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Risk Factors for Violence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149538/psychologic-intimate-partner-violence-and-the-risk-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-rio-de-janeiro
#1
Gustavo Lobato, Michael E Reichenheim, Claudia L Moraes, Fernando M Peixoto-Filho, Lívia S Migowski
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether psychologic intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a risk factor for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: The cross-sectional study enrolled 810 randomly selected mothers of infants younger than 5 months attending basic health services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to July 2007. Psychologic and physical IPV were evaluated by the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; IUGR was defined as below the 10th percentile of the Alexander curve...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147043/postpartum-depression-in-india-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Ravi Prakash Upadhyay, Ranadip Chowdhury, Aslyeh Salehi, Kaushik Sarkar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Bireshwar Sinha, Aditya Pawar, Aarya Krishnan Rajalakshmi, Amardeep Kumar
Objective: To provide an estimate of the burden of postpartum depression in Indian mothers and investigate some risk factors for the condition. Methods: We searched PubMed®, Google Scholar and Embase® databases for articles published from year 2000 up to 31 March 2016 on the prevalence of postpartum depression in Indian mothers. The search used subject headings and keywords with no language restrictions. Quality was assessed via the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale...
October 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143627/conceptualizing-pathways-linking-women-s-empowerment-and-prematurity-in-developing-countries
#3
Patience A Afulani, Molly Altman, Joseph Musana, May Sudhinaraset
BACKGROUND: Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140584/the-association-between-female-genital-fistula-symptoms-and-gender-based-violence-a-multi-country-secondary-analysis-of-household-survey-data
#4
Lindsay Mallick, Vandana Tripathi
OBJECTIVE: The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), which include standardized questions on female genital fistula symptoms, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the epidemiology of fistula. This study sought to examine associations between self-reported fistula symptoms and experience of gender-based violence (GBV) among women interviewed in DHS surveys. METHODS: This study used data from thirteen DHS surveys with standardized fistula and domestic violence modules...
November 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140526/risk-and-protective-factors-for-family-violence-among-low-income-fathers-implications-for-violence-prevention-and-fatherhood-programs
#5
R Anna Hayward, Laura Honegger, Amy Cristina Hammock
Over the last decade there has been an increased focus on improving father engagement to improve child and family outcomes. Recent research suggests that child and family outcomes improve with increased fatherhood engagement. This exploratory study examined risk and protective factors associated with approval of family violence among a sample of low-income fathers (N = 686) enrolled in a responsible fatherhood program. The program goals include increasing father involvement and economic stability and encouraging healthy relationships-with a focus on preventing intimate partner violence...
November 13, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132284/love-matters-exploring-conceptions-of-love-in-rwanda-and-swaziland-and-relationship-to-hiv-and-intimate-partner-violence
#6
Allison Ruark, Erin Stern, Thandeka Dlamini-Simelane, Marie Fidele Kakuze
Health risks such as intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV infection often occur within intimate sexual relationships, yet the study of love and intimacy is largely absent from health research on African populations. This study explores how women and men in Rwanda and Swaziland understand and represent love in their intimate sexual partnerships. In Rwanda, 58 in-depth interviews with 15 couples, 12 interviews with activists, and 24 focus group discussions were carried out during formative and evaluative research of the Indashyikirwa programme, which aims to reduce IPV and support healthy couple relationships...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132281/constrained-relationship-agency-as-the-risk-factor-for-intimate-partner-violence-in-different-models-of-transactional-sex
#7
Rebecca Fielding-Miller, Kristin Dunkle
Women who engage in transactional sex are more likely to experience intimate partner violence (IPV) and are at higher risk of HIV. However, women engage in transactional sex for a variety of reasons and the precise mechanism linking transactional sex and IPV is not fully understood. We conducted a behavioural survey with a cross-sectional sample of 401 women attending 1 rural and 1 urban public antenatal clinic in Swaziland between February and June 2014. We used structural equation modelling to identify and measure constrained relationship agency (CRA) as a latent variable, and then tested the hypothesis that CRA plays a significant role in the pathway between IPV and transactional sex...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130548/reliability-and-validity-of-the-arabic-ptsd-checklist-civilian-version-pcl-c-in-women-survivors-of-intimate-partner-violence
#8
Eman Alhalal, Marilyn Ford-Gilboe, Carol Wong, Fadia AlBuhairan
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors are at high risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), PTSD has been considered a disorder specific to Western culture. There is a lack of reliable and valid measures of PTSD symptomology available in the Arab world, and there is still no clear evidence about the underlying factor structure of PTSD symptomology in the context of IPV. Thus, in the present study we investigated the construct validity (factor structure), internal consistency, and concurrent validity of a translated version of the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C) in a sample of 299 Saudi women who had experienced IPV...
