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Not Criminally Responsible

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923667/large-scale-forensic-investigations-into-the-missing-challenges-and-considerations
#1
Mercedes Salado Puerto, Hugh Tuller
Large-scale forensic investigations may follow episodes of mass violence and disasters where hundreds or thousands of people have died or are missing. A number of unique challenges for forensic science, different from domestic investigations, arise in these contexts. The setting and situation of these investigations regularly force forensic scientists into practices not regularly encountered while working in a standard criminal justice system. These practices can entail activities not specific to a practitioner's particular field or necessarily be scientific in nature, but are still needed in order for the investigation to move forward...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893844/accuracy-and-predictive-value-of-incarcerated-adults-accounts-of-their-self-harm-histories-findings-froman-australian-prospective-data-linkage-study
#2
Rohan Borschmann, Jesse T Young, Paul Moran, Matthew J Spittal, Kathryn Snow, Katherine Mok, Stuart A Kinner
BACKGROUND: Self-harm is prevalent in prison populations and is a well-established risk factor for suicide. Researchers typically rely on self-report to measure self-harm, yet the accuracy and predictive value of self-report in prison populations is unclear. Using a large, representative sample of incarcerated men and women, we aimed to examine the level of agreement between self-reported self-harm history and historical medical records, and investigate the association between self-harm history and medically verified self-harm after release from prison...
September 11, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893122/recovery-of-offenders-formerly-labeled-as-not-criminally-responsible-uncovering-the-ambiguity-from-first-person-narratives
#3
Natalie Aga, Freya Vander Laenen, Stijn Vandevelde, Elke Vermeersch, Wouter Vanderplasschen
The recovery paradigm is a widely accepted strength-based approach in general mental health care. Particular challenges arise when applying this paradigm in a forensic context. To address these issues, the present study examined recovery based on first-person narratives of offenders formerly labeled as not criminally responsible of whom the judicial measure was abrogated. Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to obtain information on lived experiences and recovery resources of this hard-to-reach and understudied population...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890662/-where-were-your-clothes-eliciting-descriptions-of-clothing-placement-from-children-alleging-sexual-abuse-in-criminal-trials-and-forensic-interviews
#4
Stacia N Stolzenberg, Thomas D Lyon
PURPOSE: The present study examined how children alleging sexual abuse are asked about clothing placement during abusive episodes, both in criminal trials and forensic interviews. The placement of clothing is of great importance, because it facilitates distinguishing abusive touch from non-abusive touch, as well as the severity of abuse when the touching is in fact sexual. If clothing has not been removed, then sexual abuse appears less likely and certain types of sexual contact are physically impossible (or at least highly improbable)...
September 2017: Legal and Criminological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870500/home-closure-as-a-weapon-in-the-dutch-war-on-drugs-does-judicial-review-function-as-a-safety-net
#5
L Michelle Bruijn, Michel Vols, Jan G Brouwer
BACKGROUND: A widespread sense of a failing criminal justice system and increased feelings of insecurity changed the response to crime into a culture of control, which is characterized by policies that punish and exclude. In the Netherlands, these influences can be witnessed in the war on drugs where local authorities use their administrative power to close homes involved in drug-related crime. Citizens can invoke judicial review over these administrative interferences by claiming that such closure results in an unfair balance between purposes, means and consequences...
September 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867405/attitudes-of-chinese-community-members-and-psychiatrists-towards-forensic-psychiatric-assessments
#6
Zhong Shaoling, Wang Jun, Mellsop Graham, Chen Chen, Zhang Simei, Li Qiguang, Wang Qun, Zhou Jiansong, Wang Xiaoping
The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese community members and psychiatrists towards forensic psychiatric assessments. A questionnaire designed to record attitudes toward the current forensic psychiatric assessment procedures and the disposal of mentally ill offenders was developed and distributed via a mobile App. A total of 134 community members and 132 psychiatrists voluntarily completed the questionnaire. Most of responders agreed that the department of public-security has the right to apply for a forensic psychiatric assessment but should not be held solely by that department...
August 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859582/adverse-childhood-experiences-and-the-risk-of-criminal-justice-involvement-and-victimization-among-homeless-adults-with-mental-illness
#7
Hanie Edalati, Tonia L Nicholls, Anne G Crocker, Laurence Roy, Julian M Somers, Michelle L Patterson
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is highly prevalent among homeless individuals and is associated with negative consequences during homelessness. This study examined the effect of ACEs on the risk of criminal justice involvement and victimization among homeless individuals with mental illness. METHODS: The study used baseline data from a demonstration project (At Home/Chez Soi) that provided Housing First and recovery-oriented services to homeless adults with mental illness...
