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Evan Darwin, Penelope A Hirt, Raymond Fertig, Brett Doliner, Gina Delcanto, Joaquin J Jimenez
Alopecia areata (AA) is a complex autoimmune condition that causes nonscarring hair loss. It typically presents with sharply demarcated round patches of hair loss and may present at any age. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, and new treatment options of AA, with a focus on the immunologic mechanism underlying the treatment. While traditional treatment options such as corticosteroids are moderately effective, a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis may lead to the development of new treatments that are more directed and effective against AA...
March 2018: International Journal of Trichology
Frédéric Delsuc, Melanie Kuch, Gillian C Gibb, Jonathan Hughes, Paul Szpak, John Southon, Jacob Enk, Ana T Duggan, Hendrik N Poinar
Mylodon darwinii is the extinct giant ground sloth named after Charles Darwin, who first collected its remains in South America. We have successfully obtained a high-quality mitochondrial genome at 99-fold coverage using an Illumina shotgun sequencing of a 12 880-year-old bone fragment from Mylodon Cave in Chile. Low level of DNA damage showed that this sample was exceptionally well preserved for an ancient subfossil, probably the result of the dry and cold conditions prevailing within the cave. Accordingly, taxonomic assessment of our shotgun metagenomic data showed a very high percentage of endogenous DNA with 22% of the assembled metagenomic contigs assigned to Xenarthra...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Xian-Feng Jiang, Xing-Fu Zhu, Qing-Jun Li
Distyly is a widespread floral polymorphism characterized by the flowers within a population showing reciprocal placement of the anthers and stigma. Darwin hypothesizes that distyly evolves to promote precise pollen transfer between morphs. Primula chungensis exhibits two types of anther heights, and these two types of anthers show pollen of two different size classes. To understand whether the stigma could capture more pollen grains from the anthers of the pollen donor as the separation between the stigma of pollen receiver and the anther of pollen donor decreased, the present research assessed the source of the pollen load in a series of open-pollinated flowers with continuous variation of style lengths...
June 2018: AoB Plants
Adriana Candida Albuquerque Nogueira, Karina Maria Salvatore Freitas, Darwin Vaz de Lima, Fabrício Pinelli Valarelli, Rodrigo Hermont Cançado
Objective: This study aimed to compare the changes in maxillary and mandibular incisors position in cases treated with Damon self-ligating and conventional fixed appliances. Methods: The sample comprised 51 patients with Class I malocclusion, mild to moderate crowding, treated without extractions, divided into 2 groups: Group 1 consisted of 20 patients treated with Damon self-ligating appliance, with a mean initial age of 15.00 years, treated for a mean period of 2...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Darwin Elizondo-Quiroga, Aarón Medina-Sánchez, Jorge M Sánchez-González, Kristen Allison Eckert, Erendira Villalobos-Sánchez, Antonio Rigoberto Navarro-Zúñiga, Gustavo Sánchez-Tejeda, Fabián Correa-Morales, Cassandra González-Acosta, Carlos F Arias, Susana López, Rosa María Del Ángel, Victoria Pando-Robles, Armando E Elizondo-Quiroga
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephanie White, Hala Katf, Rob Baird, Joshua Francis
AIM: The epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis has changed following the introduction of routine immunisation against common causative organisms. Indigenous children living in the Northern Territory, Australia, have high rates of bacterial infections. This study describes changes in the epidemiology of childhood bacterial meningitis and the distribution of the burden of disease in the Top End. METHODS: A retrospective review of cases derived from hospital medical records and laboratory data was performed...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Elisa Biondi, Steven A Benner
Directed evolution was first applied to diverse libraries of DNA and RNA molecules a quarter century ago in the hope of gaining technology that would allow the creation of receptors, ligands, and catalysts on demand. Despite isolated successes, the outputs of this technology have been somewhat disappointing, perhaps because the four building blocks of standard DNA and RNA have too little functionality to have versatile binding properties, and offer too little information density to fold unambiguously. This review covers the recent literature that seeks to create an improved platform to support laboratory Darwinism, one based on an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS) that adds independently replicating nucleotide “letters” to the evolving “alphabet”...
May 9, 2018: Biomedicines
Sarbajit Mukherjee, Sami Ibrahimi, Michael Machiorlatti, Darwin Roman, Rabia Saleem, Ayesha Hassan, Allison Baxley, Sara Vesely, Raid Aljumaily
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
Darwin Yu Fu, Jens Meiler
RosettaLigand is a protein-small-molecule (ligand) docking software capable of predicting binding poses and is used for virtual screening of medium-sized ligand libraries. Structurally similar small molecules are generally found to bind in the same pose to one binding pocket, despite some prominent exceptions. To make use of this information, we have developed RosettaLigandEnsemble (RLE). RLE docks a superimposed ensemble of congeneric ligands simultaneously. The program determines a well-scoring overall pose for this superimposed ensemble before independently optimizing individual protein-small-molecule interfaces...
April 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Jennifer M Yost, Patrick W Sweeney, Ed Gilbert, Gil Nelson, Robert Guralnick, Amanda S Gallinat, Elizabeth R Ellwood, Natalie Rossington, Charles G Willis, Stanley D Blum, Ramona L Walls, Elspeth M Haston, Michael W Denslow, Constantin M Zohner, Ashley B Morris, Brian J Stucky, J Richard Carter, David G Baxter, Kjell Bolmgren, Ellen G Denny, Ellen Dean, Katelin D Pearson, Charles C Davis, Brent D Mishler, Pamela S Soltis, Susan J Mazer
Premise of the Study: Herbarium specimens provide a robust record of historical plant phenology (the timing of seasonal events such as flowering or fruiting). However, the difficulty of aggregating phenological data from specimens arises from a lack of standardized scoring methods and definitions for phenological states across the collections community. Methods and Results: To address this problem, we report on a consensus reached by an iDigBio working group of curators, researchers, and data standards experts regarding an efficient scoring protocol and a data-sharing protocol for reproductive traits available from herbarium specimens of seed plants...
February 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
Curtis N Johnson
No single author presented Darwin with a more difficult question about his priority in discovering natural selection than the British comparative anatomist and paleontologist Richard Owen. Owen was arguably the most influential biologist in Great Britain in Darwin's time. Darwin wanted his approbation for what he believed to be his own theory of natural selection. Unfortunately for Darwin, when Owen first commented in publication about Darwin's theory of descent he was openly hostile (Edinb. Rev. vol. 111, Article VIII, 1860, pp...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
Darwin, Wipa Charles, Ralf Cord-Ruwisch
Anaerobic acidification of sugars can produce some useful end-products such as alcohol, volatile fatty acids (e.g. acetate, propionate, and butyrate) and lactic acid. The production of end-products is highly dependent on factors including pH, temperature, hydraulic retention time and the types of sugar being fermented. Results of this current study indicate that the pH and hydraulic retention time played significant roles in determining the end products from the anaerobic acidification of maltose and glucose...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Technology
Yang Dong, Jing Liu, Peng-Wei Li, Chao-Qun Li, Tian-Feng Lü, Xia Yang, Yin-Zheng Wang
Unlike most crops, which were domesticated through long periods of selection by ancient humans, horticultural plants were primarily domesticated through intentional selection over short time periods. The molecular mechanisms underlying the origin and spread of novel traits in the domestication process have remained largely unexplored in horticultural plants. Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa), whose attractive peloric flowers influenced the thoughts of Darwin, have been cultivated since the early 19th century, but its origin and genetic basis are currently unknown...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Ronald F White
Let's begin by addressing the most obvious question: given the vast number of books published on political science every year, why would the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences (APLS) and its journal Politics and the Life Sciences expend time, energy, and resources publishing a multiple-author analysis of a series of books that contain little (if anything) about the life sciences, Darwin, or evolution? The answer is that Cass R. Sunstein's recent research on "nudge science" provides an excellent opportunity for APLS to expand its commitment to interdisciplinarity, especially its long-standing interest in behavioral economics...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
Nikolai Bessonov, Natalia Reinberg, Malay Banerjee, Vitaly Volpert
Darwin described biological species as groups of morphologically similar individuals. These groups of individuals can split into several subgroups due to natural selection, resulting in the emergence of new species. Some species can stay stable without the appearance of a new species, some others can disappear or evolve. Some of these evolutionary patterns were described in our previous works independently of each other. In this work we have developed a single model which allows us to reproduce the principal patterns in Darwin's diagram...
April 30, 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
Laura Heck, Laura A B Wilson, Allowen Evin, Madlen Stange, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra
Background: In horses, the morphological changes induced by the process of domestication are reportedly less pronounced than in other species, such as dogs or pigs - although the horses' disparity has rarely been empirically tested. We investigated shape differences and modularity of domesticated horses, Przewalski's horses, donkeys and zebras. Mandibular and tooth shape have been shown to be valuable features for differentiating wild and domesticated forms in some mammals. Results: Both mandible and teeth, show a pattern of shape space occupation analogous to that of the cranium, with domesticated horses occupying a similar extension in shape space to that of wild equids...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Robert Mesibov
A total of ca 800,000 occurrence records from the Australian Museum (AM), Museums Victoria (MV) and the New Zealand Arthropod Collection (NZAC) were audited for changes in selected Darwin Core fields after processing by the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA; for AM and MV records) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF; for AM, MV and NZAC records). Formal taxon names in the genus- and species-groups were changed in 13-21% of AM and MV records, depending on dataset and aggregator. There was little agreement between the two aggregators on processed names, with names changed in two to three times as many records by one aggregator alone compared to records with names changed by both aggregators...
2018: ZooKeys
Milica Nikolić, Eddie Brummelman, Cristina Colonnesi, Wieke de Vente, Susan M Bögels
Blushing is an involuntary reddening of the face that typically occurs when people are concerned about making negative impressions on others. Although people typically blush for their mishaps or misdeeds, Darwin observed that some people, and especially children, also blush when they are lavished with praise. We theorize that socially anxious children blush when praised in inflated ways because they believe they do not match the inflated image others hold of them. Such praise-induced blushing might be particularly common in late childhood, when children's worries about their social image escalate...
April 19, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Eugene Rosenberg, Ilana Zilber-Rosenberg
The holobiont (host with its endocellular and extracellular microbiome) can function as a distinct biological entity, an additional organismal level to the ones previously considered, on which natural selection operates. The holobiont can function as a whole: anatomically, metabolically, immunologically, developmentally, and during evolution. Consideration of the holobiont with its hologenome as an independent level of selection in evolution has led to a better understanding of underappreciated modes of genetic variation and evolution...
April 25, 2018: Microbiome
Sarbajit Mukherjee, Sami Ibrahimi, Bilal Khalid, Darwin Roman, Daniel Zhao, Raid Aljumaily
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
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