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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442558/gene-flow-ancient-polymorphism-and-ecological-adaptation-shape-the-genomic-landscape-of-divergence-among-darwin-s-finches
#1
Fan Han, Sangeet Lamichhaney, B Rosemary Grant, Peter R Grant, Leif Andersson, Matthew T Webster
Genomic comparisons of closely related species have identified "islands" of locally elevated sequence divergence. Genomic islands may contain functional variants involved in local adaptation or reproductive isolation and may therefore play an important role in the speciation process. However, genomic islands can also arise through evolutionary processes unrelated to speciation, and examination of their properties can illuminate how new species evolve. Here, we performed scans for regions of high relative divergence (FST) in 12 species pairs of Darwin's finches at different genetic distances...
April 25, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439020/mathematical-model-of-chronic-pancreatitis
#2
Wenrui Hao, Hannah M Komar, Phil A Hart, Darwin L Conwell, Gregory B Lesinski, Avner Friedman
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammatory disease of the pancreas, leading to its fibrotic destruction. There are currently no drugs that can stop or slow the progression of the disease. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, whereas recurrent attacks of acute pancreatitis are thought to precede the development of CP. A better understanding of the pathology of CP is needed to facilitate improved diagnosis and treatment strategies for this disease. The present paper develops a mathematical model of CP based on a dynamic network that includes macrophages, pancreatic stellate cells, and prominent cytokines that are present at high levels in the CP microenvironment...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434184/complex-problems-and-unchallenged-solutions-bringing-ecosystem-governance-to-the-forefront-of-the-un-sustainable-development-goals
#3
Liette Vasseur, Darwin Horning, Mary Thornbush, Emmanuelle Cohen-Shacham, Angela Andrade, Ed Barrow, Steve R Edwards, Piet Wit, Mike Jones
Sustainable development aims at addressing economic, social, and environmental concerns, but the current lack of responsive environmental governance hinders progress. Short-term economic development has led to limited actions, unsustainable resource management, and degraded ecosystems. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may continue to fall short of achieving significant progress without a better understanding of how ecosystems contribute to achieving sustainability for all people. Ecosystem governance is an approach that integrates the social and ecological components for improved sustainability and includes principles such as adaptive ecosystem co-management, subsidiarity, and telecoupling framework, as well as principles of democracy and accountability...
April 22, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428199/experimental-insights-on-darwin-s-cross-promotion-hypothesis-in-tristylous-purple-loosestrife-lythrum-salicaria
#4
Joana Costa, Sílvia Castro, João Loureiro, Spencer C H Barrett
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Darwin proposed that the reciprocal arrangement of anthers and stigmas in heterostylous plants promotes cross-pollination through pollen segregation on pollinators' bodies. The floral tube in most heterostylous species constrains the feeding posture of pollinators determining the site of contact with sex organs located at different heights within a flower. Here, we evaluate Darwin's hypothesis in tristylous Lythrum salicaria, a species with a partially tubular corolla, and examine the extent to which the location of sex organs within a flower influence compatible and incompatible pollination...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426692/what-is-adaptation-by-natural-selection-perspectives-of-an-experimental-microbiologist
#5
REVIEW
Richard E Lenski
Ever since Darwin, the role of natural selection in shaping the morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of animals and plants across generations has been central to understanding life and its diversity. New discoveries have shown with increasing precision how genetic, molecular, and biochemical processes produce and express those organismal features during an individual's lifetime. When it comes to microorganisms, however, understanding the role of natural selection in producing adaptive solutions has historically been, and sometimes continues to be, contentious...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419599/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteasomal-atpase-mpa-has-a-%C3%AE-grasp-domain-that-hinders-docking-with-the-proteasome-core-protease
#6
Yujie Wu, Kuan Hu, Defeng Li, Lin Bai, Shaoqing Yang, Jordan B Jastrab, Shuhao Xiao, Yonglin Hu, Susan Zhang, K Heran Darwin, Tao Wang, Huilin Li
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has a proteasome system that is essential for its ability to cause lethal infections in mice. A key component of the system is the proteasomal adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) Mpa, which captures, unfolds, and translocates protein substrates into the Mtb proteasome core particle for degradation. Here, we report the crystal structures of near full-length hexameric Mtb Mpa in apo and ADP-bound forms. Surprisingly, the structures revealed a ubiquitin-like β-grasp domain that precedes the proteasome-activating carboxyl terminus...
