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Pin build-up

Ji Hoon Jeon, Ho-Young Joo, Young-Min Kim, Duk Hyun Lee, Jin-Soo Kim, Yeon Soo Kim, Taekjib Choi, Bae Ho Park
Highly nonlinear bistable current-voltage (I-V) characteristics are necessary in order to realize high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices that are compatible with cross-point stack structures. Up to now, such I-V characteristics have been achieved by introducing complex device structures consisting of selection elements (selectors) and memory elements which are connected in series. In this study, we report bipolar resistive switching (RS) behaviours of nano-crystalline BiFeO3 (BFO) nano-islands grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates, with large ON/OFF ratio of 4,420...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ja-Bin Lee, Gwang-Guk An, Seung-Mo Yang, Hae-Soo Park, Woo-Seong Chung, Jin-Pyo Hong
Perpendicularly magnetized tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) that contain synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) frames show promise as reliable building blocks to meet the demands of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA)-based spintronic devices. In particular, Co/Pd multilayer-based SAFs have been widely employed due to their outstanding PMA features. However, the widespread utilization of Co/Pd multilayer SAFs coupled with an adjacent CoFeB reference layer (RL) is still a challenge due to the structural discontinuity or intermixing that occurs during high temperature annealing...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dimitry V Gruznev, Leonid V Bondarenko, Andrey V Matetskiy, Alexey N Mihalyuk, Alexandra Y Tupchaya, Oleg A Utas, Sergey V Eremeev, Cheng-Rong Hsing, Jyh-Pin Chou, Ching-Ming Wei, Andrey V Zotov, Alexander A Saranin
Crystalline atomic layers on solid surfaces are composed of a single building block, unit cell, that is copied and stacked together to form the entire two-dimensional crystal structure. However, it appears that this is not an unique possibility. We report here on synthesis and characterization of the one-atomic-layer-thick Tl(x)Bi(1-x) compounds which display quite a different arrangement. It represents a quasi-periodic tiling structures that are built by a set of tiling elements as building blocks. Though the layer is lacking strict periodicity, it shows up as an ideally-packed tiling of basic elements without any skips or halting...
2016: Scientific Reports
A Crivoi, X Zhong, Fei Duan
The coffee-ring effect for particle deposition near the three-phase line after drying a pinned sessile colloidal droplet has been suppressed or attenuated in many recent studies. However, there have been few attempts to simulate the mitigation of the effect in the presence of strong particle-particle attraction forces. We develop a three-dimensional stochastic model to investigate the drying process of a pinned colloidal sessile droplet by considering the sticking between particles, which was observed in the experiments...
September 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
I Emam, M Hosini
PURPOSE: Micro-MLCs minimizes beam scalloping effects caused by conventional-MLCs and facilitates conformal dynamic treatment delivery. But their effect on dosimetric parameters require careful investigations. Physical and dosimetric parameters and Linac mechanical stability with mMLC (net weight 30 Kg) attached to the gantry are to be investigated. Moreover, output study along with recommended jaws offsets are studied. Adaptation of an mMLC to our 16-years old conventional Linac is investigated in this work METHODS: BrainLab mMLC (m3) mounted in a detachable chassis to the Philips SL-15 Linac (30kg)...
June 2015: Medical Physics
William B Borden, Yen-Pin Chiang, Richard Kronick
A substantial gap exists between medical evidence that is known and medical evidence that is put into practice. Although the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has a long history of developing the content of evidence, the agency now pivots to close that gap by focusing on evidence dissemination and implementation. Achieving better health outcomes requires both the generation of new patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) knowledge and the appropriate and timely implementation of that knowledge into practice...
June 2015: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
A Kabán, J Bootkrajang, R J Durrant
Estimations of distribution algorithms (EDAs) are a major branch of evolutionary algorithms (EA) with some unique advantages in principle. They are able to take advantage of correlation structure to drive the search more efficiently, and they are able to provide insights about the structure of the search space. However, model building in high dimensions is extremely challenging, and as a result existing EDAs may become less attractive in large-scale problems because of the associated large computational requirements...
2016: Evolutionary Computation
Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong, Shih-Pin Lin, M Susan Mandell, Mei-Yung Tsou, Yin Chang, Chien-Kun Ting
Epidural anesthesia is a common anesthesia method yet up to 10% of procedures fail to provide adequate analgesia. This is usually due to misinterpreting the tactile information derived from the advancing needle through the complex tissue planes. Incorrect placement also can cause dural puncture and neural injury. We developed an optic system capable of reliably identifying tissue planes surrounding the epidural space. However the new technology was too large and cumbersome for practical clinical use. We present a miniaturized version of our optic system using chip technology (first generation CMOS-based system) for logic functions...
2014: PloS One
Shiladitya Banerjee, Rastko Sknepnek, M Cristina Marchetti
We investigate a continuum mechanical model for an adherent cell on two dimensional adhesive micropatterned substrates. The cell is modeled as an isotropic and homogeneous elastic material subject to uniform internal contractile stresses. The build-up of tension from cortical actin bundles at the cell periphery is incorporated by introducing an energy cost for bending the cell boundary, resulting in a resistance to changes in the local curvature. Integrin-based adhesions are modeled as harmonic springs that pin the cell to adhesive patches of a predefined geometry...
