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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913842/alfonso-luis-herrera-and-the-beginnings-of-evolutionism-and-studies-in-the-origin-of-life-in-mexico
#1
Ismael Ledesma-Mateos, H James Cleaves
Alfonso Luis Herrera (1868-1942) was a Mexican biologist, and significant as the principal promoter of Darwinian thought in that country. However, Herrera's thinking went beyond the evolution of living beings, and extended to the question of the origin of life itself and the place of living phenomena in the larger context of the cosmos. Perhaps more significantly, though now largely forgotten, Herrera was among the first to embark on an experimental program to understand the origin of life, one which may be seen as foundational for later workers, most notably Sidney Fox and Alexander Oparin, and which has been resuscitated recently...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913413/new-arsenate-reductase-gene-arra-pcr-primers-for-diversity-assessment-and-quantification-in-environmental-samples
#2
Babur S Mirza, Darwin L Sorensen, R Ryan Dupont, Joan E McLean
: The extent of arsenic contamination in drinking water and its potential threat to human health have resulted in considerable research interest in the microbial species responsible for arsenic reduction. The arsenate reductase gene (arrA), an important component of the microbial arsenate reduction system, has been widely used as a biomarker to study arsenate reducing microorganisms. A new primer pair was designed and evaluated for qPCR and high-throughput sequencing of the arrA gene, because currently available PCR primers are not suitable for these applications...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913210/trpv4-activation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-resists-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-blocking-cyp2e1-mediated-redox-toxicity
#3
Ratanesh K Seth, Suvarthi Das, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Firas Alhasson, Gregory Michelotti, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Anna Mae Diehl, Darwin P Bell, Wolfgang Liedtke, Saurabh Chatterjee
NAFLD is a clinically progressive disease with steatosis, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis being the stages where clinical intervention becomes necessary. Lack of early biomarkers and absence of a FDA approved drug obstructs efforts for effective treatment. NAFLD progression is strongly linked to a balance between liver injury, tissue regeneration and the functioning of endogenous defense mechanisms. The failure of the defense pathways to resist the tissue damage arising from redox stress, one of the "multiple hits" in disease progression, give rise to heightened inflammation and occasional fibrosis...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912931/consensus-statement-surgical-stabilization-of-rib-fractures-rib-fracture-colloquium-clinical-practice-guidelines
#4
Fredric M Pieracci, Sarah Majercik, Francis Ali-Osman, Darwin Ang, Andrew Doben, John G Edwards, Bruce French, Mario Gasparri, Silvana Marasco, Christian Minshall, Babak Sarani, William Tisol, Don H VanBoerum, Thomas W White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911817/tnf%C3%AE-stimulated-gene-6-tsg6-activates-macrophage-phenotype-transition-to-prevent-inflammatory-lung-injury
#5
Manish Mittal, Chinnaswamy Tiruppathi, Saroj Nepal, You-Yang Zhao, Dagmara Grzych, Dheeraj Soni, Darwin J Prockop, Asrar B Malik
TNFα-stimulated gene-6 (TSG6), a 30-kDa protein generated by activated macrophages, modulates inflammation; however, its mechanism of action and role in the activation of macrophages are not fully understood. Here we observed markedly augmented LPS-induced inflammatory lung injury and mortality in TSG6(-/-) mice compared with WT (TSG6(+/+)) mice. Treatment of mice with intratracheal instillation of TSG6 prevented LPS-induced lung injury and neutrophil sequestration, and increased survival in mice. We found that TSG6 inhibited the association of TLR4 with MyD88, thereby suppressing NF-κB activation...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909301/genetic-architecture-and-evolution-of-the-s-locus-supergene-in-primula-vulgaris
#6
Jinhong Li, Jonathan M Cocker, Jonathan Wright, Margaret A Webster, Mark McMullan, Sarah Dyer, David Swarbreck, Mario Caccamo, Cock van Oosterhout, Philip M Gilmartin
Darwin's studies on heterostyly in Primula described two floral morphs, pin and thrum, with reciprocal anther and stigma heights that promote insect-mediated cross-pollination. This key innovation evolved independently in several angiosperm families. Subsequent studies on heterostyly in Primula contributed to the foundation of modern genetic theory and the neo-Darwinian synthesis. The established genetic model for Primula heterostyly involves a diallelic S locus comprising several genes, with rare recombination events that result in self-fertile homostyle flowers with anthers and stigma at the same height...