September 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857581/bridging-the-gap-between-conventional-and-standardized-competency-to-stand-trial-cst-assessments-an-examination-of-defendant-answers-to-conventional-cst-questions
#8
Anthony M Tarescavage, Lynn Luna Jones, Tayla T C Lee
Despite research suggesting that use of forensic assessment instruments of competency to stand trial (CST) can improve the integrity of forensic conceptualizations (Rogers & Johansson-Love, 2009), the majority of evaluators do not use these measures in CST evaluations (Nicholson & Norwood, 2000). The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between competency evaluations based on a conventional interview and those conducted with the aid of a standardized forensic assessment instrument. To this end, we utilized an archival sample of 704 criminal defendants (543 males, 161 females) ordered to undergo evaluations of CST...
August 31, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818115/the-use-of-genetic-markers-to-estimate-relationships-between-dogs-in-the-course-of-criminal-investigations
#9
Roberta Ciampolini, Francesca Cecchi, Isabella Spinetti, Anna Rocchi, Filippo Biscarini
OBJECTIVE: Attacks on humans by dogs in a pack, though uncommon, do happen, and result in severe, sometimes fatal, injuries. We describe the role that canine genetic markers played during the investigation of a fatal dog-pack attack involving a 50-year-old male truck driver in a parking lot in Tuscany (Italy). Using canine specific STR genetic markers, the local authorities, in the course of their investigations, reconstructed the genetic relationships between the dogs that caused the deadly aggression and other dogs belonging to the owner of the parking who, at the moment of the aggression, was located in another region of Italy...
August 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770592/a-call-for-differentiated-approaches-to-delivering-hiv-services-to-key-populations
#10
REVIEW
Virginia Macdonald, Annette Verster, Rachel Baggaley
INTRODUCTION: Key populations (KPs) are disproportionally affected by HIV and have low rates of access to HIV testing and treatment services compared to the broader population. WHO promotes the use of differentiated approaches for reaching and recruiting KP into the HIV services continuum. These approaches may help increase access to KPs who are often criminalized or stigmatized. By catering to the specific needs of each KP individual, differentiated approaches may increase service acceptability, quality and coverage, reduce costs and support KP members in leading the HIV response among their communities...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768541/key-populations-and-human-rights-in-the-context-of-hiv-services-rendition-in-ghana
#11
Amos Laar, Debra DeBruin
BACKGROUND: In line with its half century old penal code, Ghana currently criminalizes and penalizes behaviors of some key populations - populations deemed to be at higher risk of acquiring or transmitting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Men who have sex with men (MSM), and sex workers (SWs) fit into this categorization. This paper provides an analysis of how enactment and implementation of rights-limiting laws not only limit rights, but also amplify risk and vulnerability to HIV in key and general populations...
August 2, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734745/why-are-some-people-who-have-received-overdose-education-and-naloxone-reticent-to-call-emergency-medical-services-in-the-event-of-overdose
#12
Stephen Koester, Shane R Mueller, Lisa Raville, Sig Langegger, Ingrid A Binswanger
BACKGROUND: Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) training for persons who inject drugs (PWID) underlines the importance of summoning emergency medical services (EMS). To encourage PWID to do so, Colorado enacted a Good Samaritan law providing limited immunity from prosecution for possession of a controlled substance and/or drug paraphernalia to the overdose victim and the witnesses who in good faith provide emergency assistance. This paper examines the law's influence by describing OEND trained PWIDs' experience reversing overdoses and their decision about calling for EMS support...
October 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704148/-i-was-not-sick-and-i-didn-t-need-to-recover-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-as-a-refuge-from-criminalization
#13
David Frank
BACKGROUND: Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in the United States (U.S.) has been undergoing a shift towards conceptualizing the program as recovery-based treatment. Although recovery is seen by some as a means to restore MMT to its rightful position as a medically-based treatment for addiction, it may not represent the experiences, or meet the needs of people who use drugs (PWUD), many of whom who use the program as a pragmatic means of reducing harms associated with criminalization...
