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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817785/diving-into-the-world-of-alcohol-teratogenesis-a-review-of-zebrafish-models-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#1
Yohaan Fernandes, Desirè M Buckley, Johann K Eberhart
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) refer to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic alcohol exposure. Along with other reviews in this edition, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish; have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart and craniofacial skeleton...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816587/dna-methylation-independent-growth-restriction-and-altered-developmental-programming-in-a-mouse-model-of-preconception-male-alcohol-exposure
#2
Richard C Chang, William M Skiles, S Chronister Sarah, Haiqing Wang, Gabrielle I Sutton, Yudhishtar S Bedi, Matthew Snyder, Charles R Long, Michael C Golding
The preconception environment is a significant modifier of dysgenesis and the development of environmentally-induced disease. To date, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) have been exclusively associated with maternal exposures, yet emerging evidence suggests male-inherited alterations in the developmental program of sperm may be relevant to the growth-restriction phenotypes of this condition. Using a mouse model of voluntary consumption, we find chronic preconception male ethanol exposure associates with fetal growth restriction, decreased placental efficiency, abnormalities in cholesterol trafficking, sex-specific alterations in the genetic pathways regulating hepatic fibrosis, and disruptions in the regulation of imprinted genes...
August 17, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813074/oral-narrative-of-individuals-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#3
Giulia Ganthous, Natalia Freitas Rossi, Célia Maria Giacheti
Purpose: To investigate and compare the oral narrative of individuals with FASD and individuals with typical language development (TLD), as well as to correlate the narrative performance with the score from 4-Digit Diagnostic Code. Methods: Participants were 20 individuals with FASD, of both genders, with chronological age between 6 and 16 years, and 20 individuals with TLD, same gender and similar to the FASD group in age and socioeconomic status. The oral narrative was elicited using the book Frog, where are you? and the data were analyzed in terms of macrostructure, microstructure and global coherence level...
August 10, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809846/the-use-of-trace-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-to-assess-hippocampal-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#4
Tuan D Tran, Aenia Amin, Keith G Jones, Ellen M Sheffer, Lidia Ortega, Keith Dolman
Neonatal rats were administered a relatively high concentration of ethyl alcohol (11.9% v/v) during postnatal days 4-9, a time when the fetal brain undergoes rapid organizational change and is similar to accelerated brain changes that occur during the third trimester in humans. This model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) produces severe brain damage, mimicking the amount and pattern of binge-drinking that occurs in some pregnant alcoholic mothers. We describe the use of trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC), a higher-order variant of associative learning, to assess long-term hippocampal dysfunction that is typically seen in alcohol-exposed adult offspring...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796950/age-related-differences-in-neuropsychological-assessment-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Nicole Taylor, Leah Enns
This cross-sectional study examined six key areas of neuropsychological functioning (cognitive, academic, attention, executive function, adaptive skills) comparing adolescents and school-age children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). The aims were: (1) to examine which neuropsychological measures were predictive of an FASD diagnosis in adolescents and school-age children with PAE, and (2) to compare the neuropsychological performance of adolescents and children diagnosed with FASD. Hierarchical logistic regressions determined that the Full-Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning indices, basic reading and math skills, adaptive functioning at school, and components of executive functioning (dependent on age) improved the probability of an accurate FASD diagnosis in both groups: 9...
August 10, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796310/turmeric-extract-rescues-ethanol-induced-developmental-defect-in-the-zebrafish-model-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd
#6
Pooja Muralidharan, Craig T Connors, Arooj S Mohammed, Swapnalee Sarmah, Kathleen Marrs, James A Marrs, Grady W Chism
Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793200/fasd-folic-acid-and-formic-acid-an-unholy-alliance-in-the-alcohol-abusing-mother
#7
Bhushan M Kapur, Marta Baber
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains a significant cause of preventable birth defects and developmental disabilities, however, the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. Methanol is present as a congener in many alcoholic beverages and is formed endogenously. Since ethanol is preferentially metabolized over methanol, it has been found in the sera and CSF of alcoholics. Toxicity resulting from methanol has been attributed to formic acid. Formic acid is present in significantly higher quantities in biofluids of alcoholic patients...
