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Hyperosmolality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920920/er-associated-degradation-is-required-for-vasopressin-prohormone-processing-and-systemic-water-homeostasis
#1
Guojun Shi, Diane Rm Somlo, Geun Hyang Kim, Cristina Prescianotto-Baschong, Shengyi Sun, Nicole Beuret, Qiaoming Long, Jonas Rutishauser, Peter Arvan, Martin Spiess, Ling Qi
Peptide hormones are crucial regulators of many aspects of human physiology. Mutations that alter these signaling peptides are associated with physiological imbalances that underlie diseases. However, the conformational maturation of peptide hormone precursors (prohormones) in the ER remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that conformational maturation of proAVP, the precursor for the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin, within the ER requires the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) activity of the Sel1L-Hrd1 protein complex...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893666/physiological-and-behavioral-responses-to-salinity-in-coastal-dice-snakes
#2
François Brischoux, Yurii V Kornilev, Harvey B Lillywhite
Secondarily marine tetrapods have evolved adaptations to maintain their osmotic balance in a hyperosmotic environment. During the transition to a marine habitat, the evolution of a euryhaline physiology likely encompassed successive changes in behavior and physiology that released organisms from regular access to fresh water. Deciphering these key steps is a complicated task. In this study, we investigated a species of freshwater natricine snake in which some populations are known to use marine environments...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859453/comparison-of-complications-trends-and-costs-in-endoscopic-vs-microscopic-pituitary-surgery-analysis-from-a-us-health-claims-database
#3
Anthony O Asemota, Masaru Ishii, Henry Brem, Gary L Gallia
BACKGROUND: Microsurgical and endoscopic techniques are commonly utilized surgical approaches to pituitary pathologies. There are limited data comparing these 2 procedures. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate postoperative complications, associated costs, and national and regional trends of microscopic and endoscopic techniques in the United States employing a nationwide database. METHODS: The Truven MarketScan database 2010 to 2014 was queried and Current Procedural Terminology codes identified patients that underwent microscopic and/or endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery...
September 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833692/central-angiotensin-1-7-increases-osmotic-thirst
#4
Raoni Conceição Dos-Santos, Lívia da Rocha Natalino Monteiro, Bruno Paes-Leme, Danilo Lustrino, José Antunes-Rodrigues, André Souza Mecawi, Luís Carlos Reis
What is the central question of this study? The central goal of this study was to understand the effects of central angiotensin-(1-7) on basal and osmotically stimulated water intake in rats. What is the main finding and its importance? This study demonstrated that central administration of angiotensin-(1-7) did not induce thirst in basal conditions but increased water intake after osmotic stimulation, such as water deprivation and salt loading. These results indicate a new function for this peptide, which, in turn, allows for future research on the mechanisms through which angiotensin-(1-7) influences osmotic thirst...
August 22, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735991/lack-of-impact-of-hyperchloremia-in-brain-dead-organ-donors-on-the-onset-of-kidney-allograft-function-in-the-recipients
#5
E Uchytilova, M Protus, D Merta, R Kula, E Pokorna, E Kieslichova
BACKGROUND: Hyperchloremia produces renal vasoconstriction and fall in glomerular filtration rate. In 90% of brain-dead organ donors, diabetes insipidus develops, characterized by inappropriate diuresis, hyperosmolality, and hyperchloremia. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the serum concentration of chlorides of the donor and the onset of the function of the kidney allograft in the recipient. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 213 donors and kidney allograft recipients...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650534/hyperosmolality-on-protein-glycosylation-in-cho-cells
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485155/nfat5-inhibits-invasion-and-promotes-apoptosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-associated-with-osmolality
#7
X Qin, Y Wang, J Li, Y Xiao, Z Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult cancer disease for diagnosis and treatment, with a low survival rate and high recurrence rate and mortality. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) is mediated by osmolality and proved to be a carcinogenic gene in some tumor. However in our study we considered NFAT5 as tumor suppressor of HCC. RT-qPCR was performed for NFAT5 expression in tumor tissues. NaCl was applied to make hyperosmotic treatment. We knockdowned and overexpressed NFAT5 to investigate its role in HCC...
2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372715/management-of-hyperglycemic-crises-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state
#8
REVIEW
Maya Fayfman, Francisco J Pasquel, Guillermo E Umpierrez
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are the most serious and life-threatening hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetes. DKA is more common in young people with type 1 diabetes and HHS in adult and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Features of the 2 disorders with ketoacidosis and hyperosmolality may coexist. Both are characterized by insulinopenia and severe hyperglycemia. Early diagnosis and management are paramount. Treatment is aggressive rehydration, insulin therapy, electrolyte replacement, and treatment of underlying precipitating events...