April 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416802/rna-editing-dependent-epitranscriptome-diversity-in-cancer-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Qingfei Jiang, Leslie A Crews, Frida Holm, Catriona H M Jamieson
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can regenerate all facets of a tumour as a result of their stem cell-like capacity to self-renew, survive and become dormant in protective microenvironments. CSCs evolve during tumour progression in a manner that conforms to Charles Darwin's principle of natural selection. Although somatic DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations promote evolution, post-transcriptional RNA modifications together with RNA binding protein activity (the 'epitranscriptome') might also contribute to clonal evolution through dynamic determination of RNA function and gene expression diversity in response to environmental stimuli...
April 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416693/insect-haptoelectrical-stimulation-of-venus-flytrap-triggers-exocytosis-in-gland-cells
#8
Sönke Scherzer, Lana Shabala, Benjamin Hedrich, Jörg Fromm, Hubert Bauer, Eberhard Munz, Peter Jakob, Khaled A S Al-Rascheid, Ines Kreuzer, Dirk Becker, Monika Eiblmeier, Heinz Rennenberg, Sergey Shabala, Malcolm Bennett, Erwin Neher, Rainer Hedrich
The Venus flytrap Dionaea muscipula captures insects and consumes their flesh. Prey contacting touch-sensitive hairs trigger traveling electrical waves. These action potentials (APs) cause rapid closure of the trap and activate secretory functions of glands, which cover its inner surface. Such prey-induced haptoelectric stimulation activates the touch hormone jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway, which initiates secretion of an acidic hydrolase mixture to decompose the victim and acquire the animal nutrients. Although postulated since Darwin's pioneering studies, these secretory events have not been recorded so far...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414424/quantifying-the-hierarchical-order-in-self-aligned-carbon-nanotubes-from-atomic-to-micrometer-scale
#9
Eric R Meshot, Darwin W Zwissler, Ngoc Bui, Tevye R Kuykendall, Cheng Wang, Alexander Hexemer, Kuang Jen J Wu, Francesco Fornasiero
Fundamental understanding of structure-property relationships in hierarchically organized nanostructures is crucial for the development of new functionality, yet quantifying structure across multiple length scales is challenging. In this work, we used nondestructive X-ray scattering to quantitatively map the multiscale structure of hierarchically self-organized carbon nanotube (CNT) "forests" across 4 orders of magnitude in length scale, from 2.0 Å to 1.5 μm. Fully resolved structural features include the graphitic honeycomb lattice and interlayer walls (atomic), CNT diameter (nano), as well as the greater CNT ensemble (meso) and large corrugations (micro)...
April 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412279/cancer-biology-and-mr-darwin
#10
EDITORIAL
Robert Gatenby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406494/laser-capture-microdissection-of-pancreatic-acinar-cells-to-identify-proteomic-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-caerulein-induced-pancreatitis
#11
John P Shapiro, Hannah M Komar, Baris Hancioglu, Lianbo Yu, Ming Jin, Yuko Ogata, Phil A Hart, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, Gregory B Lesinski, Darwin L Conwell
OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the pancreas, leading to pain, parenchymal damage, and loss of exocrine and endocrine function. There are currently no curative therapies; diagnosis remains difficult and aspects of pathogenesis remain unclear. Thus, there is a need to identify novel biomarkers to improve diagnosis and understand pathophysiology. We hypothesize that pancreatic acinar regions contain proteomic signatures relevant to disease processes, including secreted proteins that could be detected in biofluids...
April 13, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406221/the-100-year-old-challenge-to-darwin-that-is-still-making-waves-in-research
#12
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403762/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infections-in-the-darwin-region
#13
Rowena Boyd, Vanessa Johnston, Belinda Farmer, Vicki L Krause
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401424/hospital-acquired-conditions-are-associated-with-worse-outcomes-in-crohn-s-disease-related-hospitalizations
#14
Kenneth Obi, Alice Hinton, Lindsay Sobotka, Edward Levine, Darwin Conwell, Cheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronically relapsing condition that frequently requires hospitalization. In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services selected ten conditions that were deemed healthcare-acquired conditions (HACs). Costs related to HACs are not reimbursed as they are considered to be preventable. AIM: To determine the prevalence and impact of HACs on hospital outcomes of hospitalized CD patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2007 and 2011 with an extended time frame between 2002 and 2013 to specifically evaluate the prevalence of HACs...