August 9, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749590/the-marulu-strategy-2008-2012-overcoming-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd-in-the-fitzroy-valley
#8
James P Fitzpatrick, June Oscar, Maureen Carter, Elizabeth J Elliott, Jane Latimer, Edie Wright, John Boulton
OBJECTIVE: Aboriginal leaders concerned about high rates of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the Fitzroy Valley, remote north-western Australia, introduced restrictions on access to take-away full-strength alcohol. Following this, Aboriginal leaders engaged strategic partners in a broader strategy to address FASD in the region. The aim of this study was to develop and implement a community-led, researcher-supported, FASD strategy. METHODS: A review of literature focusing on community-led FASD strategies identified key components that informed the Marulu FASD strategy...
July 27, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746809/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-diagnosis-current-practices-and-future-considerations
#9
Albert Chudley
This paper discusses the current state of knowledge and practice of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) diagnosis. The strengths and challenges of different models of diagnosis are compared. Some models require a team approach for evaluation, while other approaches assume that a clinician in his or her office provide a diagnosis based on a review of the patient's medical and social history, behaviour and physical examination. The author reviews the emergence of new information from recent advances in genetics, imaging and electrophysiology that have potential to lead to changes in practice and improved reliability of an FASD diagnosis...
July 26, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738878/tlr4-response-mediates-ethanol-induced-neurodevelopment-alterations-in-a-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#10
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Jerónimo Forteza, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, José Miñarro, Consuelo Guerri
BACKGROUND: Inflammation during brain development participates in the pathogenesis of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunctions. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects the developing brain and causes neural impairment, cognitive and behavioral effects, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Our previous studies demonstrate that ethanol activates the innate immune response and TLR4 receptor and causes neuroinflammation, brain damage, and cognitive defects in the developmental brain stage of adolescents...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734059/localized-reductions-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#11
Jia Fan, Paul A Taylor, Sandra W Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Suril Gohel, Bharat B Biswal, Joseph L Jacobson, Ernesta M Meintjes
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by impairment in cognitive function that may or may not be accompanied by craniofacial anomalies, microcephaly, and/or growth retardation. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), which examines the low-frequency component of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of an explicit task, provides an efficient and powerful mechanism for studying functional brain networks even in low-functioning and young subjects. Studies using independent component analysis (ICA) have identified a set of resting-state networks (RSNs) that have been linked to distinct domains of cognitive and perceptual function, which are believed to reflect the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain...
July 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727687/hippocampus-dependent-memory-and-allele-specific-gene-expression-in-adult-offspring-of-alcohol-consuming-dams-after-neonatal-treatment-with-thyroxin-or-metformin
#12
E Tunc-Ozcan, S L Wert, P H Lim, A Ferreira, E E Redei
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the result of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE), affects 2-11% of children worldwide, with no effective treatments. Hippocampus-based learning and memory deficits are key symptoms of FASD. Our previous studies show hypothyroxinemia and hyperglycemia of the alcohol-consuming pregnant rat, which likely affects fetal neurodevelopment. We administered vehicle, thyroxine (T4) or metformin to neonatal rats post FAE and rats were tested in the hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-conditioning paradigm in adulthood...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723918/heterogeneity-of-p53-dependent-genomic-responses-following-ethanol-exposure-in-a-developmental-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#13
Maria Camargo Moreno, Sandra M Mooney, Frank A Middleton
Prenatal ethanol exposure can produce structural and functional deficits in the brain and result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In rodent models acute exposure to a high concentration of alcohol causes increased apoptosis in the developing brain. A single causal molecular switch that signals for this increase in apoptosis has yet to be identified. The protein p53 has been suggested to play a pivotal role in enabling cells to engage in pro-apoptotic processes, and thus figures prominently as a hub molecule in the intracellular cascade of responses elicited by alcohol exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722160/placental-proteomics-reveal-insights-into-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#14
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Sebastian Berger, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Heewon Seo, Greg A Johnson, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects of alcohol on the maternal-fetal interface, especially the placenta, have been less explored. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy significantly alters the placental protein profile in a rat FASD model METHODS: Pregnant rats were orogastrically treated daily with alcohol (4.5 g/kg, gestational day (GD) 5-10; 6...