November 11, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130114/workplace-bullying-and-violence-as-risk-factors-for-type-2-diabetes-a-multicohort-study-and-meta-analysis
#9
Tianwei Xu, Linda L Magnusson Hanson, Theis Lange, Liis Starkopf, Hugo Westerlund, Ida E H Madsen, Reiner Rugulies, Jaana Pentti, Sari Stenholm, Jussi Vahtera, Åse M Hansen, Mika Kivimäki, Naja H Rod
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this multicohort study was to examine whether employees exposed to social stressors at work, such as workplace bullying and violence, have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The study included 45,905 men and women (40-65 years of age and free of diabetes at baseline) from four studies in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. Workplace bullying and violence were self-reported at baseline. Incident diabetes was ascertained through national health and medication records and death registers...
November 13, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111920/unwanted-pregnancy-pregnancy-loss-and-other-risk-factors-for-intimate-partner-violence-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#10
Fentanesh Nibret Tiruneh, Kun-Yang Chuang, Peter A M Ntenda, Ying-Chih Chuang
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has one of the highest rates of violence against women in the world; however, few studies have focused on this issue. In this study, we assessed the interrelationship among intimate partner violence (IPV), unintended pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and other sociodemographic factors in the DRC. Our analyses were based on data from the DRC Demographic and Health Survey, conducted from November 2013 to February 2014. We constructed generalized estimating equation models to analyze the data from a sample of 5,120 married women...
November 7, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111227/african-american-males-in-chicago-pathways-from-early-childhood-intervention-to-reduced-violence
#11
Alison Giovanelli, Momoko Hayakawa, Michelle M Englund, Arthur J Reynolds
PURPOSE: Extreme youth violence is a salient public health crisis in Chicago, particularly among African-American males. This article examines mechanisms through which a preschool intervention program, the Child-Parent Center program, in inner-city Chicago may divert high-risk males from pathways leading to violent criminal behavior. METHODS: We conducted a path analysis from early environmental factors to socioemotional competencies through parent involvement and achievement to violent arrest in emerging adulthood...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104551/how-individual-and-contextual-factors-affects-antisocial-and-delinquent-behaviors-a-comparison-between-young-offenders-adolescents-at-risk-of-social-exclusion-and-a-community-sample
#12
Silvia Duran-Bonavila, Andreu Vigil-Colet, Sandra Cosi, Fabia Morales-Vives
The problems associated with violence during adolescence have been on the rise in recent decades. Many studies have focused only on environmental causes or individual causes of violence, although a combination of both variables would seem to be the best option for prediction. The current study aims to assess the relevance of individual characteristics (personality traits, intelligence, and historical and clinical factors linked to the risk of violence), contextual risk factors and protective factors in explaining antisocial and delinquent behaviors in adolescence by comparing three different samples: a community sample, a sample at risk of social exclusion, and a sample of juvenile offenders...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102869/temperamental-sensitivity-to-early-maltreatment-and-later-family-cohesion-for-externalizing-behaviors-in-youth-adopted-from-foster-care
#13
Irene Tung, Amanda N Noroña, Steve S Lee, Audra K Langley, Jill M Waterman
Children in foster care frequently have histories of physical/sexual abuse and neglect, increasing their risk for externalizing behaviors (EB; e.g., aggression). According to the differential susceptibility theory, children with reactive temperaments (e.g., negative emotionality) may be particularly vulnerable to early maltreatment, but may also benefit the most from environmental enrichment such as family cohesion. In a high-risk longitudinal sample of 82 children adopted from foster care in Los Angeles County from 1996 and 2001, we examined predictions of EB from childhood to adolescence/young adulthood from temperament, preadoption maltreatment, and adoptive family cohesion...
