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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638991/integrating-tinbergen-s-inquiries-mimicry-and-play-in-humans-and-other-social-mammals
#1
Elisabetta Palagi, Chiara Scopa
Visual signals convey emotions and intentions between individuals. Darwin underlined that human facial expressions represent a shared heritage between our species and many other social mammals. Social play is a fertile field to examine the role and the potential communicative function of facial expressions. The relaxed open-mouth (or play face) is a context-specific playful expression, which is widespread in human and non-human mammals. Here, we focus on playful communication by applying Tinbergen's four areas of inquiry: proximate causation, ontogeny, function, and evolution...
June 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637551/outcomes-of-geriatric-trauma-patients-on-preinjury-anticoagulation-a-multicenter-study
#2
Darwin Ang, Stan Kurek, Mark McKenney, Scott Norwood, Brian Kimbrell, Erik Barquist, Huazhi Liu, Annette O'Dell, Michele Ziglar, James Hurst
Outpatient anticoagulation in the geriatric trauma patient is a challenging clinical problem. The aim of this study is to determine clinical outcomes associated with class of preinjury anticoagulants (PA) used by this population. This is a multicenter retrospective cohort study among four Level II trauma centers. A total of 1642 patients were evaluated; 684 patients were on anticoagulation and 958 patients were not. Patients on PA were compared with those who were not. Drug classes were divided into thromboxane A2 inhibitors, vitamin K factor-dependent inhibitors, antithrombin III activation, platelet P2Y12 inhibitors, and thrombin inhibitors...
June 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633035/economy-and-endurance-in-human-evolution
#3
REVIEW
Herman Pontzer
The evolutionary pressures shaping humans' unique bipedal locomotion have been a focus of research since Darwin, but the origins of humans' economical walking gait and endurance running capabilities remain unclear. Here, I review the anatomical and physiological determinants of locomotor economy (e.g., limb length and posture) and endurance (e.g., muscle volume and fiber type) and investigate their development in the hominin fossil record. The earliest hominins were bipedal but retained ape-like features in the hind limb that would have limited their walking economy compared to living humans...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631189/marco-solinas-from-aristotle-s-teleology-to-darwin-s-genealogy-the-stamp-of-inutility-palgrave-macmillan-basingstoke-2015-200%C3%A2-pp-95-00-hardcover
#4
Bernardino Fantini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625040/vitamin-d-status-in-under-five-children-with-a-history-of-close-tuberculosis-contact-in-padang-west-sumatra
#5
Finny Fitry Yani, Nur Indrawaty Lipoeto, Bambang Supriyatno, Eryati Darwin, Darfioes Basir
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Serum vitamin D influences cellular immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly in under-five children. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency as well as tuberculosis (TB) are highly prevalent in Indonesia. This study described the association of serum vitamin D in the incidence of latent TB in under-five children with a history of close TB contact. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study examined 178 under-five children with a history of close TB contact, with 98 index cases from primary health care facilities in Padang...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623494/the-effects-of-pesticides-on-morphology-viability-and-germination-of-blackberry-rubus-glaucus-benth-and-tree-tomato-solanum-betaceum-cav-pollen-grains
#6
Flavio Padilla, Norman Soria, Abrahan Oleas, Darwin Rueda, Bangeppagari Manjunatha, Rajesh R Kundapur, Naga Raju Maddela, Bugude Rajeswari
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of application of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of pollen grains of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). The study was performed at Patate, Tungurahua province, Ecuador and was divided into two phases. Phase one dedicated to the study of morphology, viability, and identification of nutrient solution for better germination of pollen grains and phase two for the analysis of the effect of conventional, organic, and biological pesticides on pollen grain germination and pollen tube length...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622938/american-palaeontology-and-the-reception-of-darwinism
#7
Peter J Bowler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617455/natural-history-thoreau-s-debt-to-darwin
#8
Randall Fuller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616183/dissecting-spatiotemporal-patterns-of-functional-diversity-through-the-lens-of-darwin-s-naturalization-conundrum
#9
Sara E Campbell, Nicholas E Mandrak
Darwin's naturalization conundrum describes the paradigm that community assembly is regulated by two opposing processes, environmental filtering and competitive interactions, which predict both similarity and distinctiveness of species to be important for establishment. Our goal is to use long-term, large-scale, and high-resolution temporal data to examine diversity patterns over time and assess whether environmental filtering or competition plays a larger role in regulating community assembly processes. We evaluated Darwin's naturalization conundrum and how functional diversity has changed in the Laurentian Great Lakes fish community from 1870 to 2010, which has experienced frequent introductions of non-native species and extirpations of native species...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613158/sexual-selection-gradients-change-over-time-in-a-simultaneous-hermaphrodite
#10
Jeroen Na Hoffer, Janine Mariën, Jacintha Ellers, Joris M Koene
Sexual selection is generally predicted to act more strongly on males than on females. The Darwin-Bateman paradigm predicts that this should also hold for hermaphrodites. However, measuring this strength of selection is less straightforward when both sexual functions are performed throughout the organism's lifetime. Besides, quantifications of sexual selection are usually done during a short time window, while many animals store sperm and are long-lived. To explore whether the chosen timeframe affects estimated measures of sexual selection, we recorded mating success and reproductive success over time, using a simultaneous hermaphrodite...
June 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601483/reshaping-darwin-s-tree-impact-of-the-symbiome
#11
Erin A Tripp, Ning Zhang, Harald Schneider, Ying Huang, Gregory M Mueller, Zhihong Hu, Max Häggblom, Debashish Bhattacharya
Much of the undescribed biodiversity on Earth is microbial, often in mutualistic or pathogenic associations. Physically associated and coevolving life forms comprise a symbiome. We propose that systematics research can accelerate progress in science by introducing a new framework for phylogenetic analysis of symbiomes, here termed SYMPHY (symbiome phylogenetics).
June 1, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600657/validation-of-demographics-etiology-and-risk-factors-for-chronic-pancreatitis-in-the-usa-a-report-of-the-north-american-pancreas-study-naps-group
#12
Darwin L Conwell, Peter A Banks, Bimaljit S Sandhu, Stuart Sherman, Samer Al-Kaade, Timothy B Gardner, Michelle A Anderson, C Mel Wilcox, Michele D Lewis, Thiruvengadam Muniraj, Christopher E Forsmark, Gregory A Cote, Nalini M Guda, Ye Tian, Joseph Romagnuolo, Stephen R Wisniewski, Randall Brand, Andres Gelrud, Adam Slivka, David C Whitcomb, Dhiraj Yadav
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to validate recent epidemiologic trends and describe the distribution of TIGAR-O risk factors in chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients. METHODS: The NAPS-2 Continuation and Validation (NAPS2-CV) study prospectively enrolled 521 CP patients from 13 US centers from 2008 to 2012. CP was defined by definitive changes in imaging, endoscopy, or histology. Data were analyzed after stratification by demographic factors, physician-defined etiology, participating center, and TIGAR-O risk factors...
June 9, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598270/investigating-the-adult-ixodid-tick-populations-and-their-associated-anaplasma-ehrlichia-and-rickettsia-bacteria-at-a-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-hotspot-in-western-tennessee
#13
Rebecca T Trout Fryxell, Brain M Hendricks, Kimberly Pompo, Sarah E Mays, Dave J Paulsen, Darwin J Operario, Allan E Houston
Ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are two common bacterial tick-borne diseases in the southeastern United States. Ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichiae transmitted by Amblyomma americanum and rickettsiosis is caused by rickettsiae transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis. These ticks are common and have overlapping distributions in the region. The objective of this study was to identify Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species associated with questing ticks in a Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) hotspot, and identify habitats, time periods, and collection methods for collecting questing-infected ticks...
June 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595177/genomics-perspectives-on-metabolism-survival-strategies-and-biotechnological-applications-of-brettanomyces-bruxellensis-lamap2480
#14
Liliana Godoy, Evelyn Silva-Moreno, Wladimir Mardones, Darwin Guzman, Francisco Cubillos, Angélica Ganga
Wine production is an important commercial issue for the liquor industry. The global production was estimated at 275.7 million hectoliters in 2015. The loss of wine production due to Brettanomyces bruxellensis contamination is currently a problem. This yeast causes a "horse sweat" flavor in wine, which is an undesired organoleptic attribute. To date, 6 B. bruxellensis annotated genome sequences are available (LAMAP2480, AWRI1499, AWRI1608, AWRI1613, ST05.12/22, and CBS2499), and whole genome comparisons between strains are limited...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577665/rationale-design-and-baseline-characteristics-of-the-salt-substitute-and-stroke-study-ssass-a-large-scale-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Bruce Neal, Maoyi Tian, Nicole Li, Paul Elliott, Lijing L Yan, Darwin R Labarthe, Liping Huang, Xuejun Yin, Zhixin Hao, Sandrine Stepien, Jingpu Shi, Xiangxian Feng, Jianxin Zhang, Yuhong Zhang, Ruijuan Zhang, Yangfeng Wu
Lowering sodium intake with a reduced-sodium, added potassium salt substitute has been proved to lower blood pressure levels. Whether the same strategy will also reduce the risks of vascular outcomes is uncertain and controversial. The SSaSS has been designed to test whether sodium reduction achieved with a salt substitute can reduce the risk of vascular disease. The study is a large-scale, open, cluster-randomized controlled trial done in 600 villages across 5 provinces in China. Participants have either a history of stroke or an elevated risk of stroke based on age and blood pressure level at entry...
