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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431274/distribution-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-ground-beef-assessing-the-clustering-intensity-for-an-industrial-scale-grinder-and-a-low-and-localized-initial-contamination
#1
Estelle Loukiadis, Clémence Bièche-Terrier, Catherine Malayrat, Franck Ferré, Philippe Cartier, Jean-Christophe Augustin
Undercooked ground beef is regularly implicated in food-borne outbreaks involving pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. The dispersion of bacteria during mixing processes is of major concern for quantitative microbiological risk assessment since clustering will influence the number of bacteria the consumers might get exposed to as well as the performance of sampling plans used to detect contaminated ground beef batches. In this study, batches of 25kg of ground beef were manufactured according to a process mimicking an industrial-scale grinding with three successive steps: primary grinding, mixing and final grinding...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425935/water-access-sanitation-and-hygiene-conditions-and-health-outcomes-among-two-settlement-types-in-rural-far-north-cameroon
#2
Tyler J Gorham, Joshua Yoo, Rebecca Garabed, Arabi Mouhaman, Jiyoung Lee
The Far North region in Cameroon has been more heavily impacted by cholera than any other region over the past decade, but very little has been done to study the drivers of waterborne diseases in the region. We investigated the relationship between water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) parameters, microbial and antibiotic resistance (AR) contamination levels in drinking water, and health outcomes using health survey and molecular analysis during June and July of 2014 in two settlement types (agro-pastoralist villages and transhumant pastoralist camps)...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421309/genetic-makeup-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-relation-to-clinical-symptoms-and-duration-of-shedding-a-microarray-analysis-of-isolates-from-swedish-children
#3
A Matussek, C Jernberg, I-M Einemo, S Monecke, R Ehricht, I Engelmann, S Löfgren, S Mernelius
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause non-bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and are the primary cause of acute renal failure in children worldwide. This study investigated the correlation of genetic makeup of STEC strains as revealed by DNA microarray to clinical symptoms and the duration of STEC shedding. All STEC isolated (n = 96) from patients <10 years of age in Jönköping County, Sweden from 2003 to 2015 were included. Isolates were characterized by DNA microarray, including almost 280 genes...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419995/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-and-kidney-transplantation-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Sabrina Milan Manani, Grazia Maria Virzì, Anna Giuliani, Anna Clementi, Alessandra Brocca, Daniela Dissegna, Francesca Martino, Emanuele Stefano Giovanni d'Amore, Claudio Ronco
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can be triggered by Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection or it can be defined as atypical HUS (aHUS) if it is related to uncontrolled complement activation. aHUS is characterized by a high incidence of recurrence after kidney transplantation, and it can also occur de novo in transplant recipients. Eculizumab is used both to prevent and to treat aHUS following kidney transplantation. In this paper, we report our centre experience and we present 4 cases of HUS in patients who underwent kidney transplantation...
April 19, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416508/hus-and-atypical-hus
#5
T Sakari Jokiranta
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney failure. HUS is usually categorized as typical, caused by shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) infection, atypical HUS (aHUS), usually caused by uncontrolled complement activation, or secondary HUS with a coexisting disease. In recent years, a general understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms driving HUS has increased. Typical (i.e. STEC-HUS) follows a gastrointestinal infection with STEC, while aHUS is associated primarily with mutations or autoantibodies leading to dysregulated complement activation...
April 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414257/spiral-plating-method-to-quantify-the-six-major-non-o157-escherichia-coli-serogroups-in-cattle-feces
#6
Pragathi B Shridhar, Lance W Noll, Charley A Cull, Xiaorong Shi, Natalia Cernicchiaro, David G Renter, Jianfa Bai, T G Nagaraja
Cattle are a major reservoir of the six major Shiga toxin-producing non-O157 Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) responsible for foodborne illnesses in humans. Besides prevalence in feces, the concentrations of STEC in cattle feces play a major role in their transmission dynamics. A subset of cattle, referred to as super shedders, shed E. coli O157 at high concentrations (≥4 log CFU/g of feces). It is not known whether a similar pattern of fecal shedding exists for non-O157...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411228/day-to-day-dynamics-of-commensal-escherichia-coli-in-zimbabwean-cows-evidence-temporal-fluctuations-within-a-host-specific-population-structure
#7
Méril Massot, Camille Couffignal, Olivier Clermont, Camille D'Humières, Jérémie Chatel, Nicolas Plault, Antoine Andremont, Alexandre Caron, France Mentré, Erick Denamur
To get insights in the temporal pattern of commensal Escherichia coli populations, we daily sampled feces of four healthy cows from the same herd over 25 days, in the Hwange district of Zimbabwe. The cows did not receive antibiotic treatment during the 3 previous months. We performed viable E. coli counts, and characterized at a clonal level, screened for stx and eae genes, and tested for antibiotic susceptibilities the 326 isolates originating from the 98 sampled stools. We observed that E. coli counts and dominant clones were different among cows, and very few clones were shared...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405178/utilizing-bd-max%C3%A2-enteric-bacterial-panel-to-detect-stool-pathogens-from-rectal-swabs
#8
Barbara DeBurger, Sarah Hanna, Eleanor A Powell, Cindi Ventrola, Joel E Mortensen
BACKGROUND: The BD MAX™ Enteric Bacterial Panel (BDM-EBP) is designed and FDA-cleared to detect Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Shiga toxin genes stx1/2 from stool samples. However, rectal swabs, which are not FDA-cleared for clinical testing with the BDM-EBP, are common specimens received from pediatric patients for enteric pathogen testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the BDM-EBP to detect stool pathogens from rectal swabs. METHODS: Routine cultures, Shiga toxin testing, and molecular testing with BDM-EBP were performed on 272 sequential rectal swabs collected from August 2015 to December 2015...
2017: BMC Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402187/detection-and-isolation-of-the-top-seven-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-ground-beef-comparison-of-rapidfinder-kits-to-the-u-s-department-of-agriculture-microbiology-laboratory-guidebook-method
#9
Pina M Fratamico, Lori K Bagi, Aisha Abdul-Wakeel
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are often referred to as the "top seven" STEC, and these have been declared to be adulterants in beef by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The aim of this work was to compare the methods described in the USDA FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) to a two-stage Applied Biosystems RapidFinder STEC real-time PCR method to test for the top seven STEC in raw ground beef...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399273/house-flies-in-the-confined-cattle-environment-carry-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#10
R Puri-Giri, A Ghosh, J L Thomson, L Zurek
Cattle manure is one of the primary larval developmental habitats of house flies, Musca domestica (L.). Cattle serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and bacteria are released into the environment in cattle feces. The USDA-FSIS declared seven STEC serogroups (O157, O26, O45, O103, O145, O121, and O111) as adulterants in beef products. In addition, the serogroup O104 was a culprit of a large outbreak in Germany in 2011. Our study aimed to assess the prevalence of seven non-O157 STEC (O26, O45, O145, O103, O121, O111, and O104) serogroups in adult house flies...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398250/differences-in-ribosome-binding-and-sarcin-ricin-loop-depurination-by-shiga-and-ricin-holotoxins
#11
Xiao-Ping Li, Nilgun E Tumer
Both ricin and Shiga holotoxins display no ribosomal activity in their native forms and need to be activated to inhibit translation in a cell-free translation inhibition assay. This is because the ribosome binding site of the ricin A chain (RTA) is blocked by the B subunit in ricin holotoxin. However, it is not clear why Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) holotoxin is not active in a cell-free system. Here, we compare the ribosome binding and depurination activity of Stx1 and Stx2 holotoxins with the A1 subunits of Stx1 and Stx2 using either the ribosome or a 10-mer RNA mimic of the sarcin/ricin loop as substrates...
April 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391537/virulence-factors-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-and-the-risk-of-developing-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome-in-norway-1992-2013
#12
U Naseer, I Løbersli, M Hindrum, T Bruvik, L T Brandal
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) may cause haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). Age ≤5 years and presence of stx2a and eae are risk factors for the development of HUS. In this study, we investigated STEC isolates for the presence of adhesins, toxins and molecular risk assessment (MRA) factors to identify virulence genes associated with HUS development. We included non-duplicate isolates from all STEC infections (n = 340, HUS = 32) reported to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Enteropathogenic Bacteria from 1992 to 2013...
April 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389899/degradation-and-inactivation-of-shiga-toxins-by-nitrogen-gas-plasma
#13
Akikazu Sakudo, Yuichiro Imanishi
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) leads to food poisoning by causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Some STEC produce Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), a relatively stable protein toxin, necessitating the development of an efficient inactivation method. Here we applied a nitrogen gas plasma apparatus to the inactivation of Stx. Samples of Stx1 and Stx2 were treated with a nitrogen gas plasma generated by a plasma device using a short high-voltage pulse applied by a static induction thyristor power supply at 1...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389880/role-of-climate-in-the-spread-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection-among-children
#14
Fiorella Acquaotta, Gianluigi Ardissino, Simona Fratianni, Michela Perrone
Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a rare disease mainly affecting children that develops as a complication of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection. It is characterised by acute kidney injury, platelet consumption and mechanical destruction of red blood cells (haemolysis). In order to test the working hypothesis that the spread of the infection is influenced by specific climatic conditions, we analysed all of the identified cases of infection occurring between June 2010 and December 2013 in four provinces of Lombardy, Italy (Milano, Monza Brianza, Varese and Brescia), in which a STEC surveillance system has been developed as part of a preventive programme...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387984/practical-issues-in-using-eculizumab-for-children-with-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-in-the-acute-phase-a-review-of-4-patients
#15
Chikako Terano, Kenji Ishikura, Riku Hamada, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Wataru Kubota, Yusuke Okuda, Shunsuke Shinozuka, Ryoko Harada, Sunao Iyoda, Yoshihiro Fujimura, Yuko Hamasaki, Hiroshi Hataya, Masataka Honda
AIM: Recently eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody to C5, was found to improve the disease course of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and has been recommended as the first line treatment by an international consensus guideline. However, several practical issues in the use of eculizumab for the acute phase of aHUS have yet to be resolved. METHODS: Children who received eculizumab with diagnosis of aHUS between March 2010 and December 2015 at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center were enrolled...