November 2, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100202/the-support-control-continuum-an-investigation-of-staff-perspectives-on-factors-influencing-the-success-or-failure-of-de-escalation-techniques-for-the-management-of-violence-and-aggression-in-mental-health-settings
#14
Owen Price, John Baker, Penny Bee, Karina Lovell
BACKGROUND: De-escalation techniques are recommended to manage violence and aggression in mental health settings yet restrictive practices continue to be frequently used. Barriers and enablers to the implementation and effectiveness of de-escalation techniques in practice are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To obtain staff descriptions of de-escalation techniques currently used in mental health settings and explore factors perceived to influence their implementation and effectiveness...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096691/problematic-khat-use-as-a-possible-risk-factor-for-harmful-use-of-other-psychoactive-substances-a-mixed-method-study-in-ethiopia
#15
Awoke Mihretu, Solomon Teferra, Abebaw Fekadu
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders along with neuropsychiatric disorders contributed about 14% of the global burden of disease. Harmful alcohol use, is a known contributor for many harms (accidents, suicide, violence, and complication of other psychiatric and medical disorders). In the Western countries, alcohol and nicotine are gateway drugs to cannabis use, and cannabis use is a risk factor for other illicit drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Khat use is another psychoactive substance which is common in East African and Arabian Peninsula...
November 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093828/exposure-to-violence-and-mental-health-of-adolescents-south-african-health-and-well-being-study
#16
Stephen A Stansfeld, Catherine Rothon, Jayati Das-Munshi, Cathy Mathews, Arlene Adams, Charlotte Clark, Crick Lund
Background: Material and social environmental stressors affect mental health in adolescence. Protective factors such as social support from family and friends may help to buffer the effects of adversity. Aims: The association of violence exposure and emotional disorders was examined in Cape Town adolescents. Method: A total of 1034 Grade 8 high school students participated from seven government co-educational schools in Cape Town, South Africa...
September 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093050/screen-violence-and-youth-behavior
#17
REVIEW
Craig A Anderson, Brad J Bushman, Bruce D Bartholow, Joanne Cantor, Dimitri Christakis, Sarah M Coyne, Edward Donnerstein, Jeanne Funk Brockmyer, Douglas A Gentile, C Shawn Green, Rowell Huesmann, Tom Hummer, Barbara Krahé, Victor C Strasburger, Wayne Warburton, Barbara J Wilson, Michele Ybarra
Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous meta-analyses and other relevant research from the past 60 years, with an emphasis on violent video game research. Consistent with every major science organization review, the Workgroup found compelling evidence of short-term harmful effects, as well as evidence of long-term harmful effects...
November 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090392/perceived-risk-of-intimate-partner-violence-among-sti-clinic-patients-implications-for-partner-notification-and-patient-delivered-partner-therapy
#18
Steven A John, Jennifer L Walsh, Young Ik Cho, Lance S Weinhardt
Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) is the practice of providing patients diagnosed with a bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) medication to give directly to their partner for treatment without requiring the partner to participate in diagnostic testing and counseling. Despite a growing body of evidence in support of PDPT, literature is limited to date on the influence of perceived risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) on PDPT use. We analyzed mixed-method data from 196 quantitative surveys (61% male, M age = 31...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089165/a-case-of-intrauterine-lethal-fetal-injury-after-attempted-suicide-of-the-mother
#19
Lucia Tattoli, Giancarlo Di Vella, Biagio Solarino
Traumatic injuries in pregnancy such as abdominal trauma, pelvic fractures and penetrating trauma are major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The most common causes of trauma during pregnancy are motor vehicle accidents, falls, assaults, gunshots, and burns. Pregnancy itself has been identified as a risk factor for trauma, together with a younger age, drug use, alcohol use, and domestic violence. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman, 34 weeks pregnant, who attempted suicide by jumping from a flyover, immediately after a probably deliberate traffic collision with the guardrail...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089007/treated-mental-illness-and-the-risk-of-child-abuse-perpetration
#20
Susan Hatters Friedman, Miranda V McEwan
OBJECTIVE: Despite a limited empirical literature, parental mental illness is often cited as a major risk factor for violence against children. However, mental illness that is adequately treated would not be expected to lead to increased violence risk. This study compared incidents of violence toward children perpetrated by parents who were newly discharged from inpatient psychiatric treatment with violence perpetrated by other parents in the same communities to determine whether parents with treated mental illness had an elevated risk of child abuse perpetration...
November 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
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