April 11, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397400/on-the-origin-of-complex-adaptive-traits-progress-since-the-darwin-versus-mivart-debate
#15
Takao K Suzuki
The evolutionary origin of complex adaptive traits has been a controversial topic in the history of evolutionary biology. Although Darwin argued for the gradual origins of complex adaptive traits within the theory of natural selection, Mivart insisted that natural selection could not account for the incipient stages of complex traits. The debate starting from Darwin and Mivart eventually engendered two opposite views: gradualism and saltationism. Although this has been a long-standing debate, the issue remains unresolved...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397328/dispersal-and-extrapolation-on-the-accuracy-of-temporal-predictions-from-distribution-models-for-the-darwin-s-frog
#16
David E Uribe-Rivera, Claudio Soto-Azat, Andrés Valenzuela-Sánchez, Gustavo Bizama, Javier A Simonetti, Patricio Pliscoff
Climate change is a major threat to biodiversity; the development of models that reliably predict its effects on species distributions is a priority for conservation biogeography. Two of the main issues for accurate temporal predictions from Species Distribution Models (SDM) are model extrapolation and unrealistic dispersal scenarios. We assessed the consequences of these issues on the accuracy of climate-driven SDM predictions for the dispersal-limited Darwin's frog Rhinoderma darwinii in South America. We calibrated models using historical data (1950-1975) and projected them across 40 years to predict distribution under current climatic conditions, assessing predictive accuracy through the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and True Skill Statistics (TSS), contrasting binary model predictions against temporal-independent validation dataset (i...
April 11, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396880/beating-darwin-bragg-losses-in-lab-based-ultrafast-x-ray-experiments
#17
Wilfred K Fullagar, Jens Uhlig, Ujjwal Mandal, Dharmalingam Kurunthu, Amal El Nahhas, Hideyuki Tatsuno, Alireza Honarfar, Fredrik Parnefjord Gustafsson, Villy Sundström, Mikko R J Palosaari, Kimmo M Kinnunen, Ilari J Maasilta, Luis Miaja-Avila, Galen C O'Neil, Young Il Joe, Daniel S Swetz, Joel N Ullom
The use of low temperature thermal detectors for avoiding Darwin-Bragg losses in lab-based ultrafast experiments has begun. An outline of the background of this new development is offered, showing the relevant history and initiative taken by this work.
July 2017: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396435/intranasal-msc-derived-a1-exosomes-ease-inflammation-and-prevent-abnormal-neurogenesis-and-memory-dysfunction-after-status-epilepticus
#18
Qianfa Long, Dinesh Upadhya, Bharathi Hattiangady, Dong-Ki Kim, Su Yeon An, Bing Shuai, Darwin J Prockop, Ashok K Shetty
Status epilepticus (SE), a medical emergency that is typically terminated through antiepileptic drug treatment, leads to hippocampus dysfunction typified by neurodegeneration, inflammation, altered neurogenesis, as well as cognitive and memory deficits. Here, we examined the effects of intranasal (IN) administration of extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on SE-induced adverse changes. The EVs used in this study are referred to as A1-exosomes because of their robust antiinflammatory properties...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385135/an-outbreak-of-salmonellosis-associated-with-duck-prosciutto-at-a-northern-territory-restaurant
#19
Anthony Dk Draper, Claire N Morton, Joshua Ni Heath, Justin A Lim, Anninka I Schiek, Stephanie Davis, Vicki L Krause, Peter G Markey
In June 2015, an outbreak of salmonellosis occurred among people who had eaten at a restaurant in Darwin, Northern Territory over 2 consecutive nights. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of diners who ate at the restaurant on 19 and 20 June 2015. Diners were telephoned and a questionnaire recorded symptoms and menu items consumed. An outbreak case was defined as anyone with laboratory confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium PT9 (STm9) or a clinically compatible illness after eating at the restaurant. Environmental health officers inspected the premises and collected food samples...
March 31, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384000/effects-of-obex-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-with-or-without-impaired-fasting-glucose-a-pilot-study
#20
Eduardo Cabrera-Rode, Janet Rodríguez, Aimee Álvarez, Ragmila Echevarría, Antonio Darwin Reyes, Ileana Cubas-Dueñas, Silvia Elena Turcios-Tristá, Oscar Díaz-Díaz
Obex is a dietary supplement to help weight loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Obex in overweight/obese participants with or without impaired fasting glucose. This was an open-label pilot study conducted with 40 overweight and obese subjects, 23-60 years old with a body mass index of 25-44 kg/m(2) (20 participants with impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and 20 with normal glucose levels). Participants received Obex at a dose of one sachet before the two main meals of each day for 3 months...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
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