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Fitness to Stand Trial

Malte Nejst Larsen, Claus Malta Nielsen, Eva Wulff Helge, Mads Madsen, Vibeke Manniche, Lone Hansen, Peter Riis Hansen, Jens Bangsbo, Peter Krustrup
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether musculoskeletal fitness of school children aged 8-10 years was affected by frequent intense PE sessions. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: 295 Danish school children aged 8-10 years were cluster randomised to a small-sided ball game group (SSG) (n=96, four schools, five classes), a circuit strength training group (CST) (n=83, four schools, four classes) or a control group (CON, n=116, two schools, five classes). INTERVENTION: SSG or CST was performed 3×40 min/week over 10 months...
June 13, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Nienke M de Vries, J Bart Staal, Philip J van der Wees, Eddy M M Adang, Reinier Akkermans, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden
BACKGROUND: Despite the well-known health benefits of physical activity, it is a great challenge to stay physically active for frail-older adults with mobility limitations. The aim of this study was to test the (cost-) effectiveness of a patient-centred physical therapy strategy (Coach2Move) in which individualized treatment (motivational interviewing, physical examination, individualized goal setting, coaching and advice on self management, and physical training) is combined to increase physical activity level and physical fitness and, thereby, to decrease the level of frailty...
September 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Taweesak Janyacharoen, Kungsadal Sirijariyawat, Teerawat Nithiatthawanon, Puttawat Pamorn, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
BACKGROUND: Stepping exercise, an aerobic exercise, has been shown to be beneficial to elderly people if performed continuously for at least 12 weeks. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of engaging in modified stepping exercise on stairs with shorter height than the standard stepping platform for a shorter duration (8 weeks) on both physical fitness and quality of life in healthy elderly subjects by using a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Elderly Club, Muang District, Khon Kaen, Thailand...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Kerry S Courneya, Janette L Vardy, Christopher J O'Callaghan, Christine M Friedenreich, Kristin L Campbell, Harry Prapavessis, Jennifer J Crawford, Patti O'Brien, Haryana M Dhillon, Derek J Jonker, Neil S Chua, Sasha Lupichuk, Michael S Sanatani, Sharlene Gill, Ralph M Meyer, Stephen Begbie, Tony Bonaventura, Matthew E Burge, Jane Turner, Dongsheng Tu, Christopher M Booth
BACKGROUND: There is strong interest in testing lifestyle interventions to improve cancer outcomes; however, the optimal methods for achieving behavior change in large-scale pragmatic trials are unknown. Here, we report the 1-year feasibility results for exercise behavior change in the Canadian Cancer Trials Group CO.21 (CHALLENGE) Trial. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2014, 273 high-risk stage II and III colon cancer survivors from 42 centers in Canada and Australia were randomized to a structured exercise program (SEP; n = 136) or health education materials (HEM; n = 137)...
June 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Joseph E Donnelly, Charles H Hillman, Darla Castelli, Jennifer L Etnier, Sarah Lee, Phillip Tomporowski, Kate Lambourne, Amanda N Szabo-Reed
BACKGROUND: The relationship among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: 1) among children age 5-13 yr, do PA and physical fitness influence cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function? 2) Among children age 5-13 yr, do PA, physical education (PE), and sports programs influence standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention? STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: This study used primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals...
June 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
T Bieler, V Siersma, S P Magnusson, M Kjaer, H E Christensen, N Beyer
This observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial compared the short- and long-term effects of 4 months of supervised strength training (ST) in a local fitness center, supervised Nordic Walking (NW) in a local park, and unsupervised home-based exercise (HBE, control) on functional performance in 60+-year-old persons (n = 152) with hip osteoarthritis (OA) not awaiting hip replacement. Functional performance [i.e., 30-s chair stand test (primary outcome), timed stair climbing, and 6-min walk test] and self-reported outcomes (i...
