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Not Criminally Responsible

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652769/schizophrenia-and-criminal-responsibility-a-systematic-review
#1
Georgios Tsimploulis, Gérard Niveau, Ariel Eytan, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Othman Sentissi
The significant progress of psychiatry in the 20th century provided a sophisticated theoretical framework to analyze the complex relationships between crime and mental illness. Schizophrenia has been traditionally associated with severe cognitive and affective deficits that heavily influence empathy, judgment capacities, but also control of impulsiveness. Although there is an association between psychotic disorders and absence or decrease of legal responsibility, their relationship is also determined by sociodemographic, developmental, and clinical factors...
May 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629350/is-the-ghost-surgery-the-subject-of-legal-punishment-in-korea
#2
Seung Eun Hong, Min Ki Hong, Bo Young Park, Kyong Jae Woo, So Ra Kang
Purpose: Recently a controversy has arisen about so-called "ghost surgery" practices, and people have voiced their opinions for legal sanction against such practices, which clearly undermine the foundation of medical ethics. However, there has been a lack of legal basis for punishing those actions. The present study aims to examine which pre-existing legal provisions could be applied to regulate ghost surgery. Methods: The Korean Medical Service Act has a provision relating to informed consent to inhibit ghost surgery but does not include penalty provisions prohibiting ghost surgery itself...
April 2018: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606059/a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-experiences-of-veterans-who-are-serving-sentences-in-custody
#3
Michele Unwin, Belinda Winder
The focus on veterans in research is not a novel topic; however, the majority of studies are related to trauma, employment, mental health, suicide, and substance misuse. The criminal justice system involvement with veterans is a topic that has yet to be examined to a great extent. This study, conducted with adult male prisoners, elicited information from six veterans regarding their experiences of being in the armed forces, leaving the armed forces, and becoming involved in the criminal justice system. Responses were evaluated using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and three main themes were identified: "you're baptized into the army," "them and us," and "operational mind-set"; each of which comprised a number of superordinate themes...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542439/when-should-screening-and-surveillance-be-used-during-pregnancy
#4
Nancy D Campbell
Using the ethical and legal concept of shared responsibility for healthy births, this article considers social, cultural, and historical contexts in which medicalization and criminalization have worked in tandem to widen surveillance in ways that intensify scrutiny of women's lives under the guise of child protection, bringing women who are pregnant, postpartum, or parenting under criminal justice control. Although pregnant and postpartum women are prime candidates for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), the expanding carceral system has not prioritized drug treatment or reproductive justice...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533207/lethal-asphyxiation-due-to-sadomasochistic-sex-training-how-some-sex-partners-avoid-criminal-responsibility-even-though-their-actions-lead-to-someone-s-death
#5
Damian Jacob Sendler
INTRODUCTION: Erotic asphyxiation is a sexual phenomenon in which one partner reduces the other person's brain oxygen level through strangulation. This study analyzes deaths caused by sexually-motivated strangulation to cases of homicidal choking - summarizing criminal penalties for defendants, depending on the presence of drugs, or alcohol intoxication. METHODS: The mode of analysis involves three sources of data. First, a retrospective chart review of our clinics' two recent cases...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518713/field-based-detection-of-biological-samples-for-forensic-analysis-established-techniques-novel-tools-and-future-innovations
#6
REVIEW
Jack Morrison, Giles Watts, Glyn Hobbs, Nick Dawnay
Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498094/trouble-at-teens-fingertips-youth-sexting-and-the-law
#7
Brian Holoyda, Jacqueline Landess, Renee Sorrentino, Susan Hatters Friedman
The last decade has seen a rapid increase in the use of smartphones among young children and adolescents. One consequence of this phenomenon is sexting. Although researchers of sexting have yet to arrive at a single, cohesive definition for the behavior, it generally involves the transmission of text, pictures, or videos containing sexual material. Different definitions of the behavior have led to widely varying estimates of its prevalence, although some studies have documented relatively high rates of sexting among teenagers...
