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Fitness to Stand Trial

J Eric Ahlskog
No medications are proven to slow the progression of Parkinson disease (PD). Of special concern with longer-standing PD is cognitive decline, as well as motor symptoms unresponsive to dopamine replacement therapy. Not fully recognized is the substantial accumulating evidence that long-term aerobic exercise may attenuate PD progression. Randomized controlled trial proof will not be forthcoming due to many complicating methodological factors. However, extensive and diverse avenues of scientific investigation converge to argue that aerobic exercise and cardiovascular fitness directly influence cerebral mechanisms mediating PD progression...
March 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Chelsey R Wilks, Anita Lungu, Sin Yee Ang, Brandon Matsumiya, Qingqing Yin, Marsha M Linehan
BACKGROUND: Given that alcohol misuse elevates risk of suicide death among ideators, the paucity of treatment outcome research for individuals presenting with both suicide ideation and problem drinking is particularly troubling. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills training, which effectively targets behaviors associated with emotion dysregulation including addictive and suicidal behaviors, provides a fitting model amenable to computerization. As stigma and scarcity stand as potential barriers to treatment, online dissemination platforms provide means for efficient treatment delivery that can augment the utility of suitable interventions...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Mats Hallgren, Victoria Andersson, Örjan Ekblom, Sven Andréasson
BACKGROUND: Help-seeking for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is low and traditional treatments are often perceived as stigmatizing. Physical activity has positive effects on mental and physical health which could benefit this population. We propose to compare the effects of aerobic training, yoga, and usual care for AUDs in physically inactive Swedish adults. METHODS: This is a three-group, parallel, single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). In total, 210 adults (aged 18-75 years) diagnosed with an AUD will be invited to participate in a 12-week intervention...
February 14, 2018: Trials
Andreas Hahn, Ivana Sreckovic, Sebastian Reiter, Milana Mileusnic
BACKGROUND: The microprocessor-controlled foot Meridium is a prosthetic component with adjustable stance-phase characteristics. OBJECTIVES: To investigate subjects' and prosthetists' perception of safety, walking, and satisfaction during first routine fittings. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study. METHODS: Data regarding demographics, fitting process, safety, daily life activities, and satisfaction were obtained through questionnaires...
February 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Meng Wang, Yuan Yao, Shanqun Jiang, Fang Tao, Rui Tang, Jinlu Sun
Asthma is one of the most significant diseases worldwide and causes overwhelming costs physically and economically. The heterogeneity of asthma has been a hot topic, and an increasing amount of research has been conducted on this issue. The study of asthma has revealed various groups of asthma patients who share phenotypic characteristics that naturally elicit the need for personalized asthma therapy. Clinical evidence has shown that a 'one size fits all' approach does not apply to all asthma patients because of the large variability in treatment responses to asthma medication...
January 28, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Horesh Dor-Haim, Sharon Barak, Michal Horowitz, Eldad Yaakobi, Sara Katzburg, Moshe Swissa, Chaim Lotan
INTRODUCTION: Exercise is considered a valuable nonpharmacological intervention modality in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs in patients with ischemic heart disease. The effect of aerobic interval exercise combined with alternating sets of resistance training (super-circuit training, SCT) on cardiac patients' with reduced left ventricular function, post-myocardial infarction (MI) has not been thoroughly investigated. AIM OF STUDY: to improve cardiac function with a novel method of combined aerobic-resistance circuit training in a randomized control trial by way of comparing the effectiveness of continuous aerobic training (CAT) to SCT on mechanical cardiac function...
2018: PloS One
J T Young, F J Davis, S Wardale, M Vassos, K van Dooren, K Nankervis, N G Lennox
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the socio-demographic, clinical and legal determinants of mental health court decisions of unsoundness of mind and unfitness to stand trial for people with cognitive disability. We aimed to estimate the association between severity of cognitive disability and mental health court determinations of unsoundness or unfitness and describe the socio-demographic, clinical and legal factors that predict these determinations. METHODS: Case file data were extracted on 92 individuals who had a criminal case referred to the Queensland Mental Health Court between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014 due to cognitive disability...