July 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697626/newspaper-articles-related-to-the-not-criminally-responsible-on-account-of-mental-disorder-ncrmd-designation-a-comparative-analysis
#14
Rob Whitley, JiaWei Wang, Victoria Carmichael, Ruth Wellen
OBJECTIVE: The not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) designation remains widely misunderstood by the public. Such misunderstandings may also be reflected in the media. As such, the aim of this study is to conduct a preliminary examination of the tone and content of recent Canadian newspaper articles where NCRMD is a major theme, comparing these to generic articles about mental illness. METHODS: Articles about mental illness were gathered from major Canadian newspapers...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694090/milnacipran-affects-mouse-impulsive-aggressive-and-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-distinct-dose-dependent-manner
#15
Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Yu Ohmura, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are widely used for the treatment for major depressive disorder, but these drugs induce several side effects including increased aggression and impulsivity, which are risk factors for substance abuse, criminal involvement, and suicide. To address this issue, milnacipran (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg), an SNRI and antidepressant, was intraperitoneally administered to mice prior to the 3-choice serial reaction time task, resident-intruder test, and forced swimming test to measure impulsive, aggressive, and depressive-like behaviors, respectively...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682096/social-networks-and-treatment-adherence-among-latino-offenders-with-mental-illness
#16
Jennifer Eno Louden, Sarah M Manchak
Mental health treatment adherence is often required for offenders with mental illness supervised on probation and parole. However, research on offenders with mental illness has largely overlooked cultural and ethnic responsivity factors that may affect adherence to treatment. Latinos are a quickly growing subgroup of offenders whose social networks differ in meaningful ways from European Americans' (e.g., size, composition, centrality of family). Social networks are known to relate to both clinical and criminal justice outcomes for offenders with mental illness, and there are features of nonoffender Latinos' social networks that suggest that findings distilled from work with non-Latino offenders may not apply to them...
July 6, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661292/action-not-rhetoric-needed-to-reverse-the-opioid-overdose-epidemic
#17
Corey Davis, Traci Green, Leo Beletsky
Despite shifts in rhetoric and some positive movement, Americans with the disease of addiction are still often stigmatized, criminalized, and denied access to evidencebased care. Dramatically reducing the number of lives unnecessarily lost to overdose requires an evidence-based, equity-focused, well-funded, and coordinated response. We present in this brief article evidence-based and promising practices for improving and refocusing the response to this simmering public health crisis. Topics covered include improving clinical decision-making, improving access to non-judgmental evidence-based treatment, investing in comprehensive public health approaches to problematic drug use, and changing the way law enforcement actors interact with people who use drugs...
March 2017: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649215/does-watching-a-play-about-the-teenage-brain-affect-attitudes-toward-young-offenders
#18
Robert Blakey
Neuroscience is increasingly used to infer the cognitive capacities of offenders from the activity and volume of different brain regions, with the resultant findings receiving great interest in the public eye. This field experiment tested the effects of public engagement in neuroscience on attitudes toward offenders. Brainstorm is a play about teenage brain development. Either before or after watching this play, 728 participants responded to four questions about the age of criminal responsibility, and the moral responsibility and dangerousness of a hypothetical young or adult offender...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634678/the-iliac-crest-in-forensic-age-estimation-evaluation-of-three-methods-in-pelvis-x-rays
#19
Viola Bartolini, Vilma Pinchi, Barbara Gualco, Stefano Vanin, Giusto Chiaracane, Giovanni D'Elia, Gian-Aristide Norelli, Martina Focardi
Age assessment in children and young adults is a relevant forensic issue. It is requested not only in evaluating criminal responsibility in youths without proper identification documents, often in relation to age thresholds, but also for release of a residency permit, and asylum seekers of minors. The analysis of the Risser sign and the iliac crest ossification process has been proposed as a useful tool for forensic age estimation. We evaluated the applicability of three different age estimation methods on a sample of 497 pelvic radiographs of Italian individuals between 10 and 25 years of age...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630552/decriminalization-and-women-s-access-to-abortion-in-australia
#20
Barbara Baird
This article considers the relationship between the decriminalization of abortion and women's access to abortion services. It focuses on the four Australian jurisdictions which are, with Canada, the only jurisdictions in the world where abortion has been removed from the criminal law. This paper draws on documentary evidence and an oral history project to give a "before and after" account of each jurisdiction. The paper assumes that the meaning and impact of decriminalization must be assessed in each local context...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
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