keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Darwin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913952/new-age-ideas-about-age-old-sex-separating-meiosis-from-mating-could-solve-a-century-old-conundrum
#1
Michael Brandeis
Ever since Darwin first addressed it, sexual reproduction reigns as the 'queen' of evolutionary questions. Multiple theories tried to explain how this apparently costly and cumbersome method has become the universal mode of eukaryote reproduction. Most theories stress the adaptive advantages of sex by generating variation, they fail however to explain the ubiquitous persistence of sexual reproduction also where adaptation is not an issue. I argue that the obstacle for comprehending the role of sex stems from the conceptual entanglement of two distinct processes - gamete production by meiosis and gamete fusion by mating (mixis)...
September 14, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902787/venous-thromboembolism-is-associated-with-adverse-outcomes-in-hospitalized-patients-with-acute-pancreatitis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Guru Trikudanathan, Chandraprakash Umapathy, Satish Munigala, Mahesh Gajendran, Darwin L Conwell, Martin L Freeman, Somashekar G Krishna
OBJECTIVES: The systemic inflammatory cascade and vascular stasis in hospitalized patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) serve as a milieu for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of VTE in AP and to evaluate its impact on clinical outcomes of AP. METHODS: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2011) was reviewed to identify all patients hospitalized with AP. Patients with a concomitant diagnosis of VTE were compared with those without...
October 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902785/predictors-of-pancreatic-cancer-associated-weight-loss-and-nutritional-interventions
#3
Laura Nemer, Somashekar G Krishna, Zarine K Shah, Darwin L Conwell, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, Mary Dillhoff, Denis C Guttridge, Alice Hinton, Andrei Manilchuk, Timothy M Pawlik, Carl R Schmidt, Erin E Talbert, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Phil A Hart
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is often accompanied by weight loss. We sought to characterize factors associated with weight loss and observed nutritional interventions, as well as define the effect of weight loss on survival. METHODS: Consecutive subjects diagnosed with PDAC (N = 123) were retrospectively evaluated. Univariate analysis was used to compare subjects with and without substantial (>5%) weight loss. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with weight loss, and survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox survival models...
October 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900879/darwinism-in-metaethics-what-if-the-universal-acid-cannot-be-contained
#4
Eleonora Severini, Fabio Sterpetti
The aim of this article is to explore the impact of Darwinism in metaethics and dispel some of the confusion surrounding it. While the prospects for a Darwinian metaethics appear to be improving, some underlying epistemological issues remain unclear. We will focus on the so-called Evolutionary Debunking Arguments (EDAs) which, when applied in metaethics, are defined as arguments that appeal to the evolutionary origins of moral beliefs so as to undermine their epistemic justification. The point is that an epistemic disanalogy can be identified in the debate on EDAs between moral beliefs and other kinds of beliefs, insofar as only the former are regarded as vulnerable to EDAs...
September 12, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900025/psp-stress-response-proteins-form-a-complex-with-mislocalized-secretins-in-the-yersinia-enterocolitica-cytoplasmic-membrane
#5
Disha Srivastava, Amal Moumene, Josué Flores-Kim, Andrew J Darwin
The bacterial phage shock protein system (Psp) is a conserved extracytoplasmic stress response that is essential for the virulence of some pathogens, including Yersinia enterocolitica It is induced by events that can compromise inner membrane (IM) integrity, including the mislocalization of outer membrane pore-forming proteins called secretins. In the absence of the Psp system, secretin mislocalization permeabilizes the IM and causes rapid cell death. The Psp proteins PspB and PspC form an integral IM complex with two independent roles...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898662/size-dependent-variation-in-plant-form
#6
Karl J Niklas, Edward D Cobb
The study of organic form has a long and distinguished history going at least as far back as Aristotle's Historia Anima¯lium, wherein he identified five basic biological processes that define the forms of animals (metabolism, temperature regulation, information processing, embryo development, and inheritance). Unfortunately, all of Aristotle's writings about plant forms are lost. We know of them only indirectly from his student Theophrastus's companion books, collectively called Historia Plantarum, wherein plant forms are categorized into annual herbs, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and trees...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898650/wilhelm-hofmeister-and-the-foundations-of-plant-science
#7
EDITORIAL
Cyrus Martin
