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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812717/palaeontology-darwin-s-dilemma-dissolved
#1
Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812628/the-deepening-of-darwin-s-abominable-mystery
#2
Richard J A Buggs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811053/burns-first-aid-treatment-in-remote-northern-australia
#3
David J Read, Swee Chin Tan, Linda Ward, Kathleen McDermott
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is well demonstrated that adequate burns first aid treatment (BFAT) improves clinical outcomes for the injured but adequacy remains low in many studies. This study presents a twelve month assessment of the adequacy of burns first aid treatment for patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH). METHODS: Prospective study design of all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital. Data were collated from two sources; RDH Burns Registry, and the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ)...
August 12, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804712/virtual-and-actual-humanoid-robot-control-with-four-class-motor-imagery-based-optical-brain-computer-interface
#4
Alyssa M Batula, Youngmoo E Kim, Hasan Ayaz
Motor-imagery tasks are a popular input method for controlling brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), partially due to their similarities to naturally produced motor signals. The use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in BCIs is still emerging and has shown potential as a supplement or replacement for electroencephalography. However, studies often use only two or three motor-imagery tasks, limiting the number of available commands. In this work, we present the results of the first four-class motor-imagery-based online fNIRS-BCI for robot control...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796136/local-and-systemic-expression-of-immunomodulatory-factors-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#5
Hannah M Komar, Phil A Hart, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, Darwin L Conwell, Gregory B Lesinski
Inflammatory and fibrotic events that drive chronic pancreatitis (CP) are likely orchestrated via signaling of soluble cytokines and chemokines systemically and within the pancreas. However, a comprehensive summary of the expression of such factors during CP has not been reported to date. This information is important given continued interest in targeting cytokines that influence CP pathogenesis. Reported data on the expression change of soluble immunomodulatory factors in human CP patients were identified via a literature search using a single search term...
September 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790223/the-effect-of-psychological-stress-on-mucosal-il-6-and-helicobacter-pylori-activity-in-functional-dyspepsia
#6
Eryati Darwin, Arina Widya Murni, Adnil E Nurdin
BACKGROUND: pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia remains poorly understood. Many factors such as gastric motility disorder, visceral hypersensitivity, Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, psychological stress and excessive gastric acid secretion play roles in this symptom. Psychological stress may promote peptic ulcer and has an effect on ulcers-associated Hp. This study aimed to determine Helicobacter pylori activity and expression of mucosal IL-6 and their association with psychological stress...
April 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780293/progress-in-life-s-history-linking-darwinism-and-palaeontology-in-britain-1860-1914
#7
Chris Manias
This paper examines the tension between Darwinian evolution and palaeontological research in Britain in the 1860-1914 period, looking at how three key promoters of Darwinian thinking - Thomas Henry Huxley, Edwin Ray Lankester and Alfred Russell Wallace - integrated palaeontological ideas and narratives of life's history into their public presentations of evolutionary theory. It shows how engagement with palaeontological science was an important part of the promotion of evolutionary ideas in Britain, which often bolstered notions that evolution depended upon progress and development along a wider plan...
August 2, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770322/metformin-for-diabetes-prevention-insights-gained-from-the-diabetes-prevention-program-diabetes-prevention-program-outcomes-study
#8
REVIEW
Vanita R Aroda, William C Knowler, Jill P Crandall, Leigh Perreault, Sharon L Edelstein, Susan L Jeffries, Mark E Molitch, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Christine Darwin, Brandy M Heckman-Stoddard, Marinella Temprosa, Steven E Kahn, David M Nathan
The largest and longest clinical trial of metformin for the prevention of diabetes is the Diabetes Prevention Program/Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPP/DPPOS). In this review, we summarise data from the DPP/DPPOS, focusing on metformin for diabetes prevention, as well as its long-term glycaemic and cardiometabolic effects and safety in people at high-risk of developing diabetes. The DPP (1996-2001) was a RCT of 3234 adults who, at baseline, were at high-risk of developing diabetes. Participants were assigned to masked placebo (n = 1082) or metformin (n = 1073) 850 mg twice daily, or intensive lifestyle intervention (n = 1079)...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762647/renal-histology-in-indigenous-australians-with-lupus-nephritis
#9
Farshad Ghazanfari, Zulfikar Jabbar, Johannes Nossent
BACKGROUND: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a feared complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Renal biopsy is valuable to assess disease severity and prognosis, but no histological data are available for Indigenous Australians (IA). We compared histopathology between IA and non-IA patients (NI) with LN in northern Australia and describe main outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all patients with biopsy evidence of LN at Royal Darwin Hospital over a 10-year period...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760912/when-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-she-met-charles-darwin-and-francis-galton
#10
Liborio Parrino, Giovanni Pavesi
Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is characterized by short-lasting seizures patterned by repetitive and stereotyped motor events in the same person. In autosomal dominant SHE, genetic factors play a well-known key role. In The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin quotes a plausible example of SHE illustrated by his cousin Sir Francis Galton: "the gentleman…lay fast asleep on his back in bed, raising his right arm slowly in front of his face, up to his forehead, and then dropping it with a jerk, so that the wrist fell heavily on the bridge of his nose...
August 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759947/paediatric-surgical-services-in-remote-northern-australia-an-integrated-model-of-care
#11
Liam Quinn, David Read
BACKGROUND: Surgical services for children in the Northern Territory of Australia are routinely performed by general surgeons with specific paediatric training, supported by paediatric surgeons. In Australasia, indications for appropriate transfer of elective routine surgery in children to tertiary paediatric surgical centres have been contentious. To transfer all elective paediatric cases from rural locations would have significant social and financial consequences for families and the health system...
July 31, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756522/defining-fitness-in-an-uncertain-world
#12
Paul Crewe, Richard Gratwick, Alan Grafen
The recently elucidated definition of fitness employed by Fisher in his fundamental theorem of natural selection is combined with reproductive values as appropriately defined in the context of both random environments and continuing fluctuations in the distribution over classes in a class-structured population. We obtain astonishingly simple results, generalisations of the Price Equation and the fundamental theorem, that show natural selection acting only through the arithmetic expectation of fitness over all uncertainties, in contrast to previous studies with fluctuating demography, in which natural selection looks rather complicated...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751882/spatial-and-temporal-microbial-patterns-in-a-tropical-macrotidal-estuary-subject-to-urbanization
#13
Mirjam Kaestli, Anna Skillington, Karen Kennedy, Matthew Majid, David Williams, Keith McGuinness, Niels Munksgaard, Karen Gibb
Darwin Harbour in northern Australia is an estuary in the wet-dry tropics subject to increasing urbanization with localized water quality degradation due to increased nutrient loads from urban runoff and treated sewage effluent. Tropical estuaries are poorly studied compared to temperate systems and little is known about the microbial community-level response to nutrients. We aimed to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of the bacterial community and its association with abiotic factors. Since Darwin Harbour is macrotidal with strong seasonal patterns and mixing, we sought to determine if a human impact signal was discernible in the microbiota despite the strong hydrodynamic forces...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747478/humans-recognize-emotional-arousal-in-vocalizations-across-all-classes-of-terrestrial-vertebrates-evidence-for-acoustic-universals
#14
Piera Filippi, Jenna V Congdon, John Hoang, Daniel L Bowling, Stephan A Reber, Andrius Pašukonis, Marisa Hoeschele, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Bart de Boer, Christopher B Sturdy, Albert Newen, Onur Güntürkün
Writing over a century ago, Darwin hypothesized that vocal expression of emotion dates back to our earliest terrestrial ancestors. If this hypothesis is true, we should expect to find cross-species acoustic universals in emotional vocalizations. Studies suggest that acoustic attributes of aroused vocalizations are shared across many mammalian species, and that humans can use these attributes to infer emotional content. But do these acoustic attributes extend to non-mammalian vertebrates? In this study, we asked human participants to judge the emotional content of vocalizations of nine vertebrate species representing three different biological classes-Amphibia, Reptilia (non-aves and aves) and Mammalia...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747365/the-antibiotic-course-has-had-its-day
#15
Martin J Llewelyn, Jennifer M Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth Darwin, SarahTonkin-Crine, Cliff Gorton, John Paul, Tim E A Peto, Lucy Yardley, Susan Hopkins, Ann Sarah Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742259/off-label-use-of-rituximab-in-autoimmune-disease-in-the-top-end-of-the-northern-territory-2008-2016
#16
Sarah Wongseelashote, Vipin Tayal, Peter Francis Bourke
BACKGROUND: Rituximab, an anti-CD20 B cell depleting monoclonal antibody, is increasingly prescribed off-label for a range of autoimmune diseases. There has not previously been an audit of off-label rituximab use in the Northern Territory, where the majority of patients are Aboriginal. AIMS: To retrospectively evaluate off-label rituximab use in autoimmune diseases in the Top End of the Northern Territory. METHOD: We performed a retrospective audit of eight years of off-label rituximab use at the Royal Darwin Hospital, the sole tertiary referral centre for the Darwin, Katherine and East Arnhem regions...
July 25, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741615/patient-and-disease-characteristics-associated-with-the-presence-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-adults-with-chronic-pancreatitis-in-the-united-states
#17
Melena D Bellin, David C Whitcomb, Judah Abberbock, Stuart Sherman, Bimaljit S Sandhu, Timothy B Gardner, Michelle A Anderson, Michele D Lewis, Samer Alkaade, Vikesh K Singh, John Baillie, Peter A Banks, Darwin Conwell, Gregory A Cote, Nalini M Guda, Thiruvengadam Muniraj, Gong Tang, Randall E Brand, Andres Gelrud, Stephen T Amann, Christopher E Forsmark, C Mel Wilcox, Adam Slivka, Dhiraj Yadav
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common complication of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Past studies for DM risk factors in CP have been limited to single centers or highly focused on a single etiology such as alcoholic or hereditary disease. We studied risk factors for DM in a large population of patients with CP of all etiologies enrolled in the North American Pancreatitis 2 studies. METHODS: Participants (1,171) with CP (n=383 with DM, n=788 without DM) were enrolled prospectively from 26 participating centers...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739929/pursuing-darwin-s-curious-parallel-prospects-for-a-science-of-cultural-evolution
#18
Alex Mesoudi
In the past few decades, scholars from several disciplines have pursued the curious parallel noted by Darwin between the genetic evolution of species and the cultural evolution of beliefs, skills, knowledge, languages, institutions, and other forms of socially transmitted information. Here, I review current progress in the pursuit of an evolutionary science of culture that is grounded in both biological and evolutionary theory, but also treats culture as more than a proximate mechanism that is directly controlled by genes...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726021/how-fast-does-darwin-s-elephant-population-grow
#19
János Podani, Ádám Kun, András Szilágyi
In "The Origin of Species," Darwin describes a hypothetical example illustrating that large, slowly reproducing mammals such as the elephant can reach very large numbers if population growth is not affected by regulating factors. The elephant example has since been cited in various forms in a wide variety of books, ranging from educational material to encyclopedias. However, Darwin's text was changed over the six editions of the book, although some errors in the mathematics persisted throughout. In addition, full details of the problem remained hidden in his correspondence with readers of the Origin...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721523/from-endosymbionts-to-host-communities-factors-determining-the-reproductive-success-of-arthropod-vectors
#20
Irit Messika, Mario Garrido, Hadar Kedem, Victor China, Yoni Gavish, Qunfeng Dong, Clay Fuqua, Keith Clay, Hadas Hawlena
Elucidating the factors determining reproductive success has challenged scientists since Darwin, but the exact pathways that shape the evolution of life history traits by connecting extrinsic (e.g., landscape structure) and intrinsic (e.g., female's age and endosymbionts) factors and reproductive success have rarely been studied. Here we collected female fleas from wild rodents in plots differing in their densities and proportions of the most dominant rodent species. We then combined path analysis and model selection approaches to explore the network of effects, ranging from micro to macroscales, determining the reproductive success of these fleas...
July 18, 2017: Oecologia
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