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Risk Factors for Violence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078788/violence-involvement-among-nightlife-patrons-the-relative-role-of-demographics-and-substance-use
#1
Trond Nordfjaern
The nightlife setting is a risk context for violence involvement that ultimately may cause severe injuries and fatalities. Few studies have examined associations between alcohol and illicit substance use with physical violence involvement among nightlife patrons. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relative role of demographics and substance use characteristics for nightlife violence involvement among Norwegian nightlife patrons. A cross-sectional self-completion survey was conducted outside 12 licensed premises in Oslo (n = 1099, response rate = 76%) and each respondent's BAC level was measured by a breathalyzer and registered on the questionnaire...
January 12, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078529/rethinking-preconception-care-a-critical-women-s-health-perspective
#2
Erika L Thompson, Coralia Vázquez-Otero, Cheryl A Vamos, Stephanie L Marhefka, Nolan S Kline, Ellen M Daley
Objectives Preconception care aims to provide care to reproductive aged individuals in order to improve pregnancy and birth outcomes. Given that preconception care is a public health priority, it is important to evaluate the evolution of this health paradigm and the promotion of preconception messages that are obtained by the public. We identified online preconception health messages, which were critically assessed through a women's health perspective. Methods We searched for "preconception care" on three major search engines...
January 11, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077220/examining-the-impact-of-suicide-attempt-function-and-perceived-effectiveness-in-predicting-reattempt-for-emergency-medicine-patients
#3
Stephen S O'Connor, Katherine Anne Comtois, David C Atkins, Amanda H Kerbrat
While previous studies have examined motivational aspects of self-directed violence, few studies have included specific motivations in predictive models for future suicide attempts. The current study utilized a sample of 160 individuals treated in an acute emergency setting following a suicide attempt who completed an interview battery that included an assessment of functional aspects of the index suicide attempt. A follow-up interview was conducted at 6 months to ascertain subsequent suicide attempts. The functional domains of suicide attempts were labeled as reduction-of-distress, communication, perceived better alternative to living, and self-loathing...
January 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064522/the-impact-of-humanitarian-emergencies-on-the-prevalence-of-violence-against-children-an-evidence-based-ecological-framework
#4
Beth L Rubenstein, Lindsay Stark
Little is known about the patterns and mechanisms by which humanitarian emergencies may exacerbate violence against children. In this article, we propose using the ecological framework to examine the impact of humanitarian emergencies on interpersonal violence against children. We consider the literature that supports this framework and suggest future directions for research to fill identified gaps in the framework. The relationship between humanitarian emergencies and violence against children depends on risk factors at multiple levels, including a breakdown of child protection systems, displacement, threats to livelihoods, changing gender roles, changing household composition, overcrowded living conditions, early marriage, exposure to conflict or other emergency events, and alcohol abuse...
January 9, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055070/modeling-contagion-through-social-networks-to-explain-and-predict-gunshot-violence-in-chicago-2006-to-2014
#5
Ben Green, Thibaut Horel, Andrew V Papachristos
Importance: Every day in the United States, more than 200 people are murdered or assaulted with a firearm. Little research has considered the role of interpersonal ties in the pathways through which gun violence spreads. Objective: To evaluate the extent to which the people who will become subjects of gun violence can be predicted by modeling gun violence as an epidemic that is transmitted between individuals through social interactions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study was an epidemiological analysis of a social network of individuals who were arrested during an 8-year period in Chicago, Illinois, with connections between people who were arrested together for the same offense...
January 3, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052976/reciprocal-physical-intimate-partner-violence-is-associated-with-prevalent-sti-hiv-among-male-tanzanian-migrant-workers-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Alison H Norris, Michele R Decker, Yiska L Weisband, Michelle J Hindin
OBJECTIVES: Physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and STIs, including HIV, are highly prevalent in east Africa. While we have some evidence about women's experience with physical IPV, little is known about men's experience with physical IPV, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to examine, in Tanzanian male migrant plantation residents, the prevalence of, and associations among, experience and enactment of physical IPV and prevalent STI/HIV. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional survey of male plantation residents (n=158) in northern Tanzania were analysed to estimate prevalence of physical IPV experience and enactment...
January 4, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051972/characteristics-classification-and-prevention-of-child-maltreatment-fatalities
#7
James E McCarroll, Joscelyn E Fisher, Stephen J Cozza, Renè J Robichaux, Carol S Fullerton
BACKGROUND: Preventing child maltreatment fatalities is a critical goal of the U.S. society and the military services. Fatality review boards further this goal through the analysis of circumstances of child deaths, making recommendations for improvements in practices and policies, and promoting increased cooperation among the many systems that serve families. The purpose of this article is to review types of child maltreatment death, proposed classification models, risk and protective factors, and prevention strategies...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050406/a-study-of-workplace-violence-experienced-by-doctors-and-associated-risk-factors-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-south-delhi-india
#8
Mukesh Kumar, Madhur Verma, Timiresh Das, Geeta Pardeshi, Jugal Kishore, Arun Padmanandan
INTRODUCTION: The increasing incidences of violence against doctors in their workplaces are an important reason for stress among these healthcare workers. Many incidences of workplace violence against doctors have been reported in the past and are also being continuously reported from different parts of the country as well as the world. AIM: To determine the prevalence of workplace violence among doctors and to study the associated risk factors in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi, India...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045570/preventing-unintended-pregnancy-among-young-sexually-active-women-recognizing-the-role-of-violence-self-esteem-and-depressive-symptoms-on-use-of-contraception
#9
Deborah B Nelson, Huaqing Zhao, Rachel Corrado, Dimitrios M Mastrogiannnis, Stephen J Lepore
OBJECTIVES: Ineffective contraceptive use among young sexually active women is extremely prevalent and poses a significant risk for unintended pregnancy (UP). Ineffective contraception involves the use of the withdrawal method or the inconsistent use of other types of contraception (i.e., condoms and birth control pills). This investigation examined violence exposure and psychological factors related to ineffective contraceptive use among young sexually active women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young, nonpregnant sexually active women (n = 315) were recruited from an urban family planning clinic in 2013 to participate in a longitudinal study...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043996/minority-stress-factors-as-mediators-of-sexual-orientation-disparities-in-mental-health-treatment-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#10
Richard Bränström
BACKGROUND: Substantial mental health disparities between lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals compared with heterosexuals have been identified. The aim was to examine potential sexual orientation-based disparities in mental health treatment in a prospectively analysed population-based sample in Sweden and to explore potential moderators and mediators. METHOD: 30 730 individuals from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort were followed up with questionnaires and registry-based health record data on psychiatric healthcare visits and prescription drug use between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2011...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042897/early-childhood-predictors-of-severe-youth-violence-in-low-income-male-adolescents
#11
Stephanie L Sitnick, Daniel S Shaw, Chelsea M Weaver, Elizabeth C Shelleby, Daniel E Choe, Julia D Reuben, Mary Gilliam, Emily B Winslow, Lindsay Taraban
Using a cohort of 310 low-income male adolescents living in an urban community and followed prospectively from 18 months through adolescence (ages 15-18 years), the current study examined whether individual, family, and community risk factors from ages 18 to 42 months were associated with adolescents' violent behavior, as indexed by juvenile petitions. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that although family income was the only factor to discriminate those with no arrest record from those with nonviolent arrests, rejecting parenting, child oppositional behavior, emotion regulation, and minority status during the toddler period contributed unique variance in distinguishing male adolescents arrested for violent behavior compared to those never arrested and those arrested for nonviolent behavior...
January 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039008/risk-factors-for-severe-complications-of-operative-mandibular-fractures
#12
Brian J Christensen, Donald E Mercante, John P Neary, Brett J King
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to identify the risk factors for major complications developing during the operative treatment of mandibular fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective medical record review of patients who had undergone open reduction, internal fixation of mandibular fractures from August 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014 at a large, urban teaching hospital and level 1 trauma center. The outcome variable of interest was major complications, defined as the occurrence of any one of the following events: hospital readmission, return to the operating room, and a prolonged, unexpected postoperative stay...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032214/perinatal-suicidal-ideation-and-behaviour-psychiatry-and-adversity
#13
Michael Nnachebe Onah, Sally Field, Jason Bantjes, Simone Honikman
Pregnant women are at increased risk for suicidal ideation and behaviours (SIB) compared to the general population. To date, studies have focused on the psychiatric correlates of SIB with lesser attention given to the associated contextual risk factors, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the prevalence and associated psychiatric and socio-economic contextual factors for SIB among pregnant women living in low resource communities in South Africa. Three hundred seventy-six pregnant women were evaluated using a range of tools to collect data on socio-economic and demographic factors, social support, life events, interpersonal violence and mental health diagnoses...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027464/risk-factors-for-child-maltreatment-in-an-australian-population-based-birth-cohort
#14
James C Doidge, Daryl J Higgins, Paul Delfabbro, Leonie Segal
Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood...
