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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227686/novel-modular-2-dof-microsurgical-forceps-for-transoral-laser-microsurgeries-ergonomic-design-and-preliminary-evaluation
#1
Manish Chauhan, Giacinto Barresi, Nikhil Deshpande, Darwin G Caldwell, Leonardo S Mattos, Manish Chauhan, Giacinto Barresi, Nikhil Deshpande, Darwin G Caldwell, Leonardo S Mattos, Darwin G Caldwell, Giacinto Barresi, Leonardo S Mattos, Nikhil Deshpande, Manish Chauhan
Transoral Laser Microsurgeries (TLM) demand a great level of control and precision in intraoperative tissue manipulation. The optimal eradication of the diseased tissue is possible only with coordinated control of the laser aiming for incision and the microsurgical tools for orienting and stretching the tissue. However, the traditional microsurgical tools are long, single purpose, one degree-of-freedom (DOF), rigid tools with small range of motion and a normal grasping handle inducing non-ergonomic usage. This paper presents a novel, modular microsurgical tool to overcome the challenges of the traditional tools and improve the surgeon-tool usage experience...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227672/robot-assisted-microsurgical-forceps-with-haptic-feedback-for-transoral-laser-microsurgery
#2
Nikhil Deshpande, Manish Chauhan, Claudio Pacchierotti, Domenico Prattichizzo, Darwin G Caldwell, Leonardo S Mattos, Nikhil Deshpande, Manish Chauhan, Claudio Pacchierotti, Domenico Prattichizzo, Darwin G Caldwell, Leonardo S Mattos, Darwin G Caldwell, Leonardo S Mattos, Nikhil Deshpande, Domenico Prattichizzo, Manish Chauhan, Claudio Pacchierotti
In this paper, a novel, motorized, multi-degrees-of-freedom (DoF), microsurgical forceps tool is presented, which is based on a master-slave teleoperation architecture. The slave device is a 7-DoF manipulator with: (i) 6-DoF positioning and orientation, (ii) 1 open/close gripper DoF; and (iii) an integrated force/torque sensor for tissue grip-force measurement. The master device is a 7-DoF haptic interface which teleoperates the slave device, and provides haptic feedback in its gripper interface. The combination of the device and the surgeon interface replaces the manual, hand-held device providing easy-to-use and ergonomic tissue control, simplifying the surgical tasks...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224466/the-biogenetic-law-in-zoology-from-ernst-haeckel-s-formulation-to-current-approaches
#3
Lennart Olsson, Georgy S Levit, Uwe Hoßfeld
150 years ago, in 1866, Ernst Haeckel published a book in two volumes called "Generelle Morphologie der Organismen" (General Morphology of Organisms) in which he formulated his biogenetic law, famously stating that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. Here we describe Haeckel's original idea and follow its development in the thinking of two scientists inspired by Haeckel, Alexei Sewertzoff and Adolf Naef. Sewertzoff and Naef initially approached the problem of reformulating Haeckel's law in similar ways, and formulated comparable hypotheses at a purely descriptive level...
February 21, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224003/darwinism-for-the-genomic-age-connecting-mutation-to-diversification
#4
Xia Hua, Lindell Bromham
A growing body of evidence suggests that rates of diversification of biological lineages are correlated with differences in genome-wide mutation rate. Given that most research into differential patterns of diversification rate have focused on species traits or ecological parameters, a connection to the biochemical processes of genome change is an unexpected observation. While the empirical evidence for a significant association between mutation rate and diversification rate is mounting, there has been less effort in explaining the factors that mediate this connection between genetic change and species richness...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223451/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteasome-accessory-factor-a-pafa-can-transfer-prokaryotic-ubiquitin-like-protein-pup-between-substrates
#5
Susan Zhang, Kristin E Burns-Huang, Guido V Janssen, Huilin Li, Huib Ovaa, Lizbeth Hedstrom, K Heran Darwin
The protein degradation machinery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis includes a proteasome and a ubiquitin-like protein (Pup). Proteasome accessory factor A (PafA) attaches Pup to proteins to target them for degradation by the proteasome. Free Pup is unstable and never observed in extracts of M. tuberculosis, an observation that led us to hypothesize that PafA may need alternative sources of Pup. Here, we show that PafA can move Pup from one proteasome substrate, inositol 1-phosphate synthetase (Ino1), to two different proteins, malonyl coenzyme A (CoA)-acyl carrier protein transacylase (FabD) and lonely guy (Log)...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222354/modelling-with-words-narrative-and-natural-selection
#6
Dominic K Dimech
I argue that verbal models should be included in a philosophical account of the scientific practice of modelling. Weisberg (2013) has directly opposed this thesis on the grounds that verbal structures, if they are used in science, only merely describe models. I look at examples from Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) of verbally constructed narratives that I claim model the general phenomenon of evolution by natural selection. In each of the cases I look at, a particular scenario is described that involves at least some fictitious elements but represents the salient causal components of natural selection...
