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Not Criminally Responsible

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634678/the-iliac-crest-in-forensic-age-estimation-evaluation-of-three-methods-in-pelvis-x-rays
#1
Viola Bartolini, Vilma Pinchi, Barbara Gualco, Stefano Vanin, Giusto Chiaracane, Giovanni D'Elia, Gian-Aristide Norelli, Martina Focardi
Age assessment in children and young adults is a relevant forensic issue. It is requested not only in evaluating criminal responsibility in youths without proper identification documents, often in relation to age thresholds, but also for release of a residency permit, and asylum seekers of minors. The analysis of the Risser sign and the iliac crest ossification process has been proposed as a useful tool for forensic age estimation. We evaluated the applicability of three different age estimation methods on a sample of 497 pelvic radiographs of Italian individuals between 10 and 25 years of age...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630552/decriminalization-and-women-s-access-to-abortion-in-australia
#2
Barbara Baird
This article considers the relationship between the decriminalization of abortion and women's access to abortion services. It focuses on the four Australian jurisdictions which are, with Canada, the only jurisdictions in the world where abortion has been removed from the criminal law. This paper draws on documentary evidence and an oral history project to give a "before and after" account of each jurisdiction. The paper assumes that the meaning and impact of decriminalization must be assessed in each local context...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619854/dissociation-defining-the-concept-in-criminal-forensic-psychiatry
#3
Dominique Bourget, Pierre Gagné, Stephen Floyd Wood
Claims of amnesia and dissociative experiences in association with a violent crime are not uncommon. Research has shown that dissociation is a risk factor for violence and is seen most often in crimes of extreme violence. The subject matter is most relevant to forensic psychiatry. Peritraumatic dissociation for instance, with or without a history of dissociative disorder, is quite frequently reported by offenders presenting for a forensic psychiatric examination. Dissociation or dissociative amnesia for serious offenses can have legal repercussions stemming from their relevance to the legal constructs of fitness to stand trial, criminal responsibility, and diminished capacity...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612900/italian-law-on-the-vehicular-homicide-medical-legal-issues-and-comparative-analysis
#4
G Montanari Vergallo, E Marinelli, N M di Luca, V Masotti, R Cecchi, S Zaami
Law no. 41/2016, enacted after a parliamentary debate characterized by a strong media pressure, intends to give a strong response to the growing social alarm caused by road accidents causing deaths. In this perspective, it introduced the categories of road homicide and road injuries within the Penal Code and the new hypotheses of mandatory and facultative arrest in flagrante delicto. This paper aims at comparing the rules by which the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany and Italy protect people's lives and safety of vehicular traffic in order to highlight strengths and weaknesses with a view to future reforms...
May 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612397/understanding-and-treating-offenders-with-serious-mental-illness-in-public-sector-mental-health
#5
H Richard Lamb, Linda E Weinberger
This article begins with the history of the rise and fall of the state hospitals and subsequent criminalization of persons with serious mental illness (SMI). Currently, there is a belief among many that incarceration has not been as successful as hoped in reducing crime and drug use, both for those with and those without SMI. Moreover, overcrowding in correctional facilities has become a serious problem necessitating a solution. Consequently, persons with SMI in the criminal justice system are now being released in large numbers to the community and hopefully treated by public sector mental health...
June 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604426/incarceration-sexual-risk-related-behaviors-and-hiv-infection-among-women-at-increased-risk-of-hiv-infection-20-united-states-cities
#6
Akilah Wise, Teresa Finlayson, Lina Nerlander, Catlainn Sionean, Gabriela Paz-Bailey
BACKGROUND: Women involved in the criminal justice system experience multiple risk factors that increase the likelihood of acquiring HIV infection. We evaluated the prevalence of incarceration and compared behaviors among women with and without an incarceration history. METHODS: We use the 2013 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data, which uses respondent-driven sampling. We evaluate the association between incarceration and the following past 12 months outcomes: exchange sex, multiple casual sex partners (≥3), multiple condomless sex partners (≥3), HIV test, and sexually transmitted infection diagnoses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582390/polymorphisms-in-dopaminergic-system-genes-association-with-criminal-behavior-and-self-reported-aggression-in-violent-prison-inmates-from-pakistan
#7
Muhammad Imran Qadeer, Ali Amar, J John Mann, Shahida Hasnain
Genetic factors contribute to antisocial and criminal behavior. Dopamine transporter DAT-1 (SLC6A3) and DRD2 gene for the dopamine-2 receptor are dopaminergic system genes that regulate dopamine reuptake and signaling, and may be part of the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including antisocial behaviors and traits. No previous studies have analyzed DAT-1 and DRD2 polymorphisms in convicted murderers, particularly from Indian subcontinent. In this study we investigated the association of 40 bp VNTR polymorphism of DAT-1 and Taq1 variant of DRD2 gene (rs1800479) with criminal behavior and self-reported aggression in 729 subjects, including 370 men in Pakistani prisons convicted of first degree murder(s) and 359 control men without any history of violence or criminal tendency...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525430/qualitative-analysis-of-prosecutors-perspectives-on-sexual-assault-nurse-examiners-and-the-criminal-justice-response-to-sexual-assault
#8
Thaddeus Schmitt, Theodore P Cross, Megan Alderden
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand prosecutors' perspectives on the contribution of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs) to evidence collection and trials in sexual assault cases. BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that a sexual assault case is more likely to progress in the criminal justice system when a SANE conducts the forensic medical examination. However, little is known about how prosecutors perceive SANEs and what they value about SANEs versus other medical professionals...
April 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483177/-socio-demographic-psychiatric-and-legal-characterization-of-colombian-unimputable-patients-2000-2013
#9
Juliana Escobar-Echavarría, Sergio Ignacio Molina-Osorio, Diana Patricia Restrepo-Bernal
INTRODUCTION: Mental illness has been associated with violent behaviour. Criminal behavior in the mentally ill population in Colombia has not been well studied. METHODS: This is a retrospective, descriptive study, from a secondary source. An analysis was made of the sociodemographic, clinical, and legal variables of 127 unfit to plead patients. A descriptive analysis of quantitative variables was performed by measures of central tendency, and frequencies and percentages were calculated for the qualitative variables...
April 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449956/implicit-vs-explicit-dimensions-of-guilt-and-dominance-in-criminal-psychopathy
#10
Lieke Nentjes, David P Bernstein, Maaike Cima, Reinout W Wiers
The current study investigated the relationship between psychopathy and two concepts that hold a central position in conceptualizations of this disorder, being guilt and dominance. Both constructs were measured using explicit measures (i.e., self-report), as well as indirect assessment (i.e., the Single Category Implicit Association Test; Sc-IAT). Our sample consisted of 43 psychopathic offenders, 42 nonpsychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Although no overall group differences emerged, the lifestyle/antisocial traits of psychopathy (Factor 2) predicted reduced self-reported guilt on a dimensional level...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429396/children-s-uncertain-responses-when-testifying-about-alleged-sexual-abuse-in-scottish-courts
#11
Samantha J Andrews, Elizabeth C Ahern, Michael E Lamb
This study examined the uncertain responses of 56 alleged sexual abuse victims, aged 5-17 years, testifying in Scottish criminal court trials. Don't know/remember ground rules were explained to 38% of the children and each child reported uncertainty in response to 15% of the questions on average. Uncertain responding was associated with expressions of resistance and confusion, questioning context (proportionally more regarding substantive than non-substantive issues), question content (least to disclosure-focused questions), utterance type (more to directives, particularly those posed by defense lawyers; more to recall-based than recognition prompts), and age (children in mid-adolescence were less likely to respond uncertainly than those who were either older or younger)...
April 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415998/effectiveness-of-current-policing-related-mental-health-interventions-in-england-and-wales-and-crisis-intervention-teams-as-a-future-potential-model-a-systematic-review
#12
Eddie Kane, Emily Evans, Farhad Shokraneh
BACKGROUND: Experiencing mental ill health adds a layer of complexity for individuals in touch with the justice system and for those responsible for working in the justice service with these individuals, such as frontline police officers. In England and Wales, there are three commonly used but not necessarily commonly designed or operated, mental health interventions associated with policing, Liaison and Diversion, Street Triage and specialist staff embedded in Police Contact Control Rooms...
April 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397960/affective-empathy-cognitive-empathy-and-social-attention-in-children-at-high-risk-of-criminal-behaviour
#13
L van Zonneveld, E Platje, L M J de Sonneville, S H M van Goozen, H Swaab
BACKGROUND: Empathy deficits are hypothesized to underlie impairments in social interaction exhibited by those who engage in antisocial behaviour. Social attention is an essential precursor to empathy; however, no studies have yet examined social attention in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in those exhibiting antisocial behaviour. METHODS: Participants were 8- to 12-year-old children at high risk of developing criminal behaviour (N = 114, 80.7% boys) and typically developing controls (N = 43, 72...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375656/evidence-based-treatment-and-supervision-practices-for-co-occurring-mental-and-substance-use-disorders-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#14
Roger H Peters, M Scott Young, Elizabeth C Rojas, Claire M Gorey
BACKGROUND: Over seven million persons in the United States are supervised by the criminal justice system, including many who have co-occurring mental and substance use disorders (CODs). This population is at high risk for recidivism and presents numerous challenges to those working in the justice system. OBJECTIVES: To provide a contemporary review of the existing research and examine key issues and evidence-based treatment and supervision practices related to CODs in the justice system...
July 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371828/physical-and-mental-health-disparities-for-young-women-with-arrest-histories
#15
Gina Fedock, Sophia Sarantakos
Young women ages 18 to 25 make up approximately 30 percent of women arrested in the United States. Although health disparities have been found for incarcerated adults, health concerns for this subpopulation of women have not been as closely examined. Aiming to fill this gap in the literature, this study examined national data for young women ages 18 to 25 who participated in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health. Physical and mental health concerns were compared for young women with and without arrest histories...
March 28, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364567/punitive-laws-key-population-size-estimates-and-global-aids-response-progress-reports-an-ecological-study-of-154-countries
#16
Sara Lm Davis, William C Goedel, John Emerson, Brooke Skartvedt Guven
INTRODUCTION: UN global plans on HIV/AIDS have committed to reducing the number of countries with punitive laws criminalizing key populations. This study explores whether punitive laws are associated with countries' performance on targets set in the global plans. METHODS: The study used chi-square tests of independence to explore associations between legal status, key population size estimates, and HIV service coverage for 193 countries from 2007 to 2014. We used data reported by countries on United Nations Global AIDS Progress Report (GARPR) indicators, and legal data from UNAIDS, UNDP, and civil society organizations...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352238/communicating-the-neuroscience-of-psychopathy-and-its-influence-on-moral-behavior-protocol-of-two-experimental-studies
#17
Robert Blakey, Adrian D Askelund, Matilde Boccanera, Johanna Immonen, Nejc Plohl, Cassandra Popham, Clarissa Sorger, Julia Stuhlreyer
Neuroscience has identified brain structures and functions that correlate with psychopathic tendencies. Since psychopathic traits can be traced back to physical neural attributes, it has been argued that psychopaths are not truly responsible for their actions and therefore should not be blamed for their psychopathic behaviors. This experimental research aims to evaluate what effect communicating this theory of psychopathy has on the moral behavior of lay people. If psychopathy is blamed on the brain, people may feel less morally responsible for their own psychopathic tendencies and therefore may be more likely to display those tendencies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331051/the-ethics-of-and-the-appropriate-legislation-concerning-killing-people-and-letting-them-die-a-response-to-merkel
#18
Hugh V McLachlan
With regard to ethics and legislation, what is the significant difference between a doctor terminating the life-supporting treatment of a patient in the course of his job and a greedy relative of the patient doing the same thing to inherit his wealth? Merkel offers an interesting and inventive answer to this question in terms of the improper violation of personal boundaries. However, despite Merkel's claim to the contrary, his answer does not directly address the question of the relevant ethical similarities and differences between killing and letting die in general...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270462/controversies-concerning-the-canadian-not-criminally-responsible-reform-act
#19
Robert Lacroix, Roy O'Shaughnessy, Dale E McNiel, Renée L Binder
In Canada, individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder are subject to the disposition recommendations of the Provincial or Territorial Review Board of the jurisdiction where the offense was committed. Bill C-14, known as "The Not Criminally Responsible Reform Act" made changes to the postverdict disposition process of these individuals. This legislation was consistent with a broader "tough-on-crime" agenda of the previous federal government. The legislative changes codify that Review Boards take public safety as the "paramount consideration" in making their recommendations...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262981/-it-happens-to-girls-all-the-time-examining-sexual-assault-survivors-reasons-for-not-using-campus-supports
#20
Kathryn J Holland, Lilia M Cortina
Sexual assault is a prevalent problem in higher education, and despite the increasing availability of formal supports on college campuses, few sexual assault survivors use them. Experiencing sexual assault can have devastating consequences on survivors' psychological and educational wellbeing, which may intensify if survivors do not receive adequate care. Drawing from existing theoretical frameworks and empirical research, this study used a mixed methodological approach to examine why survivors did not use three key campus supports-the Title IX Office, the sexual assault center, and housing staff-and if these reasons differed across the three supports...
March 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
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