April 30, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Sofie Vertriest, Pascal Coorevits, Kerstin Hagberg, Rickard Brånemark, Eva Elisabet Häggström, Guy Vanderstraeten, Laurent Alain Frossard
BACKGROUND: Load-bearing exercises are performed by transfemoral amputees fitted with an osseointegrated implant to facilitate bone remodelling. OBJECTIVE: This study presents the loading compliance comparing loads prescribed and applied on the three axes of the implant during static load-bearing exercises with a specific emphasis on axial and vectorial comparisons. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: A total of 11 fully rehabilitated unilateral transfemoral amputees fitted with an osseointegrated implant performed five trials in four loading conditions using a static standing frame...
April 26, 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Cadeyrn J Gaskin, Steve F Fraser, Patrick J Owen, Melinda Craike, Liliana Orellana, Patricia M Livingston
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week, clinician-referred, community-based exercise training program with supervised and unsupervised sessions for men with prostate cancer. The secondary purpose was to determine whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) modified responses to exercise training. METHODS: Secondary analysis was undertaken on data from a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial in which 15 clinicians were randomly assigned to refer eligible patients to an exercise training intervention (n = 8) or to provide usual care (n = 7)...
April 20, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Samuel Adjorlolo, Heng Choon Oliver Chan, Jacob Mensah Agboli
The involvement of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) in the criminal justice system (CJS) is currently a major public health concern. This has culminated in several empirical researches over the years, with a particular focus on addressing the problem. The present study examines the criminal and the mental health legislations available to offenders raising fitness to stand trial issues, as well as those pleading insanity at the time of the offense (insanity defense) in Ghana. The legislations are examined within a framework of reducing the overrepresentation of MDOs in the CJS...
March 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Devrim Tarakci, Burcu Ersoz Huseyinsinoglu, Ela Tarakci, Arzu Razak Ozdinçler
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the effects of Nintendo Wii-Fit balance-based video games and conventional balance training in children with mild Cerebral Palsy (CP). METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included thirty ambulatory pediatric patients (5 to 18 years) with CP. Participants were randomized to either conventional balance training group (Control Group) or Wii-Fit balance-based video games group (Wii Group). Both group received Neuro-developmental treatment (NDT) during 24 sessions...
February 9, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Jordan M Glenn, Michelle Gray, Jennifer L Vincenzo, Matthew S Stone
: Muscular power decreases with age and lower-body power relates to overall functional fitness; however, functional lower-body power has not been evaluated in late-middle aged (LMA) populations. PURPOSE: To evaluate average and peak lower-body functional power and velocity among physically inactive (PI), recreationally active (RA), and masters athlete (MA) LMA adults. METHODS: Participants were PI (n=13, age=59.3±4.5), RA (n=35, age=59.6±5...
January 18, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
J F Smith, B J Bradford, J P Harner, J C Potts, J D Allen, M W Overton, X A Ortiz, R J Collier
A trial was performed to assess the effect of evaporative pads on core body temperature (CBT) and lying behavior of lactating Holstein cows housed in cross-ventilated freestall facilities in a humid environment. This trial was undertaken in 2 barns equipped with (EP) or without (NP) evaporative pads. Each facility had 4 pens, 1 baffle/pen, and a nominal width of 122 m. Stocking density was higher (123.4 vs. 113.1%) and freestalls were slightly shorter (2.3 vs. 2.4 m) and narrower (1.16 vs. 1.21 m) in EP compared with NP barns...
February 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Cíntia Pereira de Souza, Eduardo Lattari, Nuno Barbosa Ferreira Rocha, Gioia Mura, Sérgio Machado, Elirez Bezerra da Silva
Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is a public health problem and older women have higher incidence of this symptom, which affect body balance, functional capacity and behavior. The purpose of this study was to verifying the effect of exercises with Nintendo Wii on CLBP, functional capacity and mood of elderly. Thirty older women (68 ± 4 years; 68 ± 12 kg; 154 ± 5 cm) with CLBP participated in this study. Elderly individuals were divided into a Control Exercise Group (n = 14) and an Experimental Wii Group (n = 16)...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Caroline S Kampshoff, Mai J M Chinapaw, Johannes Brug, Jos W R Twisk, Goof Schep, Marten R Nijziel, Willem van Mechelen, Laurien M Buffart
BACKGROUND: International evidence-based guidelines recommend physical exercise to form part of standard care for all cancer survivors. However, at present, the optimum exercise intensity is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a high intensity (HI) and low-to-moderate intensity (LMI) resistance and endurance exercise program compared with a wait list control (WLC) group on physical fitness and fatigue in a mixed group of cancer survivors who completed primary cancer treatment, including chemotherapy...
