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Risk Factors for Violence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813322/anger-and-aggression-in-ptsd
#1
REVIEW
Casey T Taft, Suzannah K Creech, Christopher M Murphy
Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder have massive negative consequences; associated anger and aggression are particularly damaging. This overview focuses on these relationships and their potential mechanisms, and offers treatment considerations. Research and theory suggests that trauma impacts anger and aggression through social information processing mechanisms, and an aggression model incorporating impelling, instigating, and disinhibiting factors helps us understand who is at risk under specific circumstances...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813309/theory-driven-models-of-self-directed-violence-among-individuals-with-ptsd
#2
REVIEW
Craig J Bryan, Jeremy L Grove, Nathan A Kimbrel
PTSD is a well-established risk factor for the full range of self-directed violence (SDV). It is also one of the few psychological conditions that distinguish those who think about suicide from those who attempt suicide. Despite considerable evidence supporting these points, very little is understood about the mechanisms by which PTSD increases the risk for SDV at the present time. This knowledge gap is largely due to the absence of research driven by empirically-supported models of suicide. More recently, this knowledge gap has been slowly filled by a growing number of studies informed by two particular conceptual models: the fluid vulnerability theory and the interpersonal psychological theory...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810943/language-barrier-as-a-risk-factor-for-injuries-from-patient-violence-among-direct-care-workers-in-home-settings-findings-from-a-u-s-national-sample
#3
Ha Do Byon, Shijun Zhu, George Unick, Carla Storr, Jane Lipscomb
This study explored potential risk factors for injuries from patient violence among direct care workers in U.S. homes (DCWHs). A national probability sample of 3,377 DCWHs including home health and personal care aides was analyzed using complex sample analysis and generalized estimating equation. Injury from violence was defined as a workrelated injury sustained by aggression, violence, or abuse that was reported to the agency, required medical attention or resulted in absenteeism from work. An association between suffering an injury from patient violence and having a language barrier with patients was noted (OR = 4...
August 15, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810838/violence-and-depression-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-tanzania
#4
Lucy R Mgopa, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Pedro Pallangyo
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be at an increased risk of Violence, HIV transmission and Mental Disorders such as depression on top of many other bio-psycho-socio challenges they face as a result of their sexual orientation. METHODS: We recruited 345 MSM using a respondent driven sampling technique. Revised Conflict Tactic Scale, PHQ-9 and questions adapted from the TDHS 2010 were used to assess for violence, depression and HIV-risk behaviors respectively...
August 15, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805413/suicide-among-american-indian-alaska-native-military-service-members-and-veterans
#5
Victoria M O'Keefe, Greg M Reger
Many American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities experience high suicide rates. However, there is little discussion in epidemiological and empirical literature about suicide-related outcomes among AI/AN military service members or veterans. This article briefly reviews the literature on AI/AN suicide and discusses what is known about Native military service member and veteran suicide mortality and self-directed violence. Recent studies suggest high suicide death rates among AI/AN military service members and veterans...
August 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805121/canaries-in-the-coal-mine-interpersonal-violence-gang-violence-and-violent-extremism-through-a-public-health-prevention-lens
#6
David P Eisenman, Louise Flavahan
This paper asks what programmes and policies for preventing violent extremism (also called 'countering violent extremism', or CVE) can learn from the public health violence prevention field. The general answer is that addressing violent extremism within the wider domain of public health violence prevention connects the effort to a relevant field of research, evidence-based policy and programming, and a broader population reach. This answer is reached by examining conceptual alignments between the two fields at both the case-level and the theoretical level...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802211/research-priority-setting-for-integrated-early-child-development-and-violence-prevention-ecd-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-expert-opinion-exercise
#7
Mark Tomlinson, Mark Jordans, Harriet MacMillan, Theresa Betancourt, Xanthe Hunt, Christopher Mikton
Child development in low and middle income countries (LMIC) is compromised by multiple risk factors. Reducing children's exposure to harmful events is essential for early childhood development (ECD). In particular, preventing violence against children - a highly prevalent risk factor that negatively affects optimal child development - should be an intervention priority. We used the Child Health and Nutrition Initiative (CHNRI) method for the setting of research priorities in integrated Early Childhood Development and violence prevention programs (ECD+)...
