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Shiga toxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643674/microbiological-and-serological-control-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-kindergarten-staff-in-buenos-aires-city-and-suburban-areas
#1
Romina J Fernández-Brando, María Marta Amaral, Andrés E Ciocchini, Leticia V Bentancor, Jorge A Trelles, Marcelo Da Rocha, Martín Landriel, Mariana Ugarte, Gabriel Briones, Cristina Ibarra, Marina S Palermo
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are implicated in the development of the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Despite the magnitude of the social and economic problems caused by HUS, no licensed vaccine or effective therapy is currently available for human use. Prevention of STEC infections continues being the most important measure to reduce HUS incidence. This is especially true for Argentina where HUS incidence among children is extremely high and shows an endemic pattern...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630857/effectiveness-of-a-commercial-lactic-acid-bacteria-intervention-applied-to-inhibit-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-on-refrigerated-vacuum-aged-beef
#2
Katie R Kirsch, Tamra N Tolen, Jessica C Hudson, Alejandro Castillo, Davey Griffin, T Matthew Taylor
Because of their antagonistic activity towards pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, some members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been evaluated for use as food biopreservatives. The objectives of this study were to assess the antimicrobial utility of a commercial LAB intervention against O157 and non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) on intact beef strip loins during refrigerated vacuum aging and determine intervention efficacy as a function of mode of intervention application. Prerigor strip loins were inoculated with a cocktail (8...
2017: International journal of food science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628436/contaminated-stream-water-as-source-for-escherichia-coli-o157-illness-in-children
#3
William S Probert, Glen M Miller, Katya E Ledin
In May 2016, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infections occurred among children who had played in a stream flowing through a park. Analysis of E. coli isolates from the patients, stream water, and deer and coyote scat showed that feces from deer were the most likely source of contamination.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625983/strain-level-metagenomic-analysis-of-the-fermented-dairy-beverage-nunu-highlights-potential-food-safety-risks
#4
Aaron M Walsh, Fiona Crispie, Kareem Daari, Orla O'Sullivan, Jennifer C Martin, Cornelius T Arthur, Marcus J Claesson, Karen P Scott, Paul D Cotter
The rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It has already been demonstrated that whole metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. Here, we demonstrate that three short read alignment-based methods, MetaMLST, PanPhlAn, and StrainPhlAn, can accurately, and rapidly, identify pathogenic strains in spinach metagenomes which were intentionally spiked with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a previous study...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619663/captive-wild-birds-as-reservoirs-of-enteropathogenic-e-coli-epec-and-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli-stec
#5
Lilian Aparecida Sanches, Marcelo da Silva Gomes, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello Teixeira, Marcos Paulo Vieira Cunha, Maria Gabriela Xavier de Oliveira, Mônica Aparecida Midolli Vieira, Tânia Aparecida Tardelli Gomes, Terezinha Knobl
Psittacine birds have been identified as reservoirs of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, a subset of pathogens associated with mortality of children in tropical countries. The role of other orders of birds as source of infection is unclear. The aim of this study was to perform the molecular diagnosis of infection with diarrheagenic E. coli in 10 different orders of captive wild birds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fecal samples were analyzed from 516 birds belonging to 10 orders: Accipitriformes, Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Falconiformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes, Pelecaniformes, Piciformes, Psittaciformes and Strigiformes...
June 2, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614372/intestinal-organoids-model-human-responses-to-infection-by-commensal-and-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#6
Sayali S Karve, Suman Pradhan, Doyle V Ward, Alison A Weiss
Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 can cause the potentially fatal complication hemolytic uremic syndrome, and currently only supportive therapy is available. Lack of suitable animal models has hindered study of this disease. Induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs), generated by in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, represent differentiated human intestinal tissue. We show that iHIOs with addition of human neutrophils can model E. coli intestinal infection and innate cellular responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611956/comparative-genomic-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-shiga-toxin-producing-shigella-sonnei-stss-strain
#7
Domonkos Sváb, Balázs Bálint, Bálint Vásárhelyi, Gergely Maróti, István Tóth
Shigella strains are important agents of bacillary dysentery, and in recent years Shigella sonnei has emerged as the leading cause of shigellosis in industrialized and rapidly developing countries. More recently, several S. sonnei and Shigella flexneri strains producing Shiga toxin (Stx) have been reported from sporadic cases and from an outbreak in America. In the present study we aimed to shed light on the evolution of a recently identified Shiga toxin producing S. sonnei (STSS) isolated in Europe. Here we report the first completely assembled whole genome sequence of a multidrug resistant (MDR) Stx-producing S...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611498/in-vitro-characterization-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-strains-with-inhibitory-activity-on-enteropathogens-for-use-as-potential-animal-probiotics
#8
Sasikumar Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Karthiyaini Damodharan, Joo-Won Suh, Seung Hwan Yang
The present study evaluates the probiotic properties of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains MJM60319, MJM60298, and MJM60399 possessing antimicrobial activity against animal enteric pathogens. The three strains did not show bioamine production, mucinolytic and hemolytic activity and were susceptible to common antibiotics. The L. plantarum strains survived well in the simulated orogastrointestinal transit condition and showed adherence to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The L. plantarum strains showed strong antimicrobial activity against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shiga toxin-producing E...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607018/antibiotic-mediated-modulations-of-outer-membrane-vesicles-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o104-h4-and-o157-h7
#9
Andreas Bauwens, Lisa Kunsmann, Helge Karch, Alexander Mellmann, Martina Bielaszewska
Ciprofloxacin, meropenem, fosfomycin, and polymyxin B strongly increase production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) in Escherichia coli O104:H4 and O157:H7. Ciprofloxacin also upregulates OMV-associated Shiga toxin 2a, the major virulence factor of these pathogens, whereas the other antibiotics increase OMV production without the toxin. Both these effects might worsen the clinical outcome of infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli Our data support the existing recommendations to avoid antibiotics for treatment of these infections...