February 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Linzette Morris, Jessica Stander, Wardah Ebrahim, Stephanie Eksteen, Orissa Anna Meaden, Ané Ras, Annemarie Wessels
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive psychostimulant used by approximately 52 million people worldwide. Chronic MA abuse leads to detrimental physiological and neurological changes, as well as increases in anxiety and depression, and decreases in overall fitness and quality of life. Exercise has been reported to possibly reverse physiological and neurological damage caused by previous MA use, and to reduce anxiety and depression in this population. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, clinically appraise and synthesise the available evidence for the effectiveness of exercise, compared to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), standard care or no intervention, on decreasing anxiety and depression and improving fitness and quality of life in previous MA users...
January 16, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Maria Bakland, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Rolf Wynn, Jan H Rosenvinge, Annett Victoria Stornæs, Gunn Pettersen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study is to explore how therapists running a guided physical exercise and dietary therapy programme (PED-t) experience their contribution to the treatment of patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. METHODS: Ten therapists running the PED-t were semistructurally interviewed and the transcribed interviews were analysed using a systematic text condensation approach. SETTING: The study was run within the context of a randomised controlled trial at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Open
Haritz Arrieta, Chloe Rezola, Idoia Zarrazquin, Iñaki Echeverria, Jose Javier Yanguas, Miren Iturburu, Susana Maria Gil, Ana Rodriguez-Larrad, Jon Irazusta
To investigate the impact of a multicomponent exercise program on anthropometry, physical function, and physical activity on older adults living in long-term nursing homes (LTNH), we conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 112 participants aged 84.9 ± 6.9 years. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The IG participated in a 3-month multicomponent exercise intervention focused on strength, balance, stretching exercises, and walking recommendations...
January 8, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Agnieszka Nawrocka, Władysław Mynarski, Jarosław Cholewa
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is an important factor in maintaining the health and functional fitness of elderly people. The aim of the study was to determine the number of senior women meeting the physical activity guidelines, and their level of functional fitness in comparison to women who are not sufficiently physically active. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 61 women, aged 60-75. Physical activity was monitored on seven consecutive days of the week, using a triaxial accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Sophie Cleanthous, Stefan Cano, Elizabeth Kinter, Patrick Marquis, Jennifer Petrillo, Xiaojun You, Craig Wakeford, Guido Sabatella
Background: Study objectives were to evaluate the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) and explore an optimized scoring structure based on empirical post-hoc analyses of data from the Phase III ADVANCE clinical trial. Methods: ADVANCE MSIS-29 data from six time-points were analyzed in a sample of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Rasch Measurement Theory (RMT) analysis was undertaken to examine three broad areas: sample-to-scale targeting, measurement scale properties, and sample measurement validity...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
Laura E Middleton, Maria I Ventura, Wendy Santos-Modesitt, Gina Poelke, Kristine Yaffe, Deborah E Barnes
BACKGROUND: Older adults with cognitive complaints are vulnerable to dementia, physical impairments, and poor quality of life. Exercise and mental activity may improve physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) but combinations have not been investigated systematically. The Mental Activity and eXercise (MAX) trial found that mental activity plus exercise over 12weeks improved cognitive function (primary outcome) in sedentary older adults with cognitive complaints. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of combinations of two mental activity and exercise programs on physical function and HRQOL (secondary outcomes)...
January 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Mitesh S Patel, Emelia J Benjamin, Kevin G Volpp, Caroline S Fox, Dylan S Small, Joseph M Massaro, Jane J Lee, Victoria Hilbert, Maureen Valentino, Devon H Taylor, Emily S Manders, Karen Mutalik, Jingsan Zhu, Wenli Wang, Joanne M Murabito
Importance: Gamification, the application of game design elements such as points and levels in nongame contexts, is often used in digital health interventions, but evidence on its effectiveness is limited. Objective: To test the effectiveness of a gamification intervention designed using insights from behavioral economics to enhance social incentives within families to increase physical activity. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Behavioral Economics Framingham Incentive Trial (BE FIT) was a randomized clinical trial with a 12-week intervention period and a 12-week follow-up period...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
Aurélie Baillot, Carol-Anne Vallée, Warner M Mampuya, Isabelle J Dionne, Emilie Comeau, Anne Méziat-Burdin, Marie-France Langlois
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported on the benefits of Pre-Surgical Exercise Training (PreSET) on physical fitness and social interactions in subjects awaiting bariatric surgery (BS). However, data are needed to know whether these benefits are maintained post-BS. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effect of PreSET on physical activity (PA) level, physical fitness, PA barriers, and quality of life (QoL) 1 year (1-Y) after BS. METHODS: Of the 30 participants randomized into two groups (PreSET and usual care), 25 were included in the final analysis...