August 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791542/etiology-of-teen-dating-violence-among-adolescent-children-of-alcoholics
#8
Jennifer A Livingston, Rina D Eiden, Jared Lessard, Meghan Casey, James Henrie, Kenneth E Leonard
Family processes in early life have been implicated in adolescent involvement in teen dating violence, yet the developmental pathways through which this occurs are not well understood. In this study, etiological pathways from parental psychopathology and marital conflict in infancy to involvement in dating violence in late adolescence were examined in a sample of children at high-risk due to parental alcohol problems. Families (N = 227) recruited when the child was 12 months of age were assessed at 12-, 24-, 36-months, kindergarten, 6th, 8th, and 12th grades...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776238/danger-ahead-the-burden-of-diseases-injuries-and-risk-factors-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-1990-2015
#9
Ali H Mokdad
OBJECTIVES: The Eastern Mediterranean Region faces several health challenges at a difficult time with wars, unrest, and economic change. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study to present the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in the Eastern Mediterranean Region from 1990 to 2015. RESULTS: Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of death in the region in 2015, followed by cerebrovascular disease. Changes in total deaths ranged from a reduction of 25% for diarrheal diseases to an increase of about 42% for diabetes and tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767730/community-context-and-sub-neighborhood-scale-detail-to-explain-dengue-chikungunya-and-zika-patterns-in-cali-colombia
#10
Amy R Krystosik, Andrew Curtis, Paola Buritica, Jayakrishnan Ajayakumar, Robert Squires, Diana Dávalos, Robinson Pacheco, Madhav P Bhatta, Mark A James
BACKGROUND: Cali, Colombia has experienced chikungunya and Zika outbreaks and hypoendemic dengue. Studies have explained Cali's dengue patterns but lack the sub-neighborhood-scale detail investigated here. METHODS: Spatial-video geonarratives (SVG) with Ministry of Health officials and Community Health Workers were collected in hotspots, providing perspective on perceptions of why dengue, chikungunya and Zika hotspots exist, impediments to control, and social outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766318/teen-dating-violence-victimization-among-high-school-students-a-multilevel-analysis-of-school-level-risk-factors
#11
Elizabeth M Parker, Sarah Lindstrom Johnson, Katrina J Debnam, Adam J Milam, Catherine P Bradshaw
BACKGROUND: Much etiologic research has focused on individual-level risk factors for teen dating violence (TDV); therefore, less is known about school-level and neighborhood-level risk factors. We examined the association between alcohol outlet density around high schools and TDV victimization and the association between markers of physical disorder around schools and TDV victimization among adolescents. METHODS: Data come from high school students participating in the Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Initiative...
September 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766314/sex-differences-in-contraception-non-use-among-urban-adolescents-risk-factors-for-unintended-pregnancy
#12
Allison R Casola, Deborah B Nelson, Freda Patterson
BACKGROUND: Contraception non-use among sexually active adolescents is a major cause of unintended pregnancy (UP). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we sought to identify overall and sex-specific correlates of contraception non-use using the 2015 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) (N = 9540). Multivariate regression models were used to examine mental health, sexual activity, substance use, and violence indicators on reported contraception non-use among sexually active youth...
September 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764681/a-brief-trauma-informed-intervention-increases-safety-behavior-and-reduces-hiv-risk-for-drug-involved-women-who-trade-sex
#13
Michele R Decker, Catherine Tomko, Erin Wingo, Anne Sawyer, Sarah Peitzmeier, Nancy Glass, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) are an important population for HIV acquisition and transmission. Their risks are shaped by behavioral, sexual network, and structural level factors. Violence is pervasive and associated with HIV risk behavior and infection, yet interventions to address the dual epidemics of violence and HIV among FSWs are limited. METHODS: We used participatory methods to develop a brief, trauma-informed intervention, INSPIRE (Integrating Safety Promotion with HIV Risk Reduction), to improve safety and reduce HIV risk for FSWs...