February 18, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213734/dehalococcoides-and-general-bacterial-ecology-of-differentially-trichloroethene-dechlorinating-flow-through-columns
#7
Babur S Mirza, Darwin L Sorensen, Daniel J McGlinn, R Ryan Dupont, Joan E McLean
The diversity of Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc) and/or other organohalide respiring or associated microorganisms in parallel, partial, or complete trichloroethene (TCE) dehalogenating systems has not been well described. The composition of Dhc populations and the associated bacterial community that developed over 7.5 years in the top layer (0-10 cm) of eight TCE-fed columns were examined using pyrosequencing. Columns biostimulated with one of three carbon sources, along with non-stimulated controls, developed into complete (ethene production, whey amended), partial (cis-dichloroethene (DCE) and VC, an emulsified oil with nonionic surfactant), limited (<5 % cis-DCE and 95 % TCE, an emulsified oil), and non- (controls) TCE dehalogenating systems...
February 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198924/the-issue-of-race-in-the-work-of-domingos-guedes-cabral
#8
Juanma Sánchez Arteaga, Ronnie Jorge Tavares de Almeida, Charbel Niño El-Hani
In 1875 Bahia, medicine and evolutionism were used by the physician, journalist, and republican militant Domingos Guedes Cabral as ideological weapons to propose a radical program of social reforms in Brazil in the areas of education, marriage control, medical care to the alienated, changes in the penal system, etc., all of which were based on the scientific knowledge of that time. Among the social ideas of Guedes Cabral, the question of race will be the main focus of this analysis. In this sense, Domingos Guedes Cabral is a particularly significant example for understanding the initial steps in the peculiar alliance between evolutionism, medicine, and scientific racism in Brazil since the 1870s, when Darwinism first arrived in the country...
December 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196347/disentangling-life-darwin-selectionism-and-the-postgenomic-return-of-the-environment
#9
Maurizio Meloni
In this paper, I analyze the disruptive impact of Darwinian selectionism for the century-long tradition in which the environment had a direct causative role in shaping an organism's traits. In the case of humans, the surrounding environment often determined not only the physical, but also the mental and moral features of individuals and whole populations. With its apparatus of indirect effects, random variations, and a much less harmonious view of nature and adaptation, Darwinian selectionism severed the deep imbrication of organism and milieu posited by these traditional environmentalist models...
February 11, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196021/the-changing-epidemiology-of-acute-pancreatitis-hospitalizations-a-decade-of-trends-and-the-impact-of-chronic-pancreatitis
#10
Somashekar G Krishna, Amrit K Kamboj, Phil A Hart, Alice Hinton, Darwin L Conwell
OBJECTIVES: The epidemiological trends contributing to increasing acute pancreatitis (AP) hospitalizations remain unknown. We sought to analyze etiological factors and outcomes of increasing AP hospitalizations. METHODS: Utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, retrospective analyses of adult (≥18 years) inpatient admissions with a primary diagnosis of AP (N = 2,016,045) were performed. Patient hospitalizations from 2009 to 2012 were compared with those from 2002 to 2005...
