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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340294/a-comparison-of-endoscopic-and-non-endoscopic-biliary-intervention-outcomes-in-patients-with-prior-bariatric-surgery
#1
Amrit K Kamboj, Victorio Pidlaoan, Mohammad H Shakhatreh, Alice Hinton, Darwin L Conwell, Somashekar G Krishna
Background and study aims : Endoscopic biliary intervention (BI) is often difficult to perform in patients with prior bariatric surgery (BRS). We sought to analyze outcomes of patients with prior BRS undergoing endoscopic and non-endoscopic BI. Patients and methods:  The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2007 - 2011) was reviewed to identify all adult inpatients (≥ 18 years) with a history of BRS undergoing BI. The clinical outcomes of interest were in-patient mortality, length of stay (LOS), and total hospital charges...
January 2018: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339746/zika-virus-in-salivary-glands-of-five-different-species-of-wild-caught-mosquitoes-from-mexico
#2
Darwin Elizondo-Quiroga, Aarón Medina-Sánchez, Jorge M Sánchez-González, Kristen Allison Eckert, Erendira Villalobos-Sánchez, Antonio Rigoberto Navarro-Zúñiga, Gustavo Sánchez-Tejeda, Fabián Correa-Morales, Cassandra González-Acosta, Carlos F Arias, Susana López, Rosa María Del Ángel, Victoria Pando-Robles, Armando E Elizondo-Quiroga
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen, and Aedes aegypti has been identified as the main vector of the disease. Other mosquito species in the Aedes and Culex genera have been suggested to have the potential for being competent vectors based on experimental exposition of mosquitoes to an infectious blood meal containing ZIKV. Here, we report the isolation in cell culture of ZIKV obtained from different body parts of wild-caught female mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti, Ae. vexans, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. coronator, and Cx...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334823/a-new-genus-of-tapeworm-cestoda-onchoproteocephalidea-from-sawfish-elasmobranchii-pristidae
#3
Janine N Caira, Kirsten Jensen, Carolyn A Fyler
Collections from the dwarf sawfish, Pristis clavata, near Darwin, Australia in 1997 led to the discovery of the new onchoproteocephalidean genus Matticestus n. gen.-a taxon that has been referred to in molecular phylogenetic analyses in which it has been included as "New genus 8." Its type species, Matticestus anneae n. gen., n. sp., and a second species, Matticestus kathleenae n. sp. are described. Placement of this taxon in the Onchoproteocephalidea is supported morphologically in that both species bear a scolex with 4 bothridia each with a pair of bipronged hooks and spinitriches that extend throughout the length of the body...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319487/validation-of-predictors-for-lymph-node-status-in-penile-cancer-results-from-a-population-based-cohort
#4
X Melody Qu, D Robert Siemens, Alexander V Louie, Darwin Yip, Aamer Mahmud
INTRODUCTION: The ability to predict lymph node (LN) status is essential in the management of men with localized squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. There has been limited external validation of available risk stratification tools, particularly in routine clinical care. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive variables of LN metastases within a large population-based cohort of patients. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, surgical pathology reports were linked to the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all patients who were diagnosed with penile cancer in Ontario, Canada...
December 22, 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315357/to-increase-trust-change-the-social-design-behind-aggregated-biodiversity-data
#5
Nico M Franz, Beckett W Sterner
Growing concerns about the quality of aggregated biodiversity data are lowering trust in large-scale data networks. Aggregators frequently respond to quality concerns by recommending that biologists work with original data providers to correct errors 'at the source.' We show that this strategy falls systematically short of a full diagnosis of the underlying causes of distrust. In particular, trust in an aggregator is not just a feature of the data signal quality provided by the sources to the aggregator, but also a consequence of the social design of the aggregation process and the resulting power balance between individual data contributors and aggregators...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301108/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-inhibit-inflammatory-lymphangiogenesis-in-the-cornea-by-suppressing-macrophage-in-a-tsg-6-dependent-manner
#6
Hyun Beom Song, Se Yeon Park, Jung Hwa Ko, Jong Woo Park, Chang Ho Yoon, Dong Hyun Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Mee Kum Kim, Ryang Hwa Lee, Darwin J Prockop, Joo Youn Oh
The cornea is a transparent tissue devoid of blood and lymphatic vessels. However, various inflammatory conditions can cause hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the cornea, compromising transparency and visual acuity. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have therapeutic potentials in a variety of diseases because of anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, we investigated the effects of MSCs on corneal angiogenesis using a model of suture-induced inflammatory corneal neovascularization. Data demonstrated that an intravenous administration of MSCs suppressed corneal inflammation and neovascularization, inhibiting both hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300848/impact-of-an-invasive-longhorned-beetle-tetropium-fuscum-coleoptera-cerambycidae-on-community-structure-of-subcortical-and-wood-associated-insects-in-eastern-canada