August 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764678/the-specific-and-combined-role-of-domestic-violence-and-mental-health-disorders-during-pregnancy-on-new-born-health
#14
Alexandre Archanjo Ferraro, Luis Augusto Rohde, Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk, Adriana Argeu, Euripides Constantino Miguel, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero Grisi, Bacy Fleitlich-Bilyk
BACKGROUND: Addressing impaired foetal growth is recognized as a public health priority. Certain risk factors for this condition, such as poor nutritional status at birth, have been found to be highly correlated with poverty. However, the role of psychosocial factors, specifically the mother's mental health and exposure to violence during pregnancy, have yet to be further explored. Our objective was to determine if there is a measurable association between combined psychosocial factors, specifically domestic violence and mental disorders, and birth outcomes, specifically birth nutritional status and preterm delivery...
August 1, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763786/child-maltreatment-in-nepal-prevalence-and-associated-factors
#15
P Kandel, R Kunwar, S Karki, D Kandel, P Lamichhane
OBJECTIVES: Child maltreatment is a global public health problem. There is limited information about this problem in low-income countries. We aimed to document the prevalence and factors associated with physical punishment of children less than 14 years of age in Nepal. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: We conducted an in-depth analysis using data from the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, a nationally representative multi-stage-stratified cluster sampling survey...
July 29, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758354/an-examination-of-correlates-for-adolescent-engagement-in-nonsuicidal-self-injury-suicidal-self-injury-and-substance-use
#16
Janell A Klassen, Chloe A Hamza, Shannon L Stewart
Little research has examined potential risk factors for direct versus indirect self-injury among adolescents. To address this limitation, 541 clinically referred adolescents were assessed using the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health Assessment. Logistic regression analyses revealed that older females who experienced heightened depressive symptoms and neighborhood violence were at increased risk for direct self-injury, specifically nonsuicidal and suicidal self-injury. Additionally, adolescents who experienced higher levels of caregiver distress were at greater risk of suicidal self-injury...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754340/-is-there-any-relation-between-couple-violence-and-repeated-medical-abortion
#17
A Pinton, A-C Hanser, M-A Metten, I Nisand, K Bettahar
OBJECTIVES: Risk factors of repeated induced abortion remain unclear. One of them could be domestic violence. The aim of this study was to explore the association between repeated induced abortion and domestic violence, including violence during childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in three hospitals in Alsace. All women between 18 and 50 years old were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire during their hospitalization for induced abortion between 31th of November 2013 and 1st of December 2014...
July 25, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752354/acceptability-of-daily-use-of-free-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-transgender-women-sex-workers-in-shenyang-china
#18
Zixin Wang, Joseph T F Lau, Xueying Yang, Yong Cai, Danielle L Gross, Tiecheng Ma, Yan Liu
This study investigated the acceptability of daily use of free oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and associated factors among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China, following a briefing on PrEP. A total of 183 HIV negative or sero-status unknown participants completed the cross-sectional survey. The prevalence of acceptability of daily use of free oral PrEP was 61.2%. Adjusting for education level and monthly income, variables on negative attitudes toward PrEP (i.e., having concerns about the side-effects of PrEP) [Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 0...
July 27, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751532/attempted-suicide-among-adolescents-in-mexico-prevalence-and-associated-factors-at-the-national-level
#19
Rosario Valdez-Santiago, Elisa Hidalgo Solórzano, Mariana Mojarro Iñiguez, Leticia Ávila Burgos, Hugo Gómez Hernández, Ángela Martínez González
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of attempted suicide (AS) in a sample of Mexican adolescents between 10 and 19 years of age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012 by its initials in Spanish). Based on multi-stage stratified probability sampling, ENSANUT 2012 canvassed 50 528 households including 21 519 adolescents. A logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with AS...
July 27, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743067/-we-must-cooperate-with-one-another-against-the-enemy-agency-and-activism-in-school-aged-children-as-protective-factors-against-ongoing-war-trauma-and-political-violence-in-the-gaza-strip
#20
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Alaa Jaradah, Feda Murannak, Housam Hamdouna
This exploratory qualitative study investigated self-perceived risk and protection factors that may reinforce the ability of children living in refugee camps on the Gaza Strip to adjust to a traumatic and risky life context characterized by loss and dispossession. The sample comprised 200 Palestinian children recruited at primary schools in four refugee camps in the Gaza Strip following the Israeli military operation "Pillar of Defence" in 2012. Thematic content analysis was applied to written materials and narratives produced by the children...
July 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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