March 2, 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485748/hiv-and-aids-among-adolescents-who-use-drugs-opportunities-for-drug-policy-reform-within-the-sustainable-development-agenda
#8
Khalid Tinasti
INTRODUCTION: The international community's commitment to halve by 2015 the HIV transmission among people who inject drugs has not only been largely missed, instead new HIV infections have increased by 30%. Moreover, drug injection remains one of the drivers of new HIV infections due to punitive responses and lack of harm reduction resourcing. In the midst of this situation, adolescents are a forgotten component of the global response to illegal drugs and their link with HIV infection...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479481/can-civil-lawsuits-stem-the-tide-of-direct-to-consumer-marketing-of-unproven-stem-cell-interventions
#9
REVIEW
Claire Horner, Evelyn Tenenbaum, Douglas Sipp, Zubin Master
The sale of unproven stem cell interventions (SCIs) by commercial entities has proliferated in highly developed countries, most notably in the USA. Yet, there have been few criminal prosecutions and regulatory enforcement actions against providers who have violated laws and best practice standards due to the lack of resources and legal ambiguity. While the stem cell research community has invested much in protecting patients and preventing the growth of this industry, some patients are seeking remedies under civil law to hold stem cell clinics responsible for fraudulent practices...
2018: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472874/validation-of-the-portuguese-version-of-impulsive-premeditated-aggression-scale-in-an-inmate-population
#10
Jacinto Costa Azevedo, José Luís Pais-Ribeiro, Rui Coelho, Margarida Figueiredo-Braga
Aggression is one of the core symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with therapeutic and prognostic relevance. ASPD is highly prevalent among inmates, being responsible for adverse events and elevated direct and indirect economic costs for the criminal justice system. The Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS) is a self-report instrument that characterizes aggression as either predominately impulsive or premeditated. This study aims to determine the validity and reliability of the IPAS in a sample of Portuguese inmates...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389175/comparability-of-structured-interview-of-reported-symptoms-sirs-and-structured-interview-of-reported-symptoms-second-edition-sirs-2-classifications-with-external-response-bias-criteria
#11
Jessica L Tylicki, Dustin B Wygant, Anthony M Tarescavage, Richard I Frederick, Elizabeth A Tyner, Robert P Granacher, Martin Sellbom
Rogers, Sewell, and Gillard (2010) released a revised version of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992), the SIRS-2, which introduced several new scales, indices, and a new classification model with the overall goal of improving its classification of genuine versus feigned presentations. Since the release of the SIRS-2, several concerns have been raised regarding the quality of the SIRS-2 development and validation samples and the method used to calculate classification accuracy estimates...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384744/the-age-estimation-practice-related-to-illegal-unaccompanied-minors-immigration-in-italy
#12
F Pradella, V Pinchi, M Focardi, R Grifoni, M Palandri, G A Norelli
The migrants arrived to the Italian coasts in 2016 were 181.436, 18% more than the previous year and 6% more than the highest number ever since. An "unaccompanied minor" (UAM) is a third-country national or a stateless person under eighteen years of age, who arrives on the territory of the Member State unaccompanied by an adult responsible for him/her whether by law or by the practice of the Member State concerned, and for as long as he or she is not effectively taken into the care of such a person; it includes a minor who is left unaccompanied after he/she entered the territory of the Member States...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332531/supporting-rape-survivors-through-the-criminal-injuries-compensation-scheme-an-exploration-of-english-and-welsh-independent-sexual-violence-advisors-experiences
#13
Olivia Smith, Jessica Galey
English and Welsh responses to rape have long been critically examined, leading to attempted improvements in the criminal justice system. Despite this, little attention has been paid to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (CICS) and the difficulties applying it to rape. To begin addressing this gap, researchers interviewed three, and qualitatively surveyed 22, Independent Sexual Violence Advisors. The findings suggest that CICS may not only reinforce rape myths and disadvantage vulnerable survivors, but is also a source of validation and contributes to survivor justice...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294939/multidisciplinary-responses-to-the-sexual-victimization-of-children-use-of-control-phone-calls
#14
J William Canavan, Christine Borowski, Stacy Essex, Stefan Perkowski