#7
Allyson Heustis, Eric R D Moise, Rob Johns, Deepa S Pureswaran, Stephen B Heard
Tetropium fuscum (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a phloem-feeding and wood-boring beetle introduced from Eurasia, attacks spruce in eastern Canada alongside its native congener Tetropium cinnamopterum Kirby. We reared phloem- and wood-feeding insects (and their predators) from bolts of red and Norway spruce (Picea rubens and Picea abies) in Nova Scotia, comparing insect communities between bolts with added eggs of T. fuscum or T. cinnamopterum and bolts without added Tetropium (controls). We tested for impacts of each Tetropium on insect community structure (Simpson's diversity, richness, and evenness)...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299956/-great-is-darwin-and-bergson-his-poet-julian-huxley-s-other-evolutionary-synthesis
#8
Emily Herring
In 1912, Julian Huxley published his first book The Individual in the Animal Kingdom which he dedicated to the then world-famous French philosopher Henri Bergson. Historians have generally adopted one of two attitudes towards Huxley's early encounter with Bergson. They either dismiss it entirely as unimportant or minimize it, deeming it a youthful indiscretion preceding Huxley's full conversion to Fisherian Darwinism. Close biographical study and archive materials demonstrate, however, that neither position is tenable...
January 4, 2018: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298778/acanthamoeba-keratitis-in-194-patients-risk-factors-for-bad-outcomes-and-severe-inflammatory-complications
#9
Nicole Carnt, Dana Robaei, Darwin C Minassian, John K G Dart
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine demographic and clinical features of patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) that are independent risk factors both for bad outcomes and for severe inflammatory complications (SIC). METHODS: A retrospective audit of medical records of AK cases at Moorfields Eye Hospital from July 2000 to April 2012, including 12 earlier surgical cases. Cases with a bad outcome were defined as those having one or more of the following: corneal perforation, keratoplasty, other surgery (except biopsy), duration of antiamoebic therapy (AAT) ≥10...
January 3, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286651/the-predictive-power-of-different-types-of-experimental-restraints-in-small-molecule-docking-a-review
#10
Darwin Yu Fu, Jens Meiler
Incorporating experimental restraints is a powerful method of increasing accuracy in computational protein small molecule docking simulations models. Different algorithms integrate distinct forms of biochemical data during the docking and/or scoring stages. These so-called hybrid methods make use of receptor-based information such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) restraints or small molecule-based information such as structure-activity relationships (SAR). A third class of methods directly interrogates contacts between the protein receptor and the small molecule...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284748/aridity-weakens-population-level-effects-of-multiple-species-interactions-on-hibiscus-meyeri
#11
Allison M Louthan, Robert M Pringle, Jacob R Goheen, Todd M Palmer, William F Morris, Daniel F Doak
Predicting how species' abundances and ranges will shift in response to climate change requires a mechanistic understanding of how multiple factors interact to limit population growth. Both abiotic stress and species interactions can limit populations and potentially set range boundaries, but we have a poor understanding of when and where each is most critical. A commonly cited hypothesis, first proposed by Darwin, posits that abiotic factors (e.g., temperature, precipitation) are stronger determinants of range boundaries in apparently abiotically stressful areas ("stress" indicates abiotic factors that reduce population growth), including desert, polar, or high-elevation environments, whereas species interactions (e...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259334/the-comeback-of-hand-drawing-in-modern-life-sciences
#12
Renaud Chabrier, Carsten Janke
Scientific manuscripts are full of images. Since the birth of the life sciences, these images were in a form of hand drawings, with great examples from da Vinci, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Remak, Buffon, Bovery, Darwin, Huxley, Haeckel and Gray's Anatomy to name a few. However, in the course of the past century, photographs and simplified schematics have gradually taken over as a way of illustrating scientific data and concepts, assuming that these are 'accurate' representations of the truth. Here, we argue for the importance of reviving the art of scientific drawings as a way of effectively communicating complex scientific ideas to both specialists and the general public...
December 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250710/a-review-of-monochromatic-light-devices-for-the-treatment-of-alopecia-areata
#13
REVIEW
Evan Darwin, Harleen Arora, Penelope A Hirt, Tongyu Cao Wikramanayake, Joaquin J Jimenez
There are many laser technologies that are being tested that claim to support hair regrowth for patients with alopecia areata (AA). In this paper, we will determine whether the body of evidence supports the use of devices using monochromatic light sources to treat AA. Articles were gathered from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database using these keywords: lasers, excimer laser, low-level laser therapy (LLLT), low-level light therapy, alopecia, alopecia areata, and hair loss with a category modifier of English...
December 17, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240927/commentary-introduction-to-an-historical-reprint-heredity-and-environment-in-early-20th-century-genetics-major-leonard-darwin-s-advice-to-eugenists
#14
Garland E Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238855/epigenesis-by-experience-romantic-empiricism-and-non-kantian-biology
#15
Amanda Jo Goldstein
Reconstructions of Romantic-era life science in general, and epigenesis in particular, frequently take the Kantian logic of autotelic "self-organization" as their primary reference point. I argue in this essay that the Kantian conceptual rubric hinders our historical and theoretical understanding of epigenesis, Romantic and otherwise. Neither a neutral gloss on epigenesis, nor separable from the epistemological deflation of biological knowledge that has received intensive scrutiny in the history and philosophy of science, Kant's heuristics of autonomous "self-organization" in the third Critique amount to the strategic capture of epigenesis from nature, for thought, in thought's critical transcendence of nature...
December 13, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238078/the-genetic-architecture-of-ecological-adaptation-intraspecific-variation-in-host-plant-use-by-the-lepidopteran-crop-pest-chloridea-virescens
#16
Sara J Oppenheim, Fred Gould, Keith R Hopper
Intraspecific variation in ecologically important traits is a cornerstone of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. The evolution and maintenance of this variation depends on genetic architecture, which in turn determines responses to natural selection. Some models suggest that traits with complex architectures are less likely to respond to selection than those with simple architectures, yet rapid divergence has been observed in such traits. The simultaneous evolutionary lability and genetic complexity of host plant use in the Lepidopteran subfamily Heliothinae suggest that architecture may not constrain ecological adaptation in this group...
December 14, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234062/development-of-erasin-a-chromone-based-stat3-inhibitor-which-induces-apoptosis-in-erlotinib-resistant-lung-cancer-cells
#17
Christian Lis, Stefan Rubner, Martin Roatsch, Angela Berg, Tyler Gilcrest, Darwin Fu, Elizabeth Nguyen, Anne-Marie Schmidt, Harald Krautscheid, Jens Meiler, Thorsten Berg
Inhibition of protein-protein interactions by small molecules offers tremendous opportunities for basic research and drug development. One of the fundamental challenges of this research field is the broad lack of available lead structures from nature. Here, we demonstrate that modifications of a chromone-based inhibitor of the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of the transcription factor STAT5 confer inhibitory activity against STAT3. The binding mode of the most potent STAT3 inhibitor Erasin was analyzed by the investigation of structure-activity relationships, which was facilitated by chemical synthesis and biochemical activity analysis, in combination with molecular docking studies...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229869/irregular-designs-and-darwinism-in-biology-genomes-as-the-test-case
#18
B J Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217369/influence-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-on-the-immunogenicity-of-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-given-to-infants-in-south-india
#19
Edward P K Parker, Ira Praharaj, Anna Zekavati, Robin P Lazarus, Sidhartha Giri, Darwin J Operario, Jie Liu, Eric Houpt, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Beate Kampmann, Jacob John, Gagandeep Kang, Nicholas C Grassly
Oral rotavirus vaccines have consistently proven to be less immunogenic among infants in developing countries. Discrepancies in the intestinal microbiota, including a greater burden of enteropathogens and an altered commensal community composition, may contribute to this trend by inhibiting the replication of vaccine viruses. To test this possibility, we performed a nested case-control study in Vellore, India, in which we compared the intestinal microbiota of infants who responded serologically or not after two doses of Rotarix delivered at 6 and 10 weeks of age as part of a clinical trial (CTRI/2012/05/002677)...
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217149/mucous-membrane-pemphigoid-with-ocular-involvement-the-clinical-phenotype-and-its-relationship-to-direct-immunofluorescence-findings
#20
Hon Shing Ong, Jane F Setterfield, Darwin C Minassian, John K Dart
PURPOSE: This study explored the validity of the First International Consensus on Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid (MMP) guidance, which recommends that clinically indistinguishable patients, who have direct immunofluorescence (DIF)-negative biopsies, be excluded from a diagnosis of MMP. Misdiagnosis, or delayed diagnosis, of MMP with ocular involvement leads to the inappropriate use of topical therapy, the standard of care for causes of cicatrising conjunctivitis other than MMP, rather than systemic immunomodulatory therapy, resulting in irreversible clinical deterioration in patients with MMP...
December 4, 2017: Ophthalmology
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