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Shaza O H Kanan, Mohammed Osman Swar
This is a retrospective observational hospital-based study aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of severe acute malnutrition in children less than five years admitted to Omdurman Paediatric Hospital during the period January 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected from patient's hospital records during the study period. Ethical approval and permission to access patients' record were obtained. A total of 593 children with severe malnutrition were identified; 305 of cases were male (51.4%) with a male: female ratio of 1:0...
2016: Sudan J Paediatr
Melkamu Merid Mengesha, Negussie Deyessa, Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne, Yadeta Dessie
BACKGROUND: The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP) of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008-2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP...
2016: Global Health Action
Kosei Takagi, Takahito Yagi, Ryuichi Yoshida, Susumu Shinoura, Yuzo Umeda, Daisuke Nobuoka, Nobuyuki Watanabe, Takashi Kuise, Kenta Sui, Akira Hirose, Makiko Tsuboi, Mitsunari Ogasawara, Shinji Iwasaki, Toshiji Saibara, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
Intrahepatic arterioportal fistula (IAPF) is a rare cause of portal hypertension that is often difficult to treat with interventional radiology or surgery. Liver transplantation for IAPF is extremely rare. We report a case of bilateral diffuse IAPF with severe portal hypertension requiring deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). A 51-year-old woman with no past medical history was admitted to another hospital complaining of abdominal distension and marasmus. A computed tomography scan and digital subtraction angiography indicated a massive pleural effusion, ascites, and a very large IAPF...
March 16, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Claudia P Campbell, David Raubenheimer, Asha V Badaloo, Peter D Gluckman, Claudia Martinez, Alison Gosby, Stephen J Simpson, Clive Osmond, Michael S Boyne, Terrence E Forrester
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Birthweight differences between kwashiorkor and marasmus suggest that intrauterine factors influence the development of these syndromes of malnutrition and may modulate risk of obesity through dietary intake. We tested the hypotheses that the target protein intake in adulthood is associated with birthweight, and that protein leveraging to maintain this target protein intake would influence energy intake (EI) and body weight in adult survivors of malnutrition...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Jun Kim, Eun-Jin Kang, Mee-Na Park, Ji-Eun Kim, Seung-Chul Kim, Eui-Bae Jeung, Geun-Shik Lee, Dae-Youn Hwang, Beum-Soo An
Alkylphenols such as 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol, and bisphenol A are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Digestion and metabolism of food are controlled by many endocrine factors, including insulin, glucagon, and estrogen. These factors are differentially regulated during pregnancy. The alteration of nutritional intake and fat metabolism may affect the maintenance of pregnancy and supplementation of nutrients to the fetus, and therefore can cause severe metabolic diseases such as ketosis, marasmus and diabetes mellitus in pregnant individuals...
July 2015: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mahama Saaka, Shaibu Mohammed Osman, Anthony Amponsem, Juventus B Ziem, Alhassan Abdul-Mumin, Prosper Akanbong, Ernestina Yirkyio, Eliasu Yakubu, Sean Ervin
Objective. This study investigated the treatment outcomes and determinant factors likely to be associated with recovery rate. Methods. A retrospective chart review (RCR) was performed on 348 patients who were enrolled in the outpatient care (OPC) during the study period. Results. Of the 348 cases, 33.6% recovered (having MUAC ≥125 mm), 49.1% defaulted, and 11.5% transferred to other OPC units to continue with treatment. There were 187 (53.7%) males and 161 (46.3%) females with severe malnutrition. The average weight gain rate was 28 g/kg/day...
2015: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Edgard Ferro Collares, Maria Inez Machado Fernandes
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that severe reflux esophagitis is rare in infants despite the well known high occurrence of regurgitation in early infancy. There is evidence of the importance of saliva for the pre-epithelial protection of the esophageal mucosa. RESULTS: A longitudinal study conducted on healthy infants indicated that the stimulated capacity of saliva secretion (saliva output per kg of body weight) was significantly higher during their first year of age compared to older children and adults...
April 2015: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Tendai Munthali, Choolwe Jacobs, Lungowe Sitali, Rosalia Dambe, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition has continued to be growing problem in Sub Saharan Africa. We investigated the factors associated with morbidity and mortality of under-five children admitted and managed in hospital for severe acute malnutrition. METHODS: It was a retrospective quantitative review of hospital based records using patient files, ward death and discharge registers. It was conducted focussing on demographic, clinical and mortality data which was extracted on all children aged 0-60 months admitted to the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia from 2009 to 2013...
2015: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Isaac E Ocheke, Puoane Thandi
BACKGROUND: In many developing countries, malnutrition remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in under-five children. The factors responsible for malnutrition could be immediate, underlying or basic, acting either alone or together. It has been shown that children who are malnourished have poorer outcomes from other illnesses than well-nourished children. It is important therefore to periodically describe the extent and pattern of childhood malnutrition so that effective preventive measures can be put in place...
March 2015: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
Lian-He Yang, Jin-Ou Wang, Shuang Ma, Zhi Zhu, Jia-Xing Sun, Si-Lu Ding, Guang Li, Hong-Tao Xu, Liang Wang, Sun-Dong Dai, Yang Liu, Yuan Miao, Gui-Yang Jiang, Chui-Feng Fan, En-Hua Wang
We presented a case of 80-year-old male with long term stomachache, marasmus and anaemia. Endoscopic evaluation suggested the malignant ulcerative tumor on the Gastric antrum, and biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Surprisingly, in resected specimen the pathologist found a nodule just below the ulcer with clear boundary and gray-yellow section. Histologically, the whole lesion was composed with adenocarcinoma area and spindle tumor cells area. In the spindle tumor cells area, the cells with round or oval nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm, and these cells showed bundle or fence-like arrangement...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Paloma Gastelurrutia, Josep Lupón, Marta de Antonio, Elisabet Zamora, Mar Domingo, Agustín Urrutia, Salvador Altimir, Ramon Coll, Crisanto Díez, Antoni Bayes-Genis
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nutritional assessment may help to explain the incompletely understood obesity paradox in patients with heart failure (HF). Currently, obesity is usually identified by body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to assess the prognostic influence of undernourishment in HF outpatients. METHODS: Two published definitions of undernourishment were used to assess 214 ambulatory HF patients. Definition 1 included albumin, total lymphocyte count, tricipital skinfold (TS), subscapular skinfold, and arm muscle circumference (AMC) measurements (≥2 below normal considered undernourishment)...
December 2015: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Kwashiorkor and marasmus, collectively termed severe acute malnutrition (SAM), account for at least 10% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age worldwide, virtually all of them in low-income and middle-income countries. A number of risk factors, including seasonal food insecurity, environmental enteropathy, poor complementary feeding practices, and chronic and acute infections, contribute to the development of SAM. Careful anthropometry is key to making an accurate diagnosis of SAM and can be performed by village health workers or even laypeople in rural areas...
March 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Saulo Nani Leite, Thiago Antônio Moretti de Andrade, Daniela dos Santos Masson-Meyers, Marcel Nani Leite, Chukuka S Enwemeka, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade
BACKGROUND: Various studies have shown that phototherapy promotes the healing of cutaneous wounds. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of phototherapy on healing of cutaneous wounds in nourished and undernourished rats. METHODS: Forty rats, 20 nourished plus 20 others rendered marasmus with undernourishment, were assigned to four equal groups: nourished sham, nourished Light Emitting Diode treated, undernourished sham and undernourished Light Emitting Diode treated...
November 2014: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
R K Chandra
The common association of malnutrition and infection has led to many studies that have examined the effects of nutritional status on immunocompetence. Children with the syndromes of marasmus and kwaskiorkor show marked impairment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI), complement system, microbicidal function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and secretory IgA antibody response. The extensive literature on this burgeoning field has been summarized(1-5,40) Clinical malnutrition, however, is a complex combination of the deficiencies of many nutrients, including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, macrominerals and trace elements...
November 1983: Immunology Today
Roselyne Akugizibwe, Josephine Kasolo, Duncan B Makubuya, Ali M Damani
Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is one of the leading causes of death among children below 5 years in Uganda. It develops after acute childhood illnesses despite children having received treatment from health facilities. This study assessed knowledge and practices of health workers in the diagnosis and management of PEM, which was used to establish missed opportunities to prevent severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in its management. This was a cross sectional descriptive study that used questionnaires and observation of health workers at Health Center IV (HCIV) in Wakiso district, Uganda...
November 30, 2013: Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology
Ingrid A Tennant, Alan T Barnett, Debbie S Thompson, Jan Kips, Michael S Boyne, Edward E Chung, Andrene P Chung, Clive Osmond, Mark A Hanson, Peter D Gluckman, Patrick Segers, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Terrence E Forrester
Malnutrition below 5 years remains a global health issue. Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) presents in childhood as oedematous (kwashiorkor) or nonoedematous (marasmic) forms, with unknown long-term cardiovascular consequences. We hypothesized that cardiovascular structure and function would be poorer in SAM survivors than unexposed controls. We studied 116 adult SAM survivors, 54 after marasmus, 62 kwashiorkor, and 45 age/sex/body mass index-matched community controls who had standardized anthropometry, blood pressure, echocardiography, and arterial tonometry performed...
September 2014: Hypertension
Anjana Gulani, Harshpal S Sachdev
BACKGROUND: Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear and is usually caused by infection. It affects people of all ages but is particularly common in young children. Around 164 million people worldwide have long-term hearing loss caused by this condition, 90% of them in low-income countries. As zinc supplements prevent pneumonia in disadvantaged children, we wanted to investigate whether zinc supplements could also prevent otitis media. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether zinc supplements prevent otitis media in adults and children of different ages...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hallgeir Kismul, Jan Van den Broeck, Torleif Markussen Lunde
The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle...
2014: PeerJ
Patrice M Francis-Emmanuel, Debbie S Thompson, Alan T Barnett, Clive Osmond, Christopher D Byrne, Mark A Hanson, Peter D Gluckman, Terrence E Forrester, Michael S Boyne
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical syndromes of severe acute malnutrition may have early life origins because children with marasmus have lower birth weight than those with kwashiorkor. We hypothesized that resultant metabolic effects may persist into adulthood. We investigated whether marasmus survivors (MS) are more insulin resistant and glucose intolerant than kwashiorkor survivors (KS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a case-control study in Jamaican adults...
June 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Urvashi Nandal, Raju Lal Bhardwaj
The tribal people of Rajasthan are severely malnourished along with multiple nutrient-deficiency disorders due to ignorance about importance of fruits and vegetables in their diets. The tribal areas are full of biodiversity having natural vegetation which is not harnessed fully. Due to which a wide gap is formed between health and optimal use of natural sources of nutrients, i.e., underutilized crops. The crops, which are neither grown commercially on large scale nor traded widely, may be termed as underutilized horticultural crops...
2014: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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