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Hyperosmolality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900560/serum-leptin-obestatin-and-ghrelin-levels-and-gastric-emptying-rates-of-liquid-and-solid-meals-in-non-obese-rats-with-roux-en-y-bypass-surgery-or-prosthesis-placement-implications-for-the-role-of-vagal-afferents
#1
Yunus Yavuz, Zarife Nigar Özdemir Kumral, Gülsün Memi, Özge Dağdeviren Çevik, Cumhur Yeğen, Berrak Ç Yeğen
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and prosthesis placement on gastric emptying rate in conjunction with serum ghrelin-obestatin-leptin responses in non-obese rats with intact or denervated afferent innervation. METHODS: Under anesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham operation, RYGB, prosthesis, and/or Gregory cannula placement. Three weeks later, liquid or solid gastric emptying tests were performed and serum ghrelin, leptin and obestatin levels were measured...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876158/is-bicarbonate-therapy-useful
#2
REVIEW
Kate Hopper
Despite concerns about the negative effects of metabolic acidosis, there is minimal evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration is an effective treatment. In addition, sodium bicarbonate therapy is associated with many adverse effects, including paradoxic intracellular acidosis, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypernatremia, and hyperosmolality. Definitive recommendations regarding bicarbonate therapy are challenging as there is little high-quality evidence available. In most clinical scenarios of metabolic acidosis, treatment efforts should focus on resolution of the underlying cause, and sodium bicarbonate therapy should be used with caution, if at all...
November 18, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670410/hyperosmolality-regulates-ut-a6-urea-transporter-expression-in-the-caco-2-cell-line
#3
Alison McGrane, Gavin Stewart
Gastrointestinal facilitative urea transporters play a significant role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process, which supports the symbiotic relationship between mammals and their gut microbial populations. UT-A6 urea transporters have been previously reported in the human gastrointestinal tract, specifically in the colon. As renal UT-A transporters can be regulated by external osmolality, this study investigated whether UT-A6 expression could also be regulated in this manner. Initial end-point RT-PCR experiments confirmed UT-A6 expression along the human gastrointestinal tract (colon > small intestine ≫ stomach) and also in the Caco-2 intestinal cell line...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648139/liquid-extracorporeal-carbon-dioxide-removal-use-of-tham-tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane-coupled-to-hemofiltration-to-control-hypercapnic-acidosis-in-a-porcine-model-of-protective-mechanical-ventilation
#4
Pablo Tapia, Felipe Lillo, Dagoberto Soto, Leslie Escobar, Felipe Simon, Karina Hernández, Leyla Alegría, Alejandro Bruhn
A promising approach to facilitate protective mechanical ventilation is the use of extracorporeal CO2 removal techniques. Several strategies based on membrane gas exchangers have been developed. However, these techniques are still poorly available. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of THAM infusion coupled to hemofiltration for the management of hypercapnic acidosis. A severe respiratory acidosis was induced in seven anesthetized pigs. Five of them were treated with THAM 8-mmol·kg(-1)·h(-1) coupled to hemofiltration (THAM+HF group) at 100 mL·kg(-1)·h(-1)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614372/comprehensive-interpretation-of-hyperglycemia-and-hyperosmolality-on-the-clinical-outcomes-among-ischemic-stroke-patients
#5
Seunghun Ock, Sion Jo, Jae Baek Lee, Youngho Jin, Taeoh Jeong, Jaechol Yoon, Boyoung Park
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality are associated with poor outcomes among acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality, as a combination measure, with poor outcome among AIS patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of AIS patients admitted to the study hospital emergency department between January and December 2014. Hyperglycemia was defined as serum glucose >144 mg/dL, and hyperosmolality was defined as a serum osmolality >295 mOsm/kg...
August 27, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608320/can-we-use-plasma-hyperosmolality-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-for-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#6
Mustafa A Tatlisu, Adnan Kaya, Muhammed Keskin, Osman Uzman, Edibe B Borklu, Goksel Cinier, Mert I Hayiroglu, Kiