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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153398/maximizing-power-in-phylogenetics-and-phylogenomics-a-perspective-illuminated-by-fungal-big-data
#1
Alex Dornburg, Jeffrey P Townsend, Zheng Wang
Since its original inception over 150 years ago by Darwin, we have made tremendous progress toward the reconstruction of the Tree of Life. In particular, the transition from analyzing datasets comprised of small numbers of loci to those comprised of hundreds of loci, if not entire genomes, has aided in resolving some of the most vexing of evolutionary problems while giving us a new perspective on biodiversity. Correspondingly, phylogenetic trees have taken a central role in fields that span ecology, conservation, and medicine...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140507/commentary-who-was-leonard-darwin-commentary-on-darwin-l-heredity-and-environment-a-warning-to-eugenists-in-the-eugenics-review-1916
#2
Tim M Berra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138393/dogs-and-humans-respond-to-emotionally-competent-stimuli-by-producing-different-facial-actions
#3
Caeiro Cátia, Guo Kun, Mills Daniel
The commonality of facial expressions of emotion has been studied in different species since Darwin, with most of the research focusing on closely related primate species. However, it is unclear to what extent there exists common facial expression in species more phylogenetically distant, but sharing a need for common interspecific emotional understanding. Here we used the objective, anatomically-based tools, FACS and DogFACS (Facial Action Coding Systems), to quantify and compare human and domestic dog facial expressions in response to emotionally-competent stimuli associated with different categories of emotional arousal...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134711/x-exceptionalism-in-caenorhabditis-speciation
#4
Asher D Cutter
Speciation genetics research in diverse organisms shows the X-chromosome to be exceptional in how it contributes to 'rules' of speciation. Until recently, however, the nematode phylum has been nearly silent on this issue, despite the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans having touched most other topics in biology. Studies of speciation with Caenorhabditis accelerated with the recent discovery of species pairs showing partial inter-fertility. The resulting genetic analyses of reproductive isolation in nematodes demonstrate key roles for the X-chromosome in hybrid male sterility and inviability, opening up new understanding of the genetic causes of Haldane's rule, Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule, and enabling tests of the large-X effect hypothesis...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132944/necrotic-lesion-in-an-immunosuppressed-patient
#5
Alvaro López-Iñiguez, María Teresa Pérez-Gutiérrez, Darwin Lambraño-Castillo, Juan Gerardo Sierra-Madero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129533/sounds-of-modified-flight-feathers-reliably-signal-danger-in-a-pigeon
#6
Trevor G Murray, Jochen Zeil, Robert D Magrath
In his book on sexual selection, Darwin [1] devoted equal space to non-vocal and vocal communication in birds. Since then, vocal communication has become a model for studies of neurobiology, learning, communication, evolution, and conservation [2, 3]. In contrast, non-vocal "instrumental music," as Darwin called it, has only recently become subject to sustained inquiry [4, 5]. In particular, outstanding work reveals how feathers, often highly modified, produce distinctive sounds [6-9], and suggests that these sounds have evolved at least 70 times, in many orders [10]...
November 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120861/preventing-relapse-to-smoking-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-feasibility-and-potential-efficacy
#7
Christine E Sheffer, Warren K Bickel, Thomas H Brandon, Christopher T Franck, Darwin Deen, Luana Panissidi, Syed Amir Abdali, Jami C Pittman, Sara E Lunden, Neelam Prashad, Ria Malhotra, Antonio Mantovani
Many smokers attempt to quit every year, but 90% relapse within 12 months. Converging evidence suggests relapse is associated with insufficient activation of the prefrontal cortex. Delay discounting rate reflects relative activity in brain regions associated with relapse. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) increases cortical excitability and reduces delay discounting rates, but little is known about feasibility, tolerability, and potential efficacy for smoking cessation...
November 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118633/checklist-of-the-freshwater-fishes-of-colombia-a-darwin-core-alternative-to-the-updating-problem
#8
Carlos DoNascimiento, Edgar Esteban Herrera-Collazos, Guido A Herrera-R, Armando Ortega-Lara, Francisco A Villa-Navarro, José Saulo Usma Oviedo, Javier A Maldonado-Ocampo
The present work is part of a process to create a Catalogue of the Freshwater Fishes of Colombia and consisted in the depuration and updating of the taxonomic and geographic components of the checklist of the freshwater fishes of Colombia. An exhaustive revision of the 1435 species recorded in 2008 was necessary to: 1. Add new species described since 2009 and species originally described from Colombia but inadvertently omitted in 2008; 2. Add new records of already described species; 3. Delete species whose presence in Colombia was not supported by voucher specimens in ichthyological collections; and 4...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118131/humans-as-a-model-species-for-sexual-selection-research
#9
REVIEW
Michael Lawrence Wilson, Carrie M Miller, Kristin N Crouse
Ever since Darwin, questions about humans have driven sexual selection research. While studies of other organisms are often justified as useful for improving understanding of humans, humans themselves can be useful models. Although humans present some drawbacks as model organisms (complicated societies, slow reproduction and strong ethical constraints on experimental options), humans nonetheless offer many advantages (being abundant, accessible and having detailed historical records for some populations). As an additional challenge, humans exhibit a rather puzzling combination of traits...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116144/the-effect-of-artificial-selection-on-phenotypic-plasticity-in-maize
#10
Joseph L Gage, Diego Jarquin, Cinta Romay, Aaron Lorenz, Edward S Buckler, Shawn Kaeppler, Naser Alkhalifah, Martin Bohn, Darwin A Campbell, Jode Edwards, David Ertl, Sherry Flint-Garcia, Jack Gardiner, Byron Good, Candice N Hirsch, Jim Holland, David C Hooker, Joseph Knoll, Judith Kolkman, Greg Kruger, Nick Lauter, Carolyn J Lawrence-Dill, Elizabeth Lee, Jonathan Lynch, Seth C Murray, Rebecca Nelson, Jane Petzoldt, Torbert Rocheford, James Schnable, Patrick S Schnable, Brian Scully, Margaret Smith, Nathan M Springer, Srikant Srinivasan, Renee Walton, Teclemariam Weldekidan, Randall J Wisser, Wenwei Xu, Jianming Yu, Natalia de Leon
Remarkable productivity has been achieved in crop species through artificial selection and adaptation to modern agronomic practices. Whether intensive selection has changed the ability of improved cultivars to maintain high productivity across variable environments is unknown. Understanding the genetic control of phenotypic plasticity and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction will enhance crop performance predictions across diverse environments. Here we use data generated from the Genomes to Fields (G2F) Maize G × E project to assess the effect of selection on G × E variation and characterize polymorphisms associated with plasticity...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115723/patterns-of-paediatric-emergency-presentations-to-a-tertiary-referral-centre-in-the-northern-territory
#11
Davina Buntsma, Anna Lithgow, Evan O'Neill, Didier Palmer, Peter Morris, Jason Acworth, Franz E Babl
OBJECTIVE: To describe epidemiological data concerning paediatric attendances at the ED of Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of paediatric emergency presentations to the RDH ED during 2004 and 2013. Epidemiological data, including demographics, admission rates and diagnostic grouping, were analysed using descriptive and comparative statistical methods. We compared data with findings from a baseline epidemiological study by the Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) conducted in 2004...
November 8, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114210/human-novelty-response-to-emotional-animal-vocalizations-effects-of-phylogeny-and-familiarity
#12
Marina Scheumann, Anna S Hasting, Elke Zimmermann, Sonja A Kotz
Darwin (1872) postulated that emotional expressions contain universals that are retained across species. We recently showed that human rating responses were strongly affected by a listener's familiarity with vocalization types, whereas evidence for universal cross-taxa emotion recognition was limited. To disentangle the impact of evolutionarily retained mechanisms (phylogeny) and experience-driven cognitive processes (familiarity), we compared the temporal unfolding of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to agonistic and affiliative vocalizations expressed by humans and three animal species...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104438/-my-naturesound-nature-observations-with-sound-recordings
#13
Veljo Runnel, Marko Peterson, Allan Zirk
Background: Online systems for observation reporting by citizen scientists have been operating for many years. iNaturalist (California Academy of Sciences 2016), eBird (Cornell Lab of Ornithology 2016) and Observado (Observation International 2016) are well-known international systems, Artportalen (Swedish Species Information Centre 2016) and Artsobservasjoner (Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre 2016) are Scandinavian. In addition, databases and online solutions exist that are more directly research-oriented but still offer participation by citizen scientists, such as the PlutoF (University of Tartu Natural History Museum 2016) platform...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104187/charles-darwin-s-theory-of-moral-sentiments-what-darwin-s-ethics-really-owes-to-adam-smith
#14
Greg Priest
When we read the Origin, we cannot help but hear echoes of the Wealth of Nations. Darwin's "economy of nature" features a "division of labour" that leads to complexity and productivity. We should not, however, analyze Darwin's ethics through this lens. Darwin did not draw his economic ideas from Smith, nor did he base his ethics on an economic foundation. Darwin's ethics rest on Smith's notion from the Theory of Moral Sentiments of an innate human faculty of sympathy. Darwin gave this faculty an evolutionary interpretation and built on this foundation an ethics far removed from what is commonly supposed...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095741/eccrine-centric-melanocytic-nevus
#15
Raymond M Fertig, Adar Berghoff, Jessica Cervantes, Evan Darwin, Drazen Jukic
Benign melanocytic neoplasms present with a diverse array of well-known histopathologic patterns. It is imperative to recognize the benign patterns to render accurate diagnoses. We describe here an interesting and hitherto not described low-power architectural pattern of a benign melanocytic lesion: eccrine-centric melanocytic nevus. The patient was a 50-year-old African American woman who noticed a new mole on her foot that began as a dark speck but quickly grew larger. The lesion was excised to exclude the possibility of melanoma...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093952/mental-health-and-psychosocial-support-in-calais-a-reflection-on-research-in-a-challenging-environment
#16
Amy Darwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: BJPsych Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082252/multivalent-fusion-dna-vaccine-against-brucella-abortus
#17
Leonardo Gómez, Javiera Llanos, Emilia Escalona, Darwin Sáez, Francisco Álvarez, Raúl Molina, Manuel Flores, Angel Oñate
As an alternative brucellosis prevention method, we evaluated the immunogenicity induced by new multivalent DNA vaccines in BALB/c mice. We constructed the vaccines by fusion of BAB1_0273 and/or BAB1_0278 open reading frames (ORFs) from genomic island 3 (GI-3) and the Brucella abortus 2308 sodC gene with a link based on prolines and alanines (pV273-sod, pV278-sod, and pV273-278-sod, resp.). Results show that immunization with all tested multivalent DNA vaccines induced a specific humoral and cellular immune response...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075462/honey-bees-are-the-dominant-diurnal-pollinator-of-native-milkweed-in-a-large-urban-park
#18
James Scott MacIvor, Adriano N Roberto, Darwin S Sodhi, Thomas M Onuferko, Marc W Cadotte
In eastern North America, the field milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae), is used in planting schemes to promote biodiversity conservation for numerous insects including the endangered monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus) (Nymphalidae). Less is known about its pollinators, and especially in urban habitats where it is planted often despite being under increasing pressure from invasive plant species, such as the related milkweed, the dog-strangling vine (DSV), Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073050/prebiotic-stereoselective-synthesis-of-purine-and-noncanonical-pyrimidine-nucleotide-from-nucleobases-and-phosphorylated-carbohydrates
#19
Hyo-Joong Kim, Steven A Benner
According to a current "RNA first" model for the origin of life, RNA emerged in some form on early Earth to become the first biopolymer to support Darwinism here. Threose nucleic acid (TNA) and other polyelectrolytes are also considered as the possible first Darwinian biopolymer(s). This model is being developed by research pursuing a "Discontinuous Synthesis Model" (DSM) for the formation of RNA and/or TNA from precursor molecules that might have been available on early Earth from prebiotic reactions, with the goal of making the model less discontinuous...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073040/darwin-s-prescient-guess
#20
David Deamer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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