June 12, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602982/mass-spectrometry-based-shiga-toxin-identification-an-optimized-approach
#10
Keding Cheng, Angela Sloan, Xingle Li, Glen D Armstrong, Gehua Wang
Toxin expression is a key factor in Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli, a common pathogen involved in foodborne disease outbreaks. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based approach has been used in this study to identify commonly reported E. coli toxins, with a focus on Shiga toxins (Stxs). Different sample preparation methods using variable culture conditions and concentrations of mitomycin C (MMC), a common antibiotic/chemotherapy agent capable of stimulating Stx production, were first tested on reference strains EDL933 and 90-2380 by LC-MS/MS detection of tryptic digests of receptor-analogue affinity binding enriched Stx preparations from culture supernatants and lysates...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597831/ongoing-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome-hus-outbreak-caused-by-sorbitol-fermenting-sf-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-o157-germany-december-2016-to-may-2017
#11
Sabine Vygen-Bonnet, Bettina Rosner, Hendrik Wilking, Angelika Fruth, Rita Prager, Annelene Kossow, Christina Lang, Sandra Simon, Juliane Seidel, Mirko Faber, Anika Schielke, Kai Michaelis, Alexandra Holzer, Rolf Kamphausen, Daniela Kalhöfer, Sebastian Thole, Alexander Mellmann, Antje Flieger, Klaus Stark
We report an ongoing, protracted and geographically dispersed outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and gastroenteritis in Germany, involving 30 cases since December 2016. The outbreak was caused by the sorbitol-fermenting immotile variant of Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) Escherichia coli O157. Molecular typing revealed close relatedness between isolates from 14 cases. One HUS patient died. Results of a case-control study suggest packaged minced meat as the most likely food vehicle. Food safety investigations are ongoing...
May 25, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597303/current-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-foodborne-outbreak-cases-and-therapy-development
#12
REVIEW
Shih-Chun Yang, Chih-Hung Lin, Ibrahim A Aljuffali, Jia-You Fang
Food contamination by pathogenic microorganisms has been a serious public health problem and a cause of huge economic losses worldwide. Foodborne pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination, such as that with E. coli O157 and O104, is very common, even in developed countries. Bacterial contamination may occur during any of the steps in the farm-to-table continuum from environmental, animal, or human sources and cause foodborne illness. To understand the causes of the foodborne outbreaks by E. coli and food-contamination prevention measures, we collected and investigated the past 10 years' worldwide reports of foodborne E...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596762/species-distribution-and-prevalence-of-putative-virulence-factors-in-mesophilic-aeromonas-spp-isolated-from-fresh-retail-sushi
#13
Sunniva Hoel, Olav Vadstein, Anita N Jakobsen
Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria that have received increasing attention as human pathogens because of their widespread occurrence in food, especially seafood and vegetables. The aim of this work was to assess the species identity and phylogenetic relationship of 118 Aeromonas strains isolated from fresh retail sushi from three producers, and to characterize the isolates with respect to genetic and phenotypic virulence factors. We also evaluate the potential hazard associated with their presence in ready-to-eat seafood not subjected to heat treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594569/presence-of-human-pathogens-in-produce-from-retail-markets-in-northern-germany
#14
Gregor Fiedler, Jan Kabisch, Christina Böhnlein, Melanie Huch, Biserka Becker, Gyu-Sung Cho, Charles M A P Franz
Two hundred fresh produce samples (cucumber, carrots, herbs, leaf lettuce, and ready-to-eat mixed salad leaves) were obtained from retail in northern Germany in 2015. These were investigated for microbial contamination and the presence of foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella serovars, presumptive Bacillus (B.) cereus, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli using culture-dependent (enrichment, plating on selective media) and -independent (real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) techniques...
