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Vitamin D

Jingjing Zhu, Chen Bing, John P H Wilding
Metaflammation in adipose tissue, which is characterized by increased local gene expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory factors, may contribute to the increased risk of metabolic complications in obesity. It has been suggested that IL-1β might induce metaflammation in adipose tissue via modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. In our study, the mRNA and secretion levels of major pro-inflammatory factors including IL (interleukin)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP (monocyte chemoattractant protein)-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were measured as indicators of the inflammatory profile...
June 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
King-Wah Chiu, Shigeru Goto, Toshiaki Nakano, Tsung-Hui Hu, Ding-Wei Chen, Kuang-Tzu Huang, Li-Wen Hsu, Chao-Long Chen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fatty liver disease (FLD) is an important complication associated with liver transplantation, and the cytochrome P-450 system of the donor liver may be involved in its pathogenesis. To explore the effects of the CYP27A1, CYP27B1, CYP2R1, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) pathways on vitamin D maintenance after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we investigated the interplay between serum 25(OH)D and common variants in 60 paired donors and recipients who underwent LDLT...
June 23, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Mervi Javanainen, Tuula Pekkarinen, Harri Mustonen, Tom Scheinin, Marja Leivonen
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional deficiencies may occur after bariatric surgery despite supplementation. Fracture risk may also be elevated after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVES: To compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], vitamin B12, and albumin serum concentrations in severely obese patients who had undergone either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Fracture data was compared with data for a conservatively treated group of severely obese patients...
June 23, 2018: Obesity Surgery
S Giordano, A Proietti, T Bisaccia, P Caso, A Martocchia, P Falaschi, L Tafaro
This study analyses the difference in 25OH-vitamin D values between two groups of patients both affected by severe osteoporosis with fragility fractures, but one group has vertebral fractures and the other one has hip fractures. Patients with hip fractures have vitamin D values lower than patients with vertebral fractures. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate 25OHD levels in patients with fragility vertebral fractures (VF) and hip fractures (HF) and make a comparison between the groups...
June 23, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Alec M Judd, Melinda K Matthews, Rachel Hughes, Madeline Veloz, Corinne E Sexton, John M Chaston
Animal-associated microorganisms ('microbiota') dramatically influence nutritional and physiological traits of their hosts. To expand our understanding of such influences, we predicted bacterial genes that influence a quantitative animal trait by a comparative genomic approach and extended these predictions via mutant analysis. We focus on D. melanogaster starvation resistance (SR). We first confirmed that D. melanogaster SR responds to the microbiota by demonstrating that bacteria-free flies have greater SR than flies bearing a standard 5-species microbial community, and extended this analysis by revealing species-specific influence of 38 genome-sequenced bacterial species on D...
June 22, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Isaac O Karikari, Lionel N Metz
The increase in the aging population has led to an overall increase in the number of elderly patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery. This patient population, however, exhibits significant treatment challenges because of poor bone quality. By virtue of exhibiting decreased pullout strength and insertional torque, osteoporotic patients are at a substantial risk of developing vertebral fractures, instrumentation failure, pseudoarthrosis, and proximal junctional failures. It is, therefore, imperative for the treating surgeon to optimize bone health before recommending a spinal fusion surgery...
July 2018: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Vaia Raikou, Vasilios Kardalinos, Despina Kyriaki
INTRODUCTION: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is considered a main biomarker of oxidative stress, a common characteristic in end stage renal disease. We examined the relationship between ox-LDL serum concentrations and cardiovascular disease in permanent hemodiafiltration therapy patients. METHODS: Ox-LDL values were measured by ELISA and were corrected for LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in 96 participants and in 45 healthy control subjects. We performed chi-square tests and adjusted models for the role of ox-LDL on cardiovascular morbidity including coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic, diastolic dysfunction and peripheral arterial disease...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
M Nazmul Huda, Shaikh M Ahmad, Md Jahangir Alam, Afsana Khanam, Md Nure Alam Afsar, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Rubhana Raqib, Charles B Stephensen, Kevin D Laugero
Stress can impair T cell-mediated immunity. To determine if infants with high stress responses had deficits in T-cell mediated immunity, we examined the association of pain-induced cortisol responsiveness with thymic function and vaccine responses in infants. This study was performed among 306 (male = 153 and female = 153) participants of a randomized, controlled trial examining the effect of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on immune function in Bangladesh (NCT01583972). Salivary cortisol was measured before and 20 min after a needle stick (vaccination) at 6 weeks of age...
June 22, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Lisa G Gallagher, Sindana Ilango, Annette Wundes, Gary A Stobbe, Katherine W Turk, Gary M Franklin, Martha S Linet, D Michal Freedman, Bruce H Alexander, Harvey Checkoway
BACKGROUND: Low exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight may be a risk factor for developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Possible pathways may be related to effects on immune system function or vitamin D insufficiency, as UVR plays a role in the production of the active form of vitamin D in the body. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether lower levels of residential UVR exposure from sunlight were associated with increased MS risk in a cohort of radiologic technologists...
June 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Sandra Magalhaes, Brenda Banwell, Amit Bar-Or, Isabel Fortier, Heather E Hanwell, Ming Lim, Georg E Matt, Rinze F Neuteboom, David L O'Riordan, Paul K Schneider, Maura Pugliatti, Bryna Shatenstein, Catherine M Tansey, Evangeline Wassmer, Christina Wolfson
BACKGROUND: While studying the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) in children has several methodological advantages over studying etiology in adults, studies are limited by small sample sizes. OBJECTIVE: Using a rigorous methodological process, we developed the Pediatric MS Tool-Kit, a measurement framework that includes a minimal set of core variables to assess etiological risk factors. METHODS: We solicited input from the International Pediatric MS Study Group to select three risk factors: environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, sun exposure, and vitamin D intake...
June 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
V Fischer, M Haffner-Luntzer, M Amling, A Ignatius
Calcium and vitamin D are essential for maintaining bone health. Therefore, deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D are major risk factors for osteoporosis development. Because sufficient amounts of calcium are also required for fracture-callus mineralisation, compromised bone repair that is frequently observed in osteoporotic patients might be attributed to calcium and vitamin D deficiencies. Consequently, calcium and vitamin D supplementation represents a potential strategy for treating compromised fracture healing in osteoporotic patients...
June 22, 2018: European Cells & Materials
Linda Björkhem-Bergman, Catharina Missailidis, John Karlsson-Valik, Ann Tammelin, Lena Ekström, Matteo Bottai, Ulf Hammar, Gudrun Lindh, Peter Bergman
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics and can cause severe infections that are difficult to treat. Eradication strategies with conventional antibiotics are not always effective and alternative approaches are warranted. Here, we tested the hypothesis that daily supplementation with vitamin D for 12 months would reduce MRSA carriage rates among a group of persistent carriers. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial with n = 65 persistent MRSA carriers with 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25OHD) < 75 nmol/L, who were followed up with bacterial cultures at baseline and every 3 months for 1 year...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Lise Sofie Bislev, Lene Langagergaard Rødbro, Lars Rolighed, Tanja Sikjaer, Lars Rejnmark
Vitamin D insufficiency and hyperparathyroidism have been associated with reduced muscle strength, physical performance, postural stability, well-being, and quality of life. In a double-blinded, randomized placebo-controlled trial, we aimed to investigate effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on above-mentioned outcomes in healthy community-dwelling postmenopausal women with plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) below < 50 nmol/l and high parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Participants (N = 81) were 1:1 treated with vitamin D3, 70 µg (2800 IU)/day or identical placebo for three months during wintertime (56°N)...
June 21, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Franziska Just, Henry Reyer, Eduard Muráni, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Michael Oster, Klaus Wimmers
Calcium and phosphorus are irreplaceable components of life. Tracking the fate of calcium and phosphorus in organisms deserves high attention due to their relevance in bone metabolism and subsequently animal health. Indeed, bone serves as reservoir for calcium and phosphorus, whose formation and resorption follow specific molecular routes including hormones, receptors, and transcription factors. The objective of the study was to analyze the genetic variation of major components driving mineral utilization such as calcitonin receptor, calcium sensing receptor, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone receptor, osteopontin, stanniocalcin 1, RAF-type zinc finger domain containing 1 (TRAFD1), and vitamin D receptor...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
Albert Shieh, Christina Ma, Rene F Chun, Jonas Wittwer-Schegg, Leon Swinkels, Tonnie Huijs, Jeffrey Wang, Ines Donangelo, Martin Hewison, John S Adams
Context: The physiologic role of free 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in humans is unclear. Objective: To assess whether rise in total versus free 25(OH)D is associated with change in downstream biomarkers of 25(OH)D entry into target cells in kidney (24,25-dihyroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH) 2D ]) and parathyroid (parathyroid hormone [PTH]). Design: 16-week randomized controlled trial. Intervention: 60 mcg (2,400 IU)/day of D3 or 20 mcg/day of 25(OH)D3...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Samuel M Kim, Di Zhao, Anna J Podolanczuk, Pamela L Lutsey, Eliseo Guallar, Steven M Kawut, R Graham Barr, Ian H de Boer, Bryan R Kestenbaum, David J Lederer, Erin D Michos
Background: Activated vitamin D has anti-inflammatory properties. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency might contribute to subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD). Objective: We examined associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and subclinical ILD among middle-aged to older adults who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Methods: We studied 6302 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who had baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations and computed tomography (CT) imaging spanning ≤ 10 y...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Ihor Shymanskyi, Olha Lisakovska, Anna Mazanova, Dmytro Labudzynskyi, Mykola Veliky
The effectiveness of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in counteracting the side effects of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy has been demonstrated previously. Abnormalities in systemic hormonal and local (cytokine) regulation of bone marrow (BM) cells may underlie GC-induced imbalance between osteosynthesis and bone resorption. The cytokine system receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) is considered as an integrating link in the NF-κB-mediated interaction of various cells involved in maintaining osteoblastic-osteoclastic balance, which makes it a pharmacological target for regulation and correction of the bone remodeling process...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ian R Reid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: BMJ evidence-based medicine
Dustin Baker, Shruti Sevak, Rose E Callahan, Peter F Czako, Larry R Lloyd, Sapna Nagar
BACKGROUND: Cinacalcet is an effective treatment for renal hyperthyroidism when traditional medical therapy has failed. We studied the impact of pre-operative cinacalcet administration on post-surgical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of patients from 2002 to 2017 diagnosed with renal hyperparathyroidism requiring parathyroidectomy to evaluate the need for post-operative supplementation and outcomes. RESULTS: 102 patients were identified; 34 patients were treated with cinacalcet prior to undergoing parathyroidectomy...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
J M Oliver-Baxter, H S Whitford, D A Turnbull, M J Bond
BACKGROUND: Multivitamins are a popular supplement taken to promote physical and mental health. During periods of stress, they may have a protective role for health and wellbeing, although the current evidence of their efficacy is mixed. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether multivitamin supplementation impacts psychological and inflammatory markers of women who are experiencing psychological distress. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: An 8-week randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess changes in both psychological state and pro-inflammatory markers of patients receiving multivitamins or placebo...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
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