December 2, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908673/darwin-comes-to-clinic
#7
Arthur L Beaudet
What might be the benefits of whole-genome rather than whole-exome sequencing (WES) for identifying the genetic causes of human disabilities? A recent paper by Doan et al. focuses attention on mutations in human accelerated regions (HARs), a subset of genomic regulatory elements showing accelerated evolution between chimpanzees and humans.
November 28, 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897341/adaptive-self-assembly-behaviour-restrained-by-supramolecular-crystallization-and-molecular-recognition
#8
Seiji Shinkai, Bappaditya Roy, Takao Noguchi, Daisuke Yoshihara, Junji Sakamoto, Tatsuhiro Yamamoto
Recently, the supramolecular community is integrating different approaches to find converging ideas towards understanding the 'origin of life'. In this report, we have found an interesting adaptation trait, as like in Darwin's theory, in a bolaamphiphile molecule and established an environment friendly behaviour under non-covalent forces leading to evolve diverse assembly structures and interesting photo-physical properties. The perylene diimide (PDI)-based bolaamphiphile is used as a promising scaffold with great potential for the development of emerging supramolecular system...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896387/alexandr-i-oparin-and-the-origin-of-life-a-historical-reassessment-of-the-heterotrophic-theory
#9
Antonio Lazcano
The heterotrophic origin of life proposed by A. I. Oparin in the 1920s was part of a Darwinian framework that assumed that living organisms were the historical outcome of a gradual transformation of lifeless matter. Eighty years ago, he presented a much more detailed scheme of the processes that may have led to life. As argued here, the development of the heterotrophic theory has been shaped by an entangled scenario in which a number of technical and scientific developments concur, as well as non-scientific issues including the Stalinist period and the tensions of the Cold War atmosphere...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892509/evolution-of-cooperation-under-indirect-reciprocity-and-arbitrary-exploration-rates
#10
Fernando P Santos, Jorge M Pacheco, Francisco C Santos
Cooperation has been recognized as an evolutionary puzzle since Darwin, and remains identified as one of the biggest challenges of the XXIst century. Indirect Reciprocity (IR), a key mechanism that humans employ to cooperate with each other, establishes that individual behaviour depends on reputations, which in turn evolve depending on social norms that classify behaviours as good or bad. While it is well known that different social norms give rise to distinct cooperation levels, it remains unclear how the performance of each norm is influenced by the random exploration of new behaviours, often a key component of social dynamics where a plethora of stimuli may compel individuals to deviate from pre-defined behaviours...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881755/unravelling-darwin-s-entangled-bank-architecture-and-robustness-of-mutualistic-networks-with-multiple-interaction-types
#11
Wesley Dáttilo, Nubia Lara-Rodríguez, Pedro Jordano, Paulo R Guimarães, John N Thompson, Robert J Marquis, Lucas P Medeiros, Raul Ortiz-Pulido, Maria A Marcos-García, Victor Rico-Gray
Trying to unravel Darwin's entangled bank further, we describe the architecture of a network involving multiple forms of mutualism (pollination by animals, seed dispersal by birds and plant protection by ants) and evaluate whether this multi-network shows evidence of a structure that promotes robustness. We found that species differed strongly in their contributions to the organization of the multi-interaction network, and that only a few species contributed to the structuring of these patterns. Moreover, we observed that the multi-interaction networks did not enhance community robustness compared with each of the three independent mutualistic networks when analysed across a range of simulated scenarios of species extinction...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878799/microsurgery-robots-addressing-the-needs-of-high-precision-surgical-interventions
#12
Leonardo S Mattos, Darwin G Caldwell, Giorgio Peretti, Francesco Mora, Luca Guastini, Roberto Cingolani
Robotics has a significant potential to enhance the overall capacity and efficiency of healthcare systems. Robots can help surgeons perform better quality operations, leading to reductions in the hospitalisation time of patients and in the impact of surgery on their postoperative quality of life. In particular, robotics can have a significant impact on microsurgery, which presents stringent requirements for superhuman precision and control of the surgical tools. Microsurgery is, in fact, expected to gain importance in a growing range of surgical specialties as novel technologies progressively enable the detection, diagnosis and treatment of diseases at earlier stages...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875117/emotional-matters-innovative-software-brings-emotional-intelligence-to-our-digital-devices
#13
Ahmed Morsy
In 1872, Charles Darwin published The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, in which he argued that mammals show emotion reliably in their faces. Since then, thousands of studies have confirmed the robustness of Darwin's argument in many fields, including linguistics, semiotics, social psychology, and computer science. More interestingly, several studies, including those of renowned psychologist Paul Ekman, demonstrated that basic emotions are, indeed, universal. Affectiva, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology spinoff located in Waltham, Massachusetts, builds a variety of products that harness the two main characteristics of facial expressions-robustness and universality-to measure and analyze emotional responses...