2015: BMC Medicine
Thomas J Povsic, Richard Sloane, Carl F Pieper, Megan P Pearson, Eric D Peterson, Harvey J Cohen, Miriam C Morey
BACKGROUND: Levels of circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) are depleted with aging and chronic injury and are associated with level of physical functioning; however, little is known about the correlation of CPCs with longer-term measures of physical capabilities. We sought to determine the association of CPCs with future levels of physical function and with changes in physical function over time. METHODS: CPCs were measured in 117 participants with impaired glucose tolerance in the Enhanced Fitness clinical trial based on the cell surface markers CD34 and CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months...
March 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Marc R Theoret, Lee H Pai-Scherf, Meredith K Chuk, Tatiana M Prowell, Sanjeeve Balasubramaniam, Tamy Kim, Geoffrey Kim, Paul G Kluetz, Patricia Keegan, Richard Pazdur
In 1962, the passage of the Kefauver-Harris Amendment to the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act required that sponsors seeking approval of new drugs demonstrate the drug's efficacy, in addition to its safety, through a formal process that includes "adequate and well-controlled" clinical trials as the basis to support claims of effectiveness. As a result of this amendment, FDA formalized in regulation the definitions of various phases of clinical investigations (i.e., phase I, phase II, and phase III). The clinical drug development paradigm for anticancer drugs intended to support marketing approval has historically followed this "phased" approach with sequential, stand-alone trials, with an increasing number of patients exposed to an investigational drug with each trial in order to fulfill the objectives of that particular stage in development...
October 15, 2015: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Garry A Tew, Jonathan Michaels, Helen Crank, Geoff Middleton, Anil Gumber, Markos Klonizakis
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers are common, chronic wounds that are painful and reduce quality of life. Compression therapy is known to assist in the healing of venous leg ulceration. Supervised exercise training that targets an improvement in calf muscle pump function might be a useful adjunctive therapy for enhancing ulcer healing and other aspects of physical and mental health. However, the evidence of exercise for individuals with venous ulcers is sparse. Here, we describe the protocol for a study that aims to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomised controlled trial of a supervised exercise programme in people who are receiving compression for venous ulceration...
2015: Trials
J H Pasma, D Engelhart, A B Maier, A C Schouten, H van der Kooij, C G M Meskers
With sensory reweighting, reliable sensory information is selected over unreliable information during balance by dynamically combining this information. We used system identification techniques to show the weight and the adaptive process of weight change of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and specific diseases. Ten healthy young subjects (aged between 20 and 30 yr) and 44 elderly subjects (aged above 65 yr) encompassing 10 healthy elderly, 10 with cataract, 10 with polyneuropathy, and 14 with impaired balance, participated in the study...
December 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jeanette Stewart, Mary Woodward, Flana Hepner
The capacity of individuals with disability, including cognitive or mental health impairments, to access justice on an equal basis has been considered recently in several Australian jurisdictions. Impairments can render individuals vulnerable in the legal system, affecting their reliability as a witness or their fitness to be tried, especially when limited support is available to help these individuals meet the test and criteria for fitness to stand trial. This article considers the situation in Australia in light of human rights perspectives and compares it with the England and Wales approach where special support measures have been introduced to help individuals access justice...
June 2015: Journal of Law and Medicine
Katerina Machacova, Hana Vankova, Ladislav Volicer, Petr Veleta, Iva Holmerova
Late life deterioration of functional status is associated with adverse health outcomes and increased cost of care. This trial was conducted to determine whether dance-based intervention could reverse functional decline among nursing home (NH) residents. A total of 189 residents of seven NHs in the Czech Republic were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. More detailed data were collected in a subsample of 52 participants. Intervention consisted of 3-month dance-based exercise. Functional status was assessed by the get-up-and-go test, basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and senior fitness tests (SFTs)...
August 28, 2015: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
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