July 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702207/alcohol-and-fertility-how-much-is-too-much
#15
REVIEW
Kristin Van Heertum, Brooke Rossi
Alcohol use is prevalent in the United States. Given that a substantial portion of the drinking population is of reproductive age, it is not uncommon for couples who are attempting conception, or for women who are already pregnant, to be regularly consuming alcohol. Alcohol use is associated with multiple reproductive risks, including having a child with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, increased risk of fetal loss, and decreased chance of live birth. This review serves to examine the risks of alcohol in the context of reproductive health...
2017: Fertility Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699765/fetal-alcohol-syndrome-disorder-diminished-responsibility-and-mitigation-of-sentence
#16
Russ Scott
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to consider the implications of a recent Western Australia Court of Appeal decision in which an indigenous youth who had been sentenced for the manslaughter of his neonate child was later diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder. CONCLUSION: The increased use of the 2016 Australian guide to the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder should be encouraged to enable clinicians to not only diagnose and manage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder, but also counsel families to prevent it...
July 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694481/mechanisms-underlying-neuro-inflammation-and-neurodevelopmental-toxicity-in-the-mouse-neocortex-following-prenatal-exposure-to-ethanol
#17
Munekazu Komada, Nao Hara, Satoko Kawachi, Kota Kawachi, Nao Kagawa, Tetsuji Nagao, Yayoi Ikeda
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) constitute a wide range of disorders that arise from prenatal exposure to ethanol (EtOH). However, detailed reports regarding the adverse effects of prenatal EtOH exposure on neocortical morphology and its underlying pathogenic mechanisms are limited. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the anatomical abnormalities of neocortical development and their correlation with microglial properties and neuro-inflammation in a mouse model of FASD. We evaluated the development and maturation of the neocortex in ICR mice prenatally exposed to 25% (w/v) EtOH using histological and molecular analyses...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686845/metabolomics-and-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-a-mini-review
#18
Erin Goldberg, Michel Aliani
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a major public health issue that encompasses an array of physical, neurological and behavioral effects due to alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Classical biomarkers of FASD that are currently used lack sensitivity and specificity, and as such there is an opportunity through the use of novel metabolomics analysis to identify novel biomarkers to identify those at risk for FASD, which could more effectively aid in early intervention. The focus of this mini-review is to identify current work that has been done in the field of metabolomics in FASD in utero, and to highlight promising metabolites that could act as biomarkers in the future...
July 7, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674490/what-the-spectrum-of-microglial-functions-can-teach-us-about-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Elissa L Wong, Rianne D Stowell, Ania K Majewska
Alcohol exposure during gestation can lead to severe defects in brain development and lifelong physical, behavioral and learning deficits that are classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Sadly, FASD is diagnosed at an alarmingly high rate, affecting 2%-5% of live births in the United States, making it the most common non-heritable cause of mental disability. Currently, no standard therapies exist that are effective at battling FASD symptoms, highlighting a pressing need to better understand the underlying mechanisms by which alcohol affects the developing brain...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659754/nadph-oxidase-isoform-2-nox2-is-involved-in-drug-addiction-vulnerability-in-progeny-developmentally-exposed-to-ethanol
#20
Marcela L Contreras, Erwin de la Fuente-Ortega, Sofía Vargas-Roberts, Daniela C Muñoz, Carolina A Goic, Paola A Haeger
Ethanol exposure increases oxidative stress in developing organs, including the brain. Antioxidant treatment during maternal ethanol ingestion improves behavioral deficits in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the impact of general antioxidant treatment in their adult offspring and the Specific Reactive Species (ROS)-dependent mechanism, are not fully understood. We hypothesized that pre and early postnatal ethanol exposure (PEE) modifies redox homeostasis, in particular NOX2 function during reward signaling in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, which reinforces the effects of alcohol...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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