June 8, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589102/heterogeneous-family-of-cyclomodulins-smart-weapons-that-allow-bacteria-to-hijack-the-eukaryotic-cell-cycle-and-promote-infections
#15
REVIEW
Rachid A El-Aouar Filho, Aurélie Nicolas, Thiago L De Paula Castro, Martine Deplanche, Vasco A De Carvalho Azevedo, Pierre L Goossens, Frédéric Taieb, Gerard Lina, Yves Le Loir, Nadia Berkova
Some bacterial pathogens modulate signaling pathways of eukaryotic cells in order to subvert the host response for their own benefit, leading to successful colonization and invasion. Pathogenic bacteria produce multiple compounds that generate favorable conditions to their survival and growth during infection in eukaryotic hosts. Many bacterial toxins can alter the cell cycle progression of host cells, impairing essential cellular functions and impeding host cell division. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cyclomodulins, a heterogeneous family of bacterial effectors that induce eukaryotic cell cycle alterations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587697/ppgpp-and-cytotoxicity-diversity-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-isolates
#16
A E Stella, D Luz Hessel DA Cunha, R M F Piazza, B Spira
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a known food pathogen, which main reservoir is the intestine of ruminants. The abundance of different STEC lineages in nature reflect a heterogeneity that is characterised by the differential expression of certain genotypic characteristics, which in turn are influenced by the environmental conditions to which the microorganism is exposed. Bacterial homeostasis and stress response are under the control of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), which intrinsic levels varies across the E...
June 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586629/case-finding-using-syndromic-surveillance-data-during-an-outbreak-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o26-infections-oregon-2015
#17
Jonas Z Hines, June Bancroft, Melissa Powell, Katrina Hedberg
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes an estimated 265 000 infections in the United States annually. Of emerging non-O157:H7 STEC serotypes, O26 is the most commonly recognized. During an outbreak of STEC O26 in Oregon in 2015, we used syndromic surveillance data to supplement case finding by laboratory reporting. From 157 records retrieved by querying syndromic surveillance data, we detected 4 confirmed and 5 suspected cases. However, none of the suspected cases were confirmed by stool culture, and by the time that the data were being analyzed, the confirmed cases were already known to investigators...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578089/virulence-genes-shiga-toxin-subtypes-major-o-serogroups-and-phylogenetic-background-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-cattle-in-iran
#18
Maziar Jajarmi, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Mahdi Askari Badouei, Ali Ahmadi
The aim of this study was to investigate the virulence potential of the isolated bovine STEC for humans in Iran. In this study a collection of STEC strains (n = 50) had been provided via four stages, including sampling from feces of cattle, E. coli isolation, molecular screening of Shiga toxin (stx) genes, and saving the STEC strains from various geographical areas in Iran. The STEC isolates were subjected to stx-subtyping, O-serogrouping, and phylo-grouping by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
May 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576333/-hygienic-sanitary-quality-in-abattoirs-from-tucuman-province-argentina-detection-isolation-and-characterization-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#19
Gabriela B Pérez Terrazzino, Marina S Condorí, Alejandro López Campo, Silvia Vega, Carolina Carbonari, Isabel Chinen, Marta Rivas, Marta C de Castillo, María A Jure
Cattle are the main reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and the strategies to prevent the transmission of these microorganisms are concentrated in the slaughtering plant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary quality and the frequency of detection of STEC in beef carcasses in abattoirs from Tucuman province. Two hundred and seventy four beef carcass sponges were processed; the count of generic E. coli was marginal in 9 (3,3%) of them. Escherichia coli O157 was isolated in 4 (1,4%) samples; 2 of which were characterized as stx2c(vh-a)/eae/ehxA whereas the other 2 were non-toxigenic strains...
May 30, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559930/comparison-of-clinical-and-immunological-findings-in-gnotobiotic-piglets-infected-with-escherichia-coli-o104-h4-outbreak-strain-and-ehec-o157-h7
#20
Bettina Wöchtl, Florian Gunzer, Wilhelm Gerner, Hagen Gasse, Michaela Koch, Zoltán Bagó, Martin Ganter, Herbert Weissenböck, Nora Dinhopl, Sina M Coldewey, Alexandra von Altrock, Karl-Heinz Waldmann, Armin Saalmüller, Kurt Zimmermann, Jörg Steinmann, Jan Kehrmann, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Jochen Blom, Ralf Ehricht, Ines Engelmann, Isabel Hennig-Pauka
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) (STEC) is the most frequent cause of diarrhoea-positive haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D + HUS) in humans. In 2011, a huge outbreak with an STEC O104:H4 strain in Germany highlighted the limited possibilities for causative treatment of this syndrome. The responsible STEC strain was found to combine Stx production with adherence mechanisms normally found in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Pathotypes of E. coli evolve and can exhibit different adhesion mechanisms...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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