May 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317153/pharmacokinetics-and-pulmonary-distribution-of-gamithromycin-after-intravenous-administration-in-foals
#9
S Berlin, T Randow, E Scheuch, M Grube, M Venner, W Siegmund
The long-acting azalide antibiotic gamithromycin is marketed for intramuscular treatment of bovine and swine infections. Off-label use in foals leads to severe local lesions likely caused by hyperosmolality of the injected solution. We provide evidence from a pharmacokinetic study in 10 warm-blooded healthy foals for intravenous bolus injection of gamithromycin diluted in distilled water to be a safe and well tolerated alternative. By intravenous dosing, markedly higher plasma exposure and better penetration into bronchoalveolar lavage cells but lower distribution into epithelial lining fluid are achieved as after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266015/understanding-of-decreased-sialylation-of-fc-fusion-protein-in-hyperosmotic-recombinant-chinese-hamster-ovary-cell-culture-n-glycosylation-gene-expression-and-n-linked-glycan-antennary-profile
#10
Jong Hyun Lee, Yeong Ran Jeong, Yeon-Gu Kim, Gyun Min Lee
To understand the effects of hyperosmolality on protein glycosylation, recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells producing the Fc-fusion protein were cultivated in hyperosmolar medium resulting from adding NaCl (415 mOsm/kg). The hyperosmotic culture showed increased specific Fc-fusion protein productivity (qFc ) but a decreased proportion of acidic isoforms and sialic acid content of the Fc-fusion protein. The intracellular and extracellular sialidase activities in the hyperosmotic cultures were similar to those in the control culture (314 mOsm/kg), indicating that reduced sialylation of Fc-fusion protein at hyperosmolality was not due to elevated sialidase activity...
August 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177663/hypothermia-induced-by-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-anesthetized-rats-contributions-of-the-forebrain-and-vagal-afferents
#11
Toshimasa Osaka
2-Mercaptoacetate (MA) is an antimetabolic drug that inhibits the utilization of fatty acids as an energy source. The intravenous injection of MA (1.2 mmol·kg(-1)) elicited an increase in tail skin temperature and a decrease in body core temperature in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats, although administration of the same amount of NaCl did not. The respiratory exchange ratio was significantly higher after administration of MA than that after the saline treatment...
January 29, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167686/high-salt-diet-causes-osmotic-gradients-and-hyperosmolality-in-skin-without-affecting-interstitial-fluid-and-lymph
#12
Elham Nikpey, Tine V Karlsen, Natalia Rakova, Jens M Titze, Olav Tenstad, Helge Wiig
The common notion is that the body Na(+) is maintained within narrow limits for fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. Several studies have, however, shown that considerable amounts of Na(+) can be retained or removed from the body without commensurate water loss and that the skin can serve as a major salt reservoir. Our own data from rats have suggested that the skin is hypertonic compared with plasma on salt storage and that this also applies to skin interstitial fluid. Even small electrolyte gradients between plasma and interstitial fluid would represent strong edema-generating forces...