November 2016: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871595/a-comparison-of-king-vision-video-laryngoscopy-and-direct-laryngoscopy-as-performed-by-residents-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Jose A Valencia, Katherine Pimienta, Darwin Cohen, Daniel Benitez, David Romero, Oswaldo Amaya, Enrique Arango
STUDY OBJECTIVE: For more than 40 years, direct laryngoscopy (DL) has been used to assure the airway during endotracheal intubation. The King Vision video laryngoscope is one of the latest devices introduced for endotracheal intubation. We hypothesize that, relative to direct laryngoscopy, it improves the intubation success rate with fewer intubation attempts and no difference in intubation time or complications. DESIGN: This randomized controlled clinical trial included...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860005/determining-culex-annulirostris-larval-densities-and-control-efforts-across-a-coastal-wetland-northern-territory-australia
#15
N Kurucz, S Jacups, J M Carter
The Darwin coastal wetlands provide suitable breeding conditions for Culex annulirostris, which is abundant between December and August each year. This species is the principal vector for arboviruses, including Ross River virus and Murray Valley encephalitis, and is an appreciable pest species. Aerial control is conducted when routine larval surveys for this species predict high numbers of emergent adults. We sought to determine the most productive vegetation categories and seasonal aspects associated with Cx...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858326/left-ventricular-assist-devices-impact-hospital-resource-utilization-without-affecting-patient-mortality-in-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#16
Feng Li, Alice Hinton, Alan Chen, Nishaki K Mehta, Samer Eldika, Cheng Zhang, Hisham Hussan, Darwin L Conwell, Somashekar G Krishna
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are being utilized for management of end-stage heart failure and require systemic anticoagulation. Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is one of the most common adverse events following LVAD implantation. AIM: To investigate the impact of continuous-flow (CF) LVAD implants on outcomes of patients admitted with GIB. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample in the CF-LVAD era from 2010 to 2012...
November 17, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853737/validation-of-diagnostic-characteristics-of-needle-based-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-in-differentiation-of-pancreatic-cystic-lesions
#17
Somashekar G Krishna, Benjamin Swanson, Phil A Hart, Samer El-Dika, Jon P Walker, Sean T McCarthy, Ahmad Malli, Zarine K Shah, Darwin L Conwell
: Background and aims: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided needle-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (nCLE) characteristics of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) have been identified in studies where the gold standard surgical histopathology was available in a minority of patients. There are diverging reports of interobserver agreement (IOA) and paucity of intraobserver reliability (IOR). Thus, we sought to validate current EUS-nCLE criteria of PCLs in a larger consecutive series of surgical patients...
November 2016: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852192/bunbury-to-bundaberg-darwin-to-dover-establishing-a-successful-regional-participation-program-for-the-endia-type-1-diabetes-cohort-study
#18
Megan Ann Sabine Penno, Rebecca Louise Thomson, Jennifer J Couper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848059/the-creativity-of-natural-selection-part-i-darwin-darwinism-and-the-mutationists
#19
John Beatty
This is the first of a two-part essay on the history of debates concerning the creativity of natural selection, from Darwin through the evolutionary synthesis and up to the present. Here I focus on the mid-late nineteenth century to the early twentieth, with special emphasis on early Darwinism and its critics, the self-styled "mutationists." The second part focuses on the evolutionary synthesis and some of its critics, especially the "neutralists" and "neo-mutationists." Like Stephen Gould, I consider the creativity of natural selection to be a key component of what has traditionally counted as "Darwinism...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847323/pigeonetics-takes-flight-evolution-development-and-genetics-of-intraspecific-variation
#20
REVIEW
Eric T Domyan, Michael D Shapiro
Intensive artificial selection over thousands of years has produced hundreds of varieties of domestic pigeon. As Charles Darwin observed, the morphological differences among breeds can rise to the magnitude of variation typically observed among different species. Nevertheless, different pigeon varieties are interfertile, thereby enabling forward genetic and genomic approaches to identify genes that underlie derived traits. Building on classical genetic studies of pigeon variation, recent molecular investigations find a spectrum of coding and regulatory alleles controlling derived traits, including plumage color, feather growth polarity, and limb identity...
November 12, 2016: Developmental Biology
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