September 30, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Karen Junius, Nina Lefeber, Eva Swinnen, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber
OBJECTIVE: Show the benefit of kinematically compatible joint structures in exoskeletons for improving their performance in reducing metabolic consumption. METHODS: Subjects were fitted with a hip exoskeleton, with misalignment compensation for all DOFs and were instructed to perform recurring sit-to-stand motions for 5 minutes. This was executed 3 times: unequipped (i.e. not wearing the exoskeleton), assisted and unassisted. During each trial, oxygen consumption and muscle activity were monitored...
September 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Matthew J Clarkson, Steve F Fraser, Paul N Bennett, Lawrence P McMahon, Catherine Brumby, Stuart A Warmington
BACKGROUND: Exercise during haemodialysis improves strength and physical function. However, both patients and clinicians are time poor, and current exercise recommendations add an excessive time burden making exercise a rare addition to standard care. Hypothetically, blood flow restriction exercise performed during haemodialysis can provide greater value for time spent exercising, reducing this time burden while producing similar or greater outcomes. This study will explore the efficacy of blood flow restriction exercise for enhancing strength and physical function among haemodialysis patients...
September 11, 2017: BMC Nephrology
So Yon Rhee, Jin Kyung Song, Suk Chul Hong, Jae Won Choi, Hee Jung Jeon, Dong Ho Shin, Eun Hee Ji, Eun-Hee Choi, Jiyeon Lee, Aram Kim, Seung Wook Choi, Jieun Oh
Background/Aims: As numbers of maintenance hemodialysis patients are growing, debilitating conditions of muscle wasting and atrophy are becoming some of the greatest concerns in end-stage renal disease patients. Exercise training has various potential benefits in terms of prevention of a sustained decline in functional status. This study aimed to evaluate the physical, psychological, laboratory, and dialysis-related effects of intradialytic exercise. Methods: We enrolled 22 patients from a hemodialysis center for a 6-month non-randomized prospective trial...
August 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Dori E Rosenberg, Elyse Kadokura, Margaret E Morris, Anne Renz, Roger M Vilardaga
BACKGROUND: Frequent breaks from sitting could improve health. Many commercially available fitness trackers deliver vibration alerts that could be used to cue sitting breaks. As a potentially pragmatic approach to promote frequent breaks from sitting, we tested the efficacy of inactivity alerts among obese older adults, a highly sedentary population. METHODS: We conducted 10 sequential N-of-1 (single-case) experimental ABA trials. Participants (mean age = 68, mean BMI = 35) were monitored for a baseline phase ("A1") followed by an intervention phase ("B")...
August 16, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
Saskia Persoon, Mai J M ChinAPaw, Laurien M Buffart, Roberto D K Liu, Pierre Wijermans, Harry R Koene, Monique C Minnema, Pieternella J Lugtenburg, Erik W A Marijt, Johannes Brug, Frans Nollet, Marie José Kersten
BACKGROUND: This single blind, multicenter randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a supervised high intensity exercise program on physical fitness and fatigue in patients with multiple myeloma or lymphoma recently treated with autologous stem cell transplantation. METHODS: 109 patients were randomly assigned to the 18-week exercise intervention or the usual care control group. The primary outcomes included physical fitness (VO2peak and Wpeak determined using a cardiopulmonary exercise test; grip strength and the 30s chair stand test) and fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and were assessed prior to randomization and after completion of the intervention or at similar time points for the control group...
2017: PloS One
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