This descriptive study addresses the question of the value of one-party consent phone calls regarding the sexual victimization of children. The authors reviewed 4 years of experience with children between the ages of 3 and 18 years selected for the control phone calls after a forensic interview by the New York State Police forensic interviewer. The forensic interviewer identified appropriate cases for control phone calls considering New York State law, the child's capacity to make the call, the presence of another person to make the call and a supportive residence...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294891/lawyers-question-repetition-and-children-s-responses-in-scottish-criminal-courts
#15
Samantha J Andrews, Michael E Lamb
This study examined the effects of repeated questions ( n = 7,968) on fifty-six 5- to 17-year-olds' testimony in child sexual abuse cases in Scottish criminal courts. We examined transcripts of direct- and cross-examinations, categorizing how lawyers asked repeated questions in court and how children responded. Defense lawyers repeated more questions (39.6% of all questions asked) than prosecutors (30.6%) and repeated questions using more suggestive prompts (52% of their repeated questions) than prosecutors (18%) did...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279896/association-of-childhood-blood-lead-levels-with-criminal-offending
#16
Amber L Beckley, Avshalom Caspi, Jonathan Broadbent, Honalee Harrington, Renate M Houts, Richie Poulton, Sandhya Ramrakha, Aaron Reuben, Terrie E Moffitt
Importance: Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure and criminal offending. Objective: To test the hypothesis that a higher childhood blood lead level (BLL) is associated with greater risk of criminal conviction, recidivism (repeat conviction), conviction for violent offenses, and variety of self-reported criminal offending in a setting where BLL was not associated with low socioeconomic status...
February 1, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237354/the-views-of-the-public-on-youth-offenders-and-the-new-zealand-criminal-justice-system
#17
Craig Barretto, Sarah Miers, Ian Lambie
Public perceptions of crime and punishment have taken on increasing importance as countries grapple with how to address youth violence. The current study aimed to compare the views of those who have had personal experience of victimisation from youth offenders and those who have not, on what could be improved in managing youth offending in New Zealand. A qualitative methodology was used with data from open-ended survey responses from a nationally representative sample. Public sentiments favoured addressing systemic issues and providing rehabilitation as main emphases followed by more punitive measures, prevention, and restorative justice...
January 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172557/expanding-the-early-and-late-starter-model-of-criminal-justice-involvement-for-forensic-mental-health-clients
#18
Anne G Crocker, Michael S Martin, Marichelle C Leclair, Tonia L Nicholls, Michael C Seto
The early and late starter model provides one of the most enduring frameworks for understanding the developmental course and severity of violence and criminality among individuals with severe mental illness. We expanded the model to account for differences in the age of onset of criminal behavior and added a group with no prior contact with the justice or mental health systems. We sampled 1,800 men and women found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder in 3 Canadian provinces. Using a retrospective file-based study, we explored differences in criminal, health, demographic, and social functioning characteristics, processing through the forensic psychiatric system and recidivism outcomes of 5 groups...
February 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171178/hiv-viral-load-monitoring-among-key-populations-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-challenges-and-opportunities
#19
Sheree R Schwartz, Matthew M Kavanagh, Jeremy Sugarman, Sunil S Solomon, Illiassou M Njindam, Kevin Rebe, Thomas C Quinn, Coumba Toure-Kane, Chris Beyrer, Stefan Baral
INTRODUCTION: Key populations bear a disproportionate HIV burden and have substantial unmet treatment needs. Routine viral load monitoring represents the gold standard for assessing treatment response at the individual and programme levels; at the population-level, community viral load is a metric of HIV programme effectiveness and can identify "hotspots" of HIV transmission. Nevertheless, there are specific implementation and ethical challenges to effectively operationalize and meaningfully interpret viral load data at the community level among these often marginalized populations...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170816/umbilical-cord-entanglement-s-frequency-and-its-impact-on-the-newborn
#20
Tatjana Walla, Markus A Rothschild, Jan C Schmolling, Sibylle Banaschak
Neonaticide is a serious allegation that needs a complete chain of criminal investigations. In this context, a nuchal cord is considered to be responsible for an infant's death, but there is a clear lack of evidence. The purpose of our study is to reveal if a nuchal cord can be responsible for stillbirth, poor perinatal outcome, or neonatal death in the forensic aspect. We conducted a prospective study in collaboration with the Augustinian Sisters' Hospital in Cologne, Germany in the period from February 2014 to May 2016...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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