April 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157788/a-medical-mystery-unexplained-renal-failure-in-burn-patients
#13
Harrison M Lands, David B Drake
The objective of this study was to review the investigation that uncovered the medical mystery of burn patients developing unexpected renal failure. The authors examined published and unpublished manuscripts and case reports, as well as conducted personal interviews with primary sources. In the late 1970s, emergence of resistant bacterial strains to the topical antimicrobial silver sulfadiazine occurred at the University of Virginia Medical Center. In the search for an alternative topical antimicrobial with known coverage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Furacin Soluble Dressing was substituted...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122715/primary-cilia-regulate-the-osmotic-stress-response-of-renal-epithelial-cells-through-trpm3
#14
Brian J Siroky, Nancy K Kleene, Steven J Kleene, Charles D Varnell, Raven G Comer, Jialiu Liu, Lu Lu, Nolan W Pachciarz, John J Bissler, Bradley P Dixon
Primary cilia sense environmental conditions, including osmolality, but whether cilia participate in the osmotic response in renal epithelial cells is not known. The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPV4 and TRPM3 are osmoresponsive. TRPV4 localizes to cilia in certain cell types, while renal subcellular localization of TRPM3 is not known. We hypothesized that primary cilia are required for maximal activation of the osmotic response of renal epithelial cells and that ciliary TRPM3 and TRPV4 mediate that response...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118665/functional-properties-of-sensory-nerve-terminals-of-the-mouse-cornea
#15
Omar González-González, Federico Bech, Juana Gallar, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Carlos Belmonte
Purpose: To define the firing properties of sensory nerve terminals innervating the adult mouse cornea in response to external stimuli of differing modality. Methods: Extracellular electrical activity of single corneal sensory nerve terminals was recorded in excised eyes of C57BL/6J mice. Eyes were placed in a recording chamber and were continuously superfused with warm saline solution. Nerve terminal impulse (NTI) activity was recorded by means of a glass pipette (tip ∼ 50 μm), applied on the corneal surface...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003210/plasma-hyperosmolality-improves-tolerance-to-combined-heat-stress-and-central-hypovolemia-in-humans
#16
Daniel Gagnon, Steven A Romero, Hai Ngo, Paula Y S Poh, Craig G Crandall
Heat stress profoundly impairs tolerance to central hypovolemia in humans via a number of mechanisms including heat-induced hypovolemia. However, heat stress also elevates plasma osmolality; the effects of which on tolerance to central hypovolemia remain unknown. This study examined the effect of plasma hyperosmolality on tolerance to central hypovolemia in heat-stressed humans. With the use of a counterbalanced and crossover design, 12 subjects (1 female) received intravenous infusion of either 0.9% iso-osmotic (ISO) or 3...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900560/serum-leptin-obestatin-and-ghrelin-levels-and-gastric-emptying-rates-of-liquid-and-solid-meals-in-non-obese-rats-with-roux-en-y-bypass-surgery-or-prosthesis-placement-implications-for-the-role-of-vagal-afferents
#17
Yunus Yavuz, Zarife Nigar Özdemir Kumral, Gülsün Memi, Özge Dağdeviren Çevik, Cumhur Yeğen, Berrak Ç Yeğen
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and prosthesis placement on gastric emptying rate in conjunction with serum ghrelin-obestatin-leptin responses in non-obese rats with intact or denervated afferent innervation. METHODS: Under anesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham operation, RYGB, prosthesis, and/or Gregory cannula placement. Three weeks later, liquid or solid gastric emptying tests were performed and serum ghrelin, leptin and obestatin levels were measured...
April 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876158/is-bicarbonate-therapy-useful
#18
REVIEW
Kate Hopper
Despite concerns about the negative effects of metabolic acidosis, there is minimal evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration is an effective treatment. In addition, sodium bicarbonate therapy is associated with many adverse effects, including paradoxic intracellular acidosis, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypernatremia, and hyperosmolality. Definitive recommendations regarding bicarbonate therapy are challenging as there is little high-quality evidence available. In most clinical scenarios of metabolic acidosis, treatment efforts should focus on resolution of the underlying cause, and sodium bicarbonate therapy should be used with caution, if at all...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670410/hyperosmolality-regulates-ut-a6-urea-transporter-expression-in-the-caco-2-cell-line
#19
Alison McGrane, Gavin Stewart
Gastrointestinal facilitative urea transporters play a significant role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process, which supports the symbiotic relationship between mammals and their gut microbial populations. UT-A6 urea transporters have been previously reported in the human gastrointestinal tract, specifically in the colon. As renal UT-A transporters can be regulated by external osmolality, this study investigated whether UT-A6 expression could also be regulated in this manner. Initial end-point RT-PCR experiments confirmed UT-A6 expression along the human gastrointestinal tract (colon > small intestine ≫ stomach) and also in the Caco-2 intestinal cell line...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648139/liquid-extracorporeal-carbon-dioxide-removal-use-of-tham-tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane-coupled-to-hemofiltration-to-control-hypercapnic-acidosis-in-a-porcine-model-of-protective-mechanical-ventilation
#20
Pablo Tapia, Felipe Lillo, Dagoberto Soto, Leslie Escobar, Felipe Simon, Karina Hernández, Leyla Alegría, Alejandro Bruhn
A promising approach to facilitate protective mechanical ventilation is the use of extracorporeal CO2 removal techniques. Several strategies based on membrane gas exchangers have been developed. However, these techniques are still poorly available. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of THAM infusion coupled to hemofiltration for the management of hypercapnic acidosis. A severe respiratory acidosis was induced in seven anesthetized pigs. Five of them were treated with THAM 8-mmol·kg(-1)·h(-1) coupled to hemofiltration (THAM+HF group) at 100 mL·kg(-1)·h(-1)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
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