On January 12(th) 1877, the Grim Reaper visited Wilhelm Hofmeister (Figure 1) for the last time. Having recently witnessed the death of a wife, two daughters, and two sons (only two of his nine children survived him), the German botanist, perhaps succumbing to the weight of his own grief, suffered a series of strokes and then promptly died at the age of 52 in Lindenau, Germany. He has since faded into the dusty annals of 19(th) century botany, his contributions to our knowledge about plants, how they come into being, develop and interact with their environment, mostly forgotten...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895699/association-between-sleep-related-breathing-disorders-and-academic-performance-among-children-from-concepci%C3%A3-n-chile
#8
Darwin Gatica, Iván Rodríguez-Núñez, Daniel Zenteno, María J Elso, Juan J Montesinos, Carlos Manterola
The objective of this study was to establish an association between academic performance in Math, Language Arts, and Science and the presence of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) among healthy schoolchildren from the city of Concepción, Chile. Healthy children were defined as those without comorbidities. Outcome measures of interest included the analysis of academic performance in Math, Language Arts, and Science and the presence of SRBD assessed using the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. Two-hundred and fifty-six children were included in the study (59...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895145/in-between-mental-evolution-and-unconscious-memory-lamarckism-darwinism-and-professionalism-in-late-victorian-britain
#9
Cristiano Turbil
In 1884 Samuel Butler published a collection of essays entitled Remarks on George Romanes' Mental Evolution, where he attempted to show how Romanes' idea of mental evolution presented similarities with his theory of unconscious memory. By looking at Romanes' work through Butler's writing, this article will reevaluate some aspects of their works regarding the complex debate about memory, heredity, and instinct. This paper will explore the main differences and similarities between Romanes' science and Butler's writing on science both in terms of their ideas and contents...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885997/susac-syndrome-the-first-case-report-in-peru
#10
Carolina Rivadeneira-Sotelo, María Meza Vega, Darwin Segura-Chávez, Sheila Castro-Suarez
Susac Syndrome is a rare entity, characterized by a triad of subacute encephalopathy, retinal artery occlusion and sensorineural hearing loss. It is more common in women and the age of onset fluctuates between 9-58 years of age. The pathogenesis is presented as microangiopathic changes at the cerebral, retinal and cochlear levels associated with an autoimmune mechanism. We present the case of a 31-year-old woman who started with a diffuse headache, puerile behavior, bradylalia and somnolence. As the disease progressed, she had auditory deficit and arterial obstruction of the right temporal retinal branch in retinal fluorescein angiography...
August 30, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867550/neurotransmitter-switching-regulated-by-mirnas-controls-changes-in-social-preference
#11
Davide Dulcis, Giordano Lippi, Christiana J Stark, Long H Do, Darwin K Berg, Nicholas C Spitzer
Changes in social preference of amphibian larvae result from sustained exposure to kinship odorants. To understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of this neuroplasticity, we investigated the effects of olfactory system activation on neurotransmitter (NT) expression in accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) interneurons during development. We show that protracted exposure to kin or non-kin odorants changes the number of dopamine (DA)- or gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-expressing neurons, with corresponding changes in attraction/aversion behavior...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858942/colonoscopy-in-patients-with-postmyocardial-infarction-gastrointestinal-bleeding-a-nationwide-analysis
#12
Rohan M Modi, Feng Li, Khalid Mumtaz, Alice Hinton, Scott M Lilly, Hisham Hussan, Edward Levine, Cheng Zhang, Darwin L Conwell, Somashekar G Krishna, Peter P Stanich
GOALS: The goal of this study was to evaluate outcomes of colonoscopy in the setting of post myocardial infarction (MI) gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in a large population-based data set. BACKGROUND: The literature to substantiate the proposed safety of colonoscopy following an acute MI is limited. STUDY: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2007 to 2013) was utilized to identify all adult patients (age, 18 y or above) hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of ST-elevation MI and receiving left heart catheterization (STEMI-C)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856772/53rd-annual-scientific-meeting-of-the-australian-and-new-zealand-society-of-nephrology-anzsn-4-6-september-2017-darwin-convention-centre-northern-territory
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856456/the-associations-of-resilience-and-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-black-gay-bisexual-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-in-the-deep-south-the-mari-study
#14
Obie S McNair, June A Gipson, Damian Denson, Darwin V Thompson, Madeline Y Sutton, DeMarc A Hickson
Resilience is an understudied intrapersonal factor that may reduce HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of sexual risk behaviors, HIV prevalence, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with resilience scores in a population-based study among 364 black MSM in the Deep South. Participants with higher resilience scores had a lower prevalence of condomless anal sex with casual sexual partners in past 12 months (PR = 0...
August 30, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854201/association-of-whale-sharks-rhincodon-typus-with-thermo-biological-frontal-systems-of-the-eastern-tropical-pacific
#15
John P Ryan, Jonathan R Green, Eduardo Espinoza, Alex R Hearn
Satellite tracking of 27 whale sharks in the eastern tropical Pacific, examined in relation to environmental data, indicates preferential occupancy of thermo-biological frontal systems. In these systems, thermal gradients are caused by wind-forced circulation and mixing, and biological gradients are caused by associated nutrient enrichment and enhanced primary productivity. Two of the frontal systems result from upwelling, driven by divergence in the current systems along the equator and the west coast of South America; the third results from wind jet dynamics off Central America...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839927/the-purpose-of-adaptation
#16
Andy Gardner
A central feature of Darwin's theory of natural selection is that it explains the purpose of biological adaptation. Here, I: emphasize the scientific importance of understanding what adaptations are for, in terms of facilitating the derivation of empirically testable predictions; discuss the population genetical basis for Darwin's theory of the purpose of adaptation, with reference to Fisher's 'fundamental theorem of natural selection'; and show that a deeper understanding of the purpose of adaptation is achieved in the context of social evolution, with reference to inclusive fitness and superorganisms...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839924/evolution-viewed-from-physics-physiology-and-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Denis Noble
Stochasticity is harnessed by organisms to generate functionality. Randomness does not, therefore, necessarily imply lack of function or 'blind chance' at higher levels. In this respect, biology must resemble physics in generating order from disorder. This fact is contrary to Schrödinger's idea of biology generating phenotypic order from molecular-level order, which inspired the central dogma of molecular biology. The order originates at higher levels, which constrain the components at lower levels. We now know that this includes the genome, which is controlled by patterns of transcription factors and various epigenetic and reorganization mechanisms...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838152/etiology-of-severe-acute-watery-diarrhea-in-children-in-the-global-rotavirus-surveillance-network-using-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Darwin J Operario, James A Platts-Mills, Sandrama Nadan, Nicola Page, Mapaseka Seheri, Jeffrey Mphahlele, Ira Praharaj, Gagandeep Kang, Irene T Araujo, Jose Paulo G Leite, Daniel Cowley, Sarah Thomas, Carl D Kirkwood, Francis Dennis, George Armah, Jason M Mwenda, Pushpa Ranjan Wijesinghe, Gloria Rey, Varja Grabovac, Chipo Berejena, Chibumbya J Simwaka, Jeannine Uwimana, Jeevan B Sherchand, Hlaing Myat Thu, Geethani Galagoda, Isidore J O Bonkoungou, Sheriffo Jagne, Enyonam Tsolenyanu, Amadou Diop, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea, Sam-Aliyah Borbor, Jie Liu, Timothy McMurry, Benjamin Lopman, Umesh Parashar, John Gentsch, A Duncan Steele, Adam Cohen, Fatima Serhan, Eric R Houpt
Background: The etiology of acute watery diarrhea remains poorly characterized, particularly after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Methods: We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction for multiple enteropathogens on 878 acute watery diarrheal stools sampled from 14643 episodes captured by surveillance of children <5 years of age during 2013-2014 from 16 countries. We used previously developed models of the association between pathogen quantity and diarrhea to calculate pathogen-specific weighted attributable fractions (AFs)...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836588/evolution-darwin-s-domestic-discoveries
#19
Henry Nicholls
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835203/epigenetic-variation-between-urban-and-rural-populations-of-darwin-s-finches
#20
Sabrina M McNew, Daniel Beck, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Sarah A Knutie, Jennifer A H Koop, Dale H Clayton, Michael K Skinner
BACKGROUND: The molecular basis of evolutionary change is assumed to be genetic variation. However, growing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, may also be involved in rapid adaptation to new environments. An important first step in evaluating this hypothesis is to test for the presence of epigenetic variation between natural populations living under different environmental conditions. RESULTS: In the current study we explored variation between populations of Darwin's finches, which comprise one of the best-studied examples of adaptive radiation...
August 24, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
keyword
keyword
23722
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"