April 14, 2014: Soft Matter
Peter Marhavý, Marleen Vanstraelen, Bert De Rybel, Ding Zhaojun, Malcolm J Bennett, Tom Beeckman, Eva Benková
Lateral root (LR) formation is initiated when pericycle cells accumulate auxin, thereby acquiring founder cell (FC) status and triggering asymmetric cell divisions, giving rise to a new primordium. How this auxin maximum in pericycle cells builds up and remains focused is not understood. We report that the endodermis plays an active role in the regulation of auxin accumulation and is instructive for FCs to progress during the LR initiation (LRI) phase. We describe the functional importance of a PIN3 (PIN-formed) auxin efflux carrier-dependent hormone reflux pathway between overlaying endodermal and pericycle FCs...
January 9, 2013: EMBO Journal
P A Brunton, M O Sharif, S Creanor, F J T Burke, N H F Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To investigate, by postal questionnaire, various aspects of primary dental care provision in the United Kingdom. Additionally, to compare the results of this survey with a similar survey completed four years previously. METHODS: A questionnaire containing 89 questions was sent to 1,000 general dental practitioners selected at random from databases of practitioners throughout the United Kingdom. Non-responders were sent another questionnaire after a period of four weeks had elapsed...
February 2012: British Dental Journal
Guo-hui Chang, Bao-Jun Luo, Pin Lu, Lei Lin, Xiao-yan Wu, Jing Li, Yi Hu, Qing-yu Zhu
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are generally associated with respiratory and enteric infections and have long been recognized as important pathogens of livestock and companion animals. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a widely studied model system for Coronavirus replication and pathogenesis. In this study, we created a MHV-A59 temperature sensitive (ts) mutant Wu"-ts18(cd) using the recombinant vaccinia reverse genetics system. Virus replication assay in 17C1-1 cells showed the plaque phenotype and replication characterization of constructed Wu"-ts18(cd) were indistinguishable from the reported ts mutant Wu"-ts18...
February 2011: Virologica Sinica
Lidiya Mishchenko, Benjamin Hatton, Vaibhav Bahadur, J Ashley Taylor, Tom Krupenkin, Joanna Aizenberg
Materials that control ice accumulation are important to aircraft efficiency, highway and powerline maintenance, and building construction. Most current deicing systems include either physical or chemical removal of ice, both energy and resource-intensive. A more desirable approach would be to prevent ice formation rather than to fight its build-up. Much attention has been given recently to freezing of static water droplets resting on supercooled surfaces. Ice accretion, however, begins with the droplet/substrate collision followed by freezing...
December 28, 2010: ACS Nano
Pin-Jing He, Xian Qu, Li-Ming Shao, Duu-Jong Lee
Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste (MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved not only considerably reducing the pollution potential of leachate, but also enhancing organic degradation in the landfill. However, as this paper shows, although direct leachate recycling was effective in landfilled MSW with low food waste fraction (3...
2006: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Anje-Margriet Neutel, Johan A P Heesterbeek, Johan van de Koppel, Guido Hoenderboom, An Vos, Coen Kaldeway, Frank Berendse, Peter C de Ruiter
Understanding how complex food webs assemble through time is fundamental both for ecological theory and for the development of sustainable strategies of ecosystem conservation and restoration. The build-up of complexity in communities is theoretically difficult, because in random-pattern models complexity leads to instability. There is growing evidence, however, that nonrandom patterns in the strengths of the interactions between predators and prey strongly enhance system stability. Here we show how such patterns explain stability in naturally assembling communities...
October 4, 2007: Nature
Pahala Simamora, Wendy Chern
In August 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)-based injectable medical device for restoration and/or correction of the signs of facial fat loss (lipoatrophy) in people with human immunodeficiency virus. As a result, the properties of the PLLA microparticles have received considerable interest from the medical community. Polylactides have a long-standing history of safe use in medical applications, such as pins, plates, screws, intra-bone and soft-tissue implants, and as vectors for sustained release of bioactive compounds...
May 2006: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
G S Chang, R G Ambrosek
The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast test reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR)...
2005: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Pin-Jing He, Li-Ming Shao, Xian Qu, Guo-Jian Li, Duu-Jong Lee
Tap water, aerobically pre-treated leachate, and anaerobically pre-treated leachate, were each fed into the top of a series of three simulated landfills columns, filled with municipal solid waste collected in Shanghai, China. Changes in leachate, including pH, total organic carbon (TOC), and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and the produced biogas were monitored over time. The tap-water-fed columns had a low hydrolysis rate that yielded an acidic environment (pH 4.8-5.4) in the leachate that inhibited methanogenesis reaction in the refuse...
May 2005: Chemosphere
P A Brunton, G J Christensen, S W Cheung, F J T Burke, N H F Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To investigate, by questionnaire, the use and selection of materials and techniques for indirect restorations and fixed prosthodontics by dental practitioners in the North West of England and Scotland. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 1,000 general dental practitioners selected at random from dentists in Scotland and the North West of England. Non-responders were sent another questionnaire after a period of 4 weeks had elapsed. RESULTS: A total of 701 usable questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 70%...
January 22, 2005: British Dental Journal
Yao-Chung Chuang, Alice Y W Chang, Jui-Wei Lin, Shih-Pin Hsu, Samuel H H Chan
PURPOSE: Prolonged and continuous epileptic seizure (status epilepticus) results in cellular changes that lead to neuronal damage. We investigated whether these cellular changes entail mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural damage in the hippocampus, by using a kainic acid (KA)-induced experimental status epilepticus model. METHODS: In Sprague-Dawley rats maintained under chloral hydrate anesthesia, KA (0.5 nmol) was microinjected unilaterally into the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus to induce seizure-like hippocampal EEG activity...
October 2004: Epilepsia
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