June 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568812/second-order-cooperation-cooperative-offspring-as-a-living-public-good-arising-from-second-order-selection-on-non-cooperative-individuals
#16
Antoine Frénoy, François Taddei, Dusan Misevic
Switching rate between cooperating and non-cooperating genotypes is a crucial social evolution factor, often neglected by game theory-inspired theoretical and experimental frameworks. We show that the evolution of alleles increasing the mutation or phenotypic switching rates toward cooperation is in itself a social dilemma. Although cooperative offspring are often unlikely to reproduce, due to high cost of cooperation, they can be seen both as a living public good and a part of the extended parental phenotype...
May 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566895/in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-confocal-endomicroscopy-of-pancreatic-cystic-lesions-a-prospective-study
#17
Somashekar G Krishna, Rohan M Modi, Amrit K Kamboj, Benjamin J Swanson, Phil A Hart, Mary E Dillhoff, Andrei Manilchuk, Carl R Schmidt, Darwin L Conwell
AIM: To investigate the reproducibility of the in vivo endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) - guided needle based confocal endomicroscopy (nCLE) image patterns in an ex vivo setting and compare these to surgical histopathology for characterizing pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). METHODS: In a prospective study evaluating EUS-nCLE for evaluation of PCLs, 10 subjects underwent an in vivo nCLE (AQ-Flex nCLE miniprobe; Cellvizio, MaunaKea, Paris, France) during EUS and ex vivo probe based CLE (pCLE) of the PCL (Gastroflex ultrahigh definition probe, Cellvizio) after surgical resection...
May 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566483/the-sources-of-adaptive-variation
#18
REVIEW
Deborah Charlesworth, Nicholas H Barton, Brian Charlesworth
The role of natural selection in the evolution of adaptive phenotypes has undergone constant probing by evolutionary biologists, employing both theoretical and empirical approaches. As Darwin noted, natural selection can act together with other processes, including random changes in the frequencies of phenotypic differences that are not under strong selection, and changes in the environment, which may reflect evolutionary changes in the organisms themselves. As understanding of genetics developed after 1900, the new genetic discoveries were incorporated into evolutionary biology...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545050/prevalence-and-extent-of-heteroresistance-by-next-generation-sequencing-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#19
Darwin J Operario, Alexander F Koeppel, Stephen D Turner, Yongde Bao, Suporn Pholwat, Sayera Banu, Suporn Foongladda, Stellah Mpagama, Jean Gratz, Oleg Ogarkov, Svetlana Zhadova, Scott K Heysell, Eric R Houpt
Amplicon-based Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is an emerging method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (DST) but has not been well described. We examined 158 clinical multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates via NGS of 11 resistance-associated gene regions covering 3519 nucleotides. Across these gene regions, complete resistance or heteroresistance (defined as 1%-99% mutation) was present in at least one isolate in 6.3% of loci. The number of isolates with heteroresistance was highest for gyrA codon 94, rpoB codons 526 and 531, and embB codons 306, 372 and 406 (range 11-26% of isolates exhibited heteroresistance)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526096/pvgama-reticulocyte-binding-activity-predicting-conserved-functional-regions-by-natural-selection-analysis
#20
Luis A Baquero, Darwin A Moreno-Pérez, Diego Garzón-Ospina, Johanna Forero-Rodríguez, Heidy D Ortiz-Suárez, Manuel A Patarroyo
BACKGROUND: Adhesin proteins are used by Plasmodium parasites to bind and invade target cells. Hence, characterising molecules that participate in reticulocyte interaction is key to understanding the molecular basis of Plasmodium vivax invasion. This study focused on predicting functionally restricted regions of the P. vivax GPI-anchored micronemal antigen (PvGAMA) and characterising their reticulocyte binding activity. RESULTS: The pvgama gene was initially found in P...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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