February 14, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195564/time-dependent-wave-packet-simulations-of-transport-through-aharanov-bohm-rings-with-an-embedded-quantum-dot
#11
Christoph Kreisbeck, Tobias Kramer, Rafael A Molina
We have performed time-dependent wave packet simulations of realistic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) devices with a quantum dot embedded in one of the arms of the interferometer. The AB ring can function as a measurement device for the intrinsic transmission phase through the quantum dot, however, care has to be taken in analyzing the influence of scattering processes in the junctions of the interferometer arms. We consider a harmonic quantum dot and show how the Darwin-Fock spectrum emerges as a unique pattern in the interference fringes of the AB oscillations...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193903/structural-analysis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-homologues-of-the-eukaryotic-proteasome-assembly-chaperone-2-pac2
#12
Lin Bai, Jordan B Jastrab, Marta Isasa, Kuan Hu, Hongjun Yu, Steven P Gygi, K Heran Darwin, Huilin Li
A previous bioinformatics analysis identified the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) proteins Rv2125 and Rv2714 as orthologs of the eukaryotic proteasome assembly chaperone 2 (PAC2). We set out to investigate whether Rv2125 or Rv2714 could function in proteasome assembly. We solved the crystal structure of Rv2125 at 3.0 Å resolution, which showed an overall fold similar to that of the PAC2 family proteins that include the archaeal PbaB and the yeast Pba1. However, Rv2125 and Rv2714 formed trimers, whereas PbaB forms tetramers and Pba1 dimerizes with Pba2...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190366/predictors-of-remote-practice-location-in-the-first-seven-cohorts-of-james-cook-university-mbbs-graduates
#13
Torres Woolley, Tarun Sen Gupta, Maria Bellei
INTRODUCTION: This article describes factors predicting James Cook University (JCU) medical graduates undertaking at least 1 year of remote practice. The cross-sectional design involved point-in-time (2015) analysis of the JCU medical school's ongoing longitudinal graduate tracking database. Participants were the first seven cohorts of graduates from the JCU medical school who had completed at least their postgraduate year (PGY) 4 in Australia (<i>n</i>=529); that is, PGY 4 to PGY 10 graduates...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187415/estimation-of-biomass-composition-from-genomic-and-transcriptomic-information
#14
Sophia Santos, Isabel Rocha
Given the great potential impact of the growing number of complete genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions of microorganisms, bioinformatics tools are needed to simplify and accelerate the course of knowledge in this field. One essential component of a genome-scale metabolic model is its biomass equation, whose maximization is one of the most common objective functions used in Flux Balance Analysis formulations. Some components of biomass, such as amino acids and nucleotides, can be estimated from genome information, providing reliable data without the need of performing lab experiments...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181991/optimal-asymmetry-and-other-motion-parameters-that-characterise-high-quality-female-dance
#15
Kristofor McCarty, Hannah Darwin, Piers L Cornelissen, Tamsin K Saxton, Martin J Tovée, Nick Caplan, Nick Neave
Dance is a universal human behaviour that is observed particularly in courtship contexts, and that provides information that could be useful to potential partners. Here, we use a data-driven approach to pinpoint the movements that discriminate female dance quality. Using 3D motion-capture we recorded women whilst they danced to a basic rhythm. Video clips of 39 resultant avatars were rated for dance quality, and those ratings were compared to quantitative measurements of the movement patterns using multi-level models...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180138/er-microsome-preparation-and-subsequent-iaa-quantification-in-maize-coleoptile-and-primary-root-tissue
#16
Verena Kriechbaumer
Auxin is a major growth hormone in plants and the first plant hormone to be discovered and studied (Darwin and Darwin, 1880). The auxin molecule in plants was first identified as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by Kögl et al. (1934). Active research over nearly a decade has shed light on many of the molecular mechanisms of its action but the complexity and redundancy of the auxin biosynthetic network raises questions about control of this system. We have shown that some enzymes involved in the YUCCA-route of auxin biosynthesis are not cytosolic but localised to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in both Arabidopsis thaliana (YUCCA4...
May 5, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177839/phylogenetic-relationships-among-low-ploidy-poa-species-using-chloroplast-sequences
#17
Alpana Joshi, Shaun Bushman, Brandon D Pickett, Matthew Darwin Robbins, Jack Staub, Paul G Johnson
Species in the Poa genus are taxonomically and genetically difficult to delineate due to high and variable polyploidy, aneuploidy, and challenging breeding systems. Approximately 5% of the proposed species in Poa are considered to include or comprise diploids, but very few of those diploids are represented in seed collections. Recent phylogenetic studies of Poa have included some diploid species to elucidate Poa genome relationships. In this study we build upon that foundation of diploid Poa relationships with additional confirmed diploid species and accessions, and with additional chloroplast sequences...
November 23, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168357/erratum-to-exploring-darwinian-worlds-from-darwin-to-the-extended-synthesis-essay-review-of-t-heams-p-huneman-g-lecointre-and-m-silberstein-eds-handbook-of-evolutionary-thinking-in-the-sciences-springer-dordrecht-2015-910%C3%A2-pp-349-00-isbn-978-94-017-9014-7
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168323/unravelling-the-networks-dictating-host-resistance-versus-tolerance-during-pulmonary-infections
#19
REVIEW
Isabelle Meunier, Eva Kaufmann, Jeffrey Downey, Maziar Divangahi
The appearance of single cell microorganisms on earth dates back to more than 3.5 billion years ago, ultimately leading to the development of multicellular organisms approximately 3 billion years later. The evolutionary burst of species diversity and the "struggle for existence", as proposed by Darwin, generated a complex host defense system. Host survival during infection in vital organs, such as the lung, requires a delicate balance between host defense, which is essential for the detection and elimination of pathogens and host tolerance, which is critical for minimizing collateral tissue damage...
February 6, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164339/what-darwin-only-divined-unraveling-the-hierarchy-of-signaling-events-upon-prey-catch-in-carnivorous-sundew-plants
#20
Axel Mithöfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: New Phytologist
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