December 25, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017895/mobbing-among-care-workers-in-nursing-homes-a-cross-sectional-secondary-analysis-of-the-swiss-nursing-homes-human-resources-project
#15
Myriam Tong, René Schwendimann, Franziska Zúñiga
BACKGROUND: As a category of bullying, mobbing is a form of violence in the workplace that damages the employing organization as well as the targeted employee. In Europe, the overall prevalence of mobbing in healthcare is estimated at 4%. However, few studies have explored mobbing among long-term care workers. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the frequency of mobbing in Swiss nursing homes and its relationships with care workers' (i.e. registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, assistant nurse, nurse aide) health status, job satisfaction, and intention to leave, and to explore the work environment as a contributing factor to mobbing...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005228/patterns-of-dating-violence-victimization-and-perpetration-among-latino-youth
#16
H Luz McNaughton Reyes, Vangie A Foshee, May S Chen, Susan T Ennett
Theory and research suggest that there may be significant heterogeneity in the development, manifestation, and consequences of adolescent dating violence that is not yet well understood. The current study contributed to our understanding of this heterogeneity by identifying distinct patterns of involvement in psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence victimization and perpetration in a sample of Latino youth (n = 201; M = 13.87 years; 42% male), a group that is understudied, growing, and at high risk for involvement in dating violence...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996984/-consensus-document-a-model-of-integrated-management-of-patients-with-psycomotor-agitation
#17
(no author information available yet)
Psychomotor agitation (PMA) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome associated with a widenumber of pathological conditions. The currently available recommendations and guidelines on PMA correct assessment and management are significantly dishomogeneous and suffer from a lack of standardization, especially regarding pharmacological interventions. Based on this deficiency, and on multidisciplinary nature of PMA, that includes factors shared by different health professionals other than pharmacoeconomic and risk management aspects, we started a project aimed to elaborate a shared model of integrated management for PMA patients...
November 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995833/risk-and-protective-factors-for-comorbid-internalizing-and-externalizing-problems-among-economically-disadvantaged-african-american-youth
#18
Jingwen Liu, Brian Mustanski, Danielle Dick, John Bolland, Darlene A Kertes
Comorbidity of internalizing and externalizing problems and its risk and protective factors have not been well incorporated into developmental research, especially among racial minority youth from high-poverty neighborhoods. The present study identified a latent comorbid factor as well as specific factors underlying internalizing and externalizing problems among 592 African American adolescents living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods (291 male; M age = 15.9 years, SD = 1.43 years). Stressful life events and racial discrimination were associated with higher comorbid problems, whereas stressful life events and exposure to violence were associated with higher specific externalizing problems...
December 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995627/exposure-to-violence-a-risk-for-suicide-in-youths-and-young-adults-a-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#19
P Castellví, A Miranda-Mendizábal, O Parés-Badell, J Almenara, I Alonso, M J Blasco, A Cebrià, A Gabilondo, M Gili, C Lagares, J A Piqueras, M Roca, J Rodríguez-Marín, T Rodríguez-Jimenez, V Soto-Sanz, J Alonso
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association and magnitude of the effect of early exposure to different types of interpersonal violence (IPV) with suicide attempt and suicide death in youths and young adults. METHOD: We searched six databases until June 2015. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) assessment of any type of IPV as risk factor of suicide attempt or suicide: (i) child maltreatment [childhood physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect], (ii) bullying, (iii) dating violence, and (iv) community violence; (2) population-based case-control or cohort studies; and (3) subjects aged 12-26 years...
December 20, 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992583/labour-trafficking-among-men-and-boys-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion-exploitation-violence-occupational-health-risks-and-injuries
#20
Nicola S Pocock, Ligia Kiss, Sian Oram, Cathy Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Men comprise nearly two-thirds of trafficked and forced labourers in common low-skilled labour sectors including fishing, agriculture and factory work. Yet, most evidence on human trafficking has focused on women and girls trafficked for sex work, with scant research on trafficked men and boys. METHODS: We analyse survey data from the largest systematic consecutive sample of trafficked people collected to date to describe the prevalence of violence, occupational health risks and injuries and associated factors...
2016: PloS One
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