April 7, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381114/evaluation-of-applicability-of-dna-microarray-based-characterization-of-bovine-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-using-whole-genome-sequence-analysis
#16
Stefanie A Barth, Christian Menge, Inga Eichhorn, Torsten Semmler, Derek Pickard, Lutz Geue
We assessed the ability of a commercial DNA microarray to characterize bovine Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates and evaluated the results using in silico hybridization of the microarray probes within whole genome sequencing scaffolds. From a total of 69,954 reactions (393 probes with 178 isolates), 68,706 (98.2%) gave identical results by DNA microarray and in silico probe hybridization. Results were more congruent when detecting the genoserotype (209 differing results from 19,758 in total; 1...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377748/evidence-for-contemporary-switching-of-the-o-antigen-gene-cluster-between-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-colonizing-cattle
#17
Lutz Geue, Christian Menge, Inga Eichhorn, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H Wieler, Derek Pickard, Christian Berens, Stefanie A Barth
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) comprise a group of zoonotic enteric pathogens with ruminants, especially cattle, as the main reservoir. O-antigens are instrumental for host colonization and bacterial niche adaptation. They are highly immunogenic and, therefore, targeted by the adaptive immune system. The O-antigen is one of the most diverse bacterial cell constituents and variation not only exists between different bacterial species, but also between individual isolates/strains within a single species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368034/protection-of-human-colon-cells-from-shiga-toxin-by-plant-based-recombinant-secretory-iga
#18
Katsuhiro Nakanishi, Shota Morikane, Shiori Ichikawa, Kohta Kurohane, Yasuo Niwa, Yoshihiro Akimoto, Sachie Matsubara, Hayato Kawakami, Hirokazu Kobayashi, Yasuyuki Imai
Shiga toxin is a major virulence factor of food-poisoning caused by Escherichia coli such as O157:H7. Secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A (SIgA) is supposed to prevent infection of the mucosal surface and is a candidate agent for oral immunotherapy. We previously established a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) consisting of variable regions from a mouse IgG mAb specific for the binding subunit of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and the Fc region of mouse IgA. Here we produced a secretory form of the recombinant IgA (S-hyIgA) with transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367884/prevalence-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-in-foods-and-fecal-specimens-obtained-from-cattle-pigs-chickens-asymptomatic-carriers-and-patients-in-osaka-and-hyogo-japan
#19
Lili Wang, Shaobo Zhang, Dongming Zheng, Sami Fujihara, Akiyo Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki Okahata, Masakazu Suzuki, Atsunori Saeki, Hiromi Nakamura, Yukiko Hara-Kudo, Eriko Kage-Nakadai, Yoshikazu Nishikawa
The source and routes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) remain poorly clarified. To investigate the involvement of domestic animals in the dissemination of DEC, the prevalence of DEC among foods and fecal specimens of cattle, pigs, chickens, healthy carriers, and patients in Osaka and Hyogo, Japan, was investigated using a multiplex real-time PCR assay. The most prevalent virulence genes were astA and eae, with prevalences of 46.8% and 27.4%, respectively. stx1 (26.6%) and stx2 (45.9%) were prevalent in cattle feces, and est (8...
March 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360379/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-gastrointestinal-infections-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-diagnosed-with-rectal-chlamydia-infection-in-the-uk-an-unlinked-anonymous-cross-sectional-study
#20
Gwenda Hughes, Panida Silalang, John Were, Hemanti Patel, Tristan Childs, Sarah Alexander, Stephen Duffell, Cara Saxon, Cathy Ison, Holly Mitchell, Nigel Field, Claire Jenkins
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal infections (GII) can cause serious ill health and morbidity. Although primarily transmitted through faecal contamination of food or water, transmission through sexual activity is well described, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of GIIs among a convenience sample of MSM who were consecutively diagnosed with rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) at 12 UK genitourinary medicine clinics during 10 weeks in 2012...
March 30, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
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