...
2016: PloS One
Christie L M Petrenko, Mary E Pandolfino, Rachael Roddenbery
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Limited research has focused on parenting practices used by caregivers raising children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The current study hypothesized that parental attributions of children's misbehavior would relate to the parenting strategies caregivers utilize with children with FASD. This study also aimed to develop a coding scheme to allow quantification of these treatment-relevant constructs in future intervention trials. METHODS: Thirty-one caregivers of children with FASD (age 4-8) were interviewed with the Parenting Practices Interview (PPI), a study-developed qualitative interview...
September 20, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Lorraine K Glumac, Sharon Farley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Tracy Jirikowic, Sarah Westcott McCoy, Robert Price, Marcia A Ciol, Lin-Ya Hsu, Deborah Kartin
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement, and Learning (STABEL), a virtual reality system to train sensory adaptation for balance control, for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). METHODS: Twenty-three children with FASDs received STABEL training in a university laboratory, or home, or were controls. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and Pediatric Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance-2 (P-CTSIB-2) were analyzed by group (lab, home, and control), session (pre-STABEL, 1 week post-STABEL, and 1 month post-STABEL), and group-by-session interaction...
2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Deepa Singal, Marni Brownell, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Dan Chateau, Sally Longstaffe, Leslie L Roos
INTRODUCTION: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a significant public health concern. To prevent FASD, factors that place women at risk for giving birth to children with FASD must be investigated; however, there are little data in this area. This paper describes the development of the Manitoba mothers and FASD study, a retrospective cohort of mothers whose children were diagnosed with FASD, generated to investigate: (1) risk factors associated with giving birth to children with FASD; (2) maternal physical and health outcomes, as well as the usage of health and social services...
2016: BMJ Open
Robyn Doney, Barbara R Lucas, Tracy Jirikowic, Tracey W Tsang, Rochelle E Watkins, Kay Sauer, Peter Howat, Jane Latimer, James P Fitzpatrick, June Oscar, Maureen Carter, Elizabeth J Elliott
BACKGROUND/AIM: Few studies have examined graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). METHODS: Graphomotor skills were assessed in 108 predominantly Australian Aboriginal children aged 7.5-9.6 years in remote Western Australia using clinical observations (pencil grasp; writing pressure) and standardised assessment tools (the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting; and the Miller Function and Participation Scales - The Draw-a-Kid Game)...
September 19, 2016: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Svetlana Popova, Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Nino Parunashvili, Jürgen Rehm
Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause a number of health complications for the mother and developing fetus, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). This study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of i) alcohol use (any amount) and binge drinking (4 or more standard drinks on a single occasion) during pregnancy, and ii) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and FASD among the general and Aboriginal populations in Canada and the United States, based on the available literature. Comprehensive systematic literature searches and meta-analyses, assuming a random-effects model, were conducted...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
S Boronat, M Vicente, E Lainez, A Sánchez-Montañez, E Vázquez, L Mangado, L Martínez-Ribot, M Del Campo
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) cause neurodevelopmental abnormalities. However, publications about epilepsy and electroencephalographic features are scarce. In this study, we prospectively performed electroencephalography (EEG) and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 61 patients with diagnosis of FASD. One patient had multiple febrile seizures with normal EEGs. Fourteen children showed EEG anomalies, including slow background activity and interictal epileptiform discharges, focal and/or generalized, and 3 of them had epilepsy...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Nina DI Pietro, Jantina DE Vries, Angelina Paolozza, Dorothy Reid, James N Reynolds, Amy Salmon, Marsha Wilson, Dan J Stein, Judy Illes
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is increasingly recognized as a growing public health issue worldwide. Although more research is needed on both the diagnosis and treatment of FASD, and a broader and more culturally diverse range of services are needed to support those who suffer from FASD and their families, both research and practice for FASD raise significant ethical issues. In response, from the point of view of both research and clinical neuroethics, we provide a framework that emphasizes the need to maximize benefits and minimize harm, promote justice, and foster respect for persons within a global context...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
C Lovely, Mindy Rampersad, Yohaan Fernandes, Johann Eberhart
Developmental geneticists continue to make substantial jumps in our understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate development. This understanding stems predominantly from analyses of genetically tractable model organisms developing in laboratory environments. This environment is vastly different from that in which human development occurs. As such, most causes of developmental defects in humans are thought to involve multifactorial gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. In this review, we discuss how gene-environment interactions with environmental teratogens may predispose embryos to structural malformations...
September 14, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
S Boronat, A Sánchez-Montañez, N Gómez-Barros, C Jacas, L Martínez-Ribot, E Vázquez, M Del Campo
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include physical and neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to prenatal alcohol exposure. Some neuroimaging findings have been clearly related to FASD, including corpus callosum and cerebellar anomalies. However, detailed studies correlating with specific FASD categories, that is, the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (pFAS) and alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND), are lacking. We prospectively performed clinical assessment and brain MR imaging to 72 patients with suspected FASD, and diagnosis was confirmed in 62...
September 9, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
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