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Shiga toxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542496/zinc-blocks-sos-induced-antibiotic-resistance-via-inhibition-of-reca-in-escherichia-coli
#1
Bryan E Bunnell, Jillian F Escobar, Kirsten L Bair, Mark D Sutton, John K Crane
Zinc inhibits the virulence of diarrheagenic E. coli by inducing the envelope stress response and inhibiting the SOS response. The SOS response is triggered by damage to bacterial DNA. In Shiga-toxigenic E. coli, the SOS response strongly induces the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) and of the bacteriophages that encode the Stx genes. In E. coli, induction of the SOS response is accompanied by a higher mutation rate, called the mutator response, caused by a shift to error-prone DNA polymerases when DNA damage is too severe to be repaired by canonical DNA polymerases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537262/induction-of-resident-memory-t-cells-enhances-the-efficacy-of-cancer-vaccine
#2
Mevyn Nizard, Hélène Roussel, Mariana O Diniz, Soumaya Karaki, Thi Tran, Thibault Voron, Estelle Dransart, Federico Sandoval, Marc Riquet, Bastien Rance, Elie Marcheteau, Elizabeth Fabre, Marion Mandavit, Magali Terme, Charlotte Blanc, Jean-Baptiste Escudie, Laure Gibault, Françoise Le Pimpec Barthes, Clemence Granier, Luis C S Ferreira, Cecile Badoual, Ludger Johannes, Eric Tartour
Tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) represent a new subset of long-lived memory T cells that remain in tissue and do not recirculate. Although they are considered as early immune effectors in infectious diseases, their role in cancer immunosurveillance remains unknown. In a preclinical model of head and neck cancer, we show that intranasal vaccination with a mucosal vector, the B subunit of Shiga toxin, induces local Trm and inhibits tumour growth. As Trm do not recirculate, we demonstrate their crucial role in the efficacy of cancer vaccine with parabiosis experiments...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535204/colocalization-of-receptors-for-shiga-toxins-with-lipid-rafts-in-primary-human-renal-glomerular-endothelial-cells-and-influence-of-d-pdmp-on-synthesis-and-distribution-of-glycosphingolipid-receptors
#3
Nadine Legros, Gottfried Pohlentz, Jana Runde, Stefanie Dusny, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Helge Karch, Johannes Müthing
Damage of human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs) of the kidney represents the linchpin in the pathogenesis of the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxins (Stxs) of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). We performed a comprehensive structural analysis of the Stx receptor glycosphingolipids (GSLs) globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Galα4alβ4Glcβ1Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer, GalNAcβ3Galα4Galβ4Glcβ1Cer) and their distribution in lipid raft analogue detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and nonDRMs prepared from primary HRGECs...
May 23, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534196/in-silico-analysis-of-shiga-toxins-stxs-to-identify-new-potential-vaccine-targets-for-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#4
Maryam Golshani, Mana Oloomi, Saeid Bouzari
Shiga toxins belong to a family of structurally and functionally related toxins serving as the main virulence factors for pathogenicity of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) associating with Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). At present, there is no effective treatment or prevention for HUS. The aim of the present study was to find conserved regions within the amino acid sequences of Stx1, Stx2 (Shiga toxin) and their variants. In this regard, In-silico identification of conformational continuous B cell and T-cell epitopes was performed in order to introduce new potential vaccine candidates...
December 2016: In Silico Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529915/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-in-adults-a-case-report
#5
Fabiel Gerardo Pérez-Cruz, Patricia Villa-Díaz, María Consuelo Pintado-Delgado, María Loreto Fernández Rodríguez, Ana Blasco-Martínez, María Pérez-Fernández
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are microvascular occlusive disorders characterized by platelet aggregation and mechanical damage to erythrocytes, clinically characterized by microangiopatic haemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and organ injury. We are reporting a case of a woman patient with severe hemolytic uremic syndrome associated to infectious diarrhoea caused by Shiga toxin-producing pathogen, who were admitted to our intensive care unit. The patient described developed as organ injury, neurological failure and acute renal failure, with need of haemodialysis technique...
May 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518026/outbreak-related-disease-burden-associated-with-consumption-of-unpasteurized-cow-s-milk-and-cheese-united-states-2009-2014
#6
Solenne Costard, Luis Espejo, Huybert Groenendaal, Francisco J Zagmutt
The growing popularity of unpasteurized milk in the United States raises public health concerns. We estimated outbreak-related illnesses and hospitalizations caused by the consumption of cow's milk and cheese contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. using a model relying on publicly available outbreak data. In the United States, outbreaks associated with dairy consumption cause, on average, 760 illnesses/year and 22 hospitalizations/year, mostly from Salmonella spp...
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506884/enhancing-effect-of-50%C3%A2-hz-rotating-magnetic-field-on-induction-of-shiga-toxin-converting-lambdoid-prophages
#7
M Struk, B Grygorcewicz, P Nawrotek, A Augustyniak, M Konopacki, M Kordas, R Rakoczy
Studies aimed at investigating factors and mechanism of induction of prophages, a major pathogenesis factor of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), are considered important to develop an effective treatment for STEC infections. In this study, we demonstrated the synergistic effect of the rotating magnetic field (RMF) of induction B = 34 mT and frequency ƒ = 50 Hz at a constant temperature of 37 °C and mitomycin C (MMC), that resulted in a higher level of induction of stx-carrying lambdoid Stx prophages...
May 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505157/structurally-optimized-analogs-of-the-retrograde-trafficking-inhibitor-retro-2cycl-limit-leishmania-infections
#8
Evan Craig, Charles-Eugene Huyghues-Despointes, Chun Yu, Emma L Handy, Jason K Sello, Peter E Kima
In infected mammalian cells, Leishmania parasites reside within specialized compartments called parasitophorous vacuoles (LPVs). We have previously shown that Retro-2, a member of a novel class of small retrograde pathway inhibitors caused reduced LPV sizes and lower parasite numbers during experimental L. mexicana sp. infections. The purpose of this study was to determine if structural analogs of Retro-2cycl reported to have superior potency in the inhibition of retrograde pathway-dependent phenomena (i.e...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503491/variation-in-the-distribution-of-putative-virulence-and-colonization-factors-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-different-categories-of-cattle
#9
María E Cáceres, Analía I Etcheverría, Daniel Fernández, Edgardo M Rodríguez, Nora L Padola
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogens of significant public health concern. Several studies have confirmed that cattle are the main reservoir of STEC in Argentina and other countries. Although Shiga toxins represent the primary virulence factors of STEC, the adherence and colonization of the gut are also important in the pathogenesis of the bacteria. The aim of this study was to analyze and to compare the presence of putative virulence factors codified in plasmid -katP, espP, subA, stcE- and adhesins involved in colonization of cattle -efa1, iha- in 255 native STEC strains isolated from different categories of cattle from different production systems...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499121/molecular-characterization-of-o157-h7-o26-h11-and-o103-h2-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-dairy-products
#10
T Douëllou, S Delannoy, S Ganet, P Fach, E Loukiadis, M-C Montel, D Sergentet-Thevenot
Pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are recognized worldwide as environment and foodborne pathogens which can be transmitted by ingestion of ready-to-eat food such as raw milk-derived products. STEC show a prevalence rate in dairy products of 0.9%, yet comparably few outbreaks have been related to dairy products consumption. In this study, we used rt-qPCR to identify the virulence potential of O157, O26 and O103 STEC strains isolated from raw-milk dairy products by analyzing virulence-related gene frequencies and associations with O-island (OI) 44, OI-48, OI-50, OI-57, OI-71 and OI-122...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495777/complete-annotated-genome-sequences-of-two-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-and-one-atypical-enteropathogenic-e-coli-strain-isolated-from-naturally-colonized-cattle-of-german-origin
#11
Lutz Geue, Christian Menge, Christian Berens, Stefanie A Barth
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important zoonotic enteric pathogens with the main reservoir in cattle. Here, we present the genomes of two STEC strains and one atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strain from cattle origin, obtained during a longitudinal study in German cattle herds.
May 11, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494766/filmarray%C3%A2-gi-panel-performance-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-gastroenteritis-or-hemorragic-diarrhea
#12
Antonio Piralla, Giovanna Lunghi, Gianluigi Ardissino, Alessia Girello, Marta Premoli, Erika Bava, Milena Arghittu, Maria Rosaria Colombo, Alessandra Cognetto, Patrizia Bono, Giulia Campanini, Piero Marone, Fausto Baldanti
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. The rapid and specific identification of infectious agents is crucial for correct patient management. However, diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis is usually performed with diagnostic panels that include only a few pathogens. In the present bicentric study, the diagnostic value of FilmArray™ GI panels was assessed in unformed stool samples of patients with acute gastroenteritis and in a series of samples collected from pediatric patients with heamorragic diarrhea...
May 12, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493685/selective-detection-of-shiga-like-toxin-1-from-complex-samples-using-pigeon-ovalbumin-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-as-affinity-probes
#13
Chun-Hsien Li, Yi-Ling Bai, Karuppuchamy Selvaprakash, Kwok-Kong Tony Mong, Yu-Chie Chen
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen. This bacterial strain can generate Shiga-like toxins (SLTs), which can cause serious sickness and even death. Thus, it is important to develop effective and sensitive methods that can be used to rapidly identify the presence of SLTs from complex samples. Pigeon egg white (PEW) contains abundant glycoproteins, including pigeon ovalbumin (POA) (∼60%). POA possesses Gal-α(1→4)-Gal-β(1→4)-GlcNAc termini, which can recognize the B subunits in SLT type 1 (SLT-1B)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491244/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-frequency-in-khuzestan-province-of-iran
#14
Atieh Darbandi, Parviz Owlia, Saeid Bouzari, Horieh Saderi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is an emerging agent among pathogens that causes diarrhea. Studies showed that diarrheagenic E. coli such as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), diffusely adhering E. coli (DAEC) and shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains are among the most frequent causative agents in acute diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of DEC pathotypes in Khuzestan province...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491053/hydrophobicity-of-residue-128-of-the-stress-inducible-sigma-factor-rpos-is-critical-for-its-activity
#15
Tadayuki Iwase, Takashi Matsuo, Saiko Nishioka, Akiko Tajima, Yoshimitsu Mizunoe
RpoS is a key stress-inducible sigma factor that regulates stress resistance genes in Escherichia coli, such as the katE gene encoding catalase HPII and the glg genes encoding glycogen synthesis proteins. Monitoring RpoS activity can provide information on the stress sensitivity of E. coli isolates in clinical settings because the RpoS in these isolates is often mutated. In the present study, we found a novel, missense point mutation at RpoS residue 128 in a clinical Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475359/assessment-of-consumer-exposure-to-salmonella-spp-campylobacter-spp-and-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-meat-products-at-retail-in-the-city-of-sao-paulo-brazil
#16
Christiane Asturiano Ristori, Ruth Estela Gravato Rowlands, Cecília Geraldes Martins, Maria Luisa Barbosa, Luis Fernando Dos Santos, Miyoko Jakabi, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco
Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37...
May 5, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468281/distinct-expression-of-immunoglobulin-binding-proteins-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-implicates-high-protein-stability-and-a-characteristic-phenotype
#17
Dennis Rubin, Wenlan Zhang, Helge Karch, Thorsten Kuczius
Several immunoglobulin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli (Eib) have been isolated from both non-pathogenic and pathogenic E. coli strains. Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) contain eibG either as a single gene or in combination with eibC, while other E. coli strains harbour single or multiple eib genes. The Eib proteins bind human immunoglobulins in a non-immune manner and contribute to bacterial chain-like adherence to human epithelial cells. In this study, the EibG expression in several STEC strains was analysed under different environmental conditions...
April 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458663/h-ns-mutation-mediated-crispr-cas-activation-inhibits-phage-release-and-toxin-production-of-escherichia-coli-stx2-phage-lysogen
#18
Qiang Fu, Shiyu Li, Zhaofei Wang, Wenya Shan, Jingjiao Ma, Yuqiang Cheng, Hengan Wang, Yaxian Yan, Jianhe Sun
Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages (Stx phages) carry the stx gene and convert nonpathogenic bacterial strains into Shiga toxin-producing bacteria. There is limited understanding of the effect that an Escherichia coli (E. coli) clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas adaptive immune system has on Stx phage lysogen. We investigated heat-stable nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) mutation-mediated CRISPR-Cas activation and its effect on E. coli Stx2 phage lysogen. The Δhns mutant (MG1655Δhns) of the E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458656/change-in-the-structure-of-escherichia-coli-population-and-the-pattern-of-virulence-genes-along-a-rural-aquatic-continuum
#19
Fabienne Petit, Olivier Clermont, Sabine Delannoy, Pierre Servais, Michèle Gourmelon, Patrick Fach, Kenny Oberlé, Matthieu Fournier, Erick Denamur, Thierry Berthe
The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of the Escherichia coli population, focusing on the occurrence of pathogenic E. coli, in surface water draining a rural catchment. Two sampling campaigns were carried out in similar hydrological conditions (wet period, low flow) along a river continuum, characterized by two opposite density gradients of animals (cattle and wild animals) and human populations. While the abundance of E. coli slightly increased along the river continuum, the abundance of both human and ruminant-associated Bacteroidales markers, as well as the number of E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454739/antibodies-to-shiga-toxins-in-brazilian-cattle
#20
Bruno B Yamamoto, Daniela Luz, Patrícia A E Abreu, Tatiana B Gotti, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Roxane M F Piazza, Denise S P Q Horton
Cattle are considered a reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). There is no information about the presence of antibodies against Shiga toxins in Brazilian bovine serum. Using ELISA, all sera tested showed antibodies against the two main STEC virulence factors; Stx1 and Stx2. Neutralizing antibodies against Stx1 and/or Stx2 were detected in all but one serum. In conclusion, our results indicated that these animals had been exposed to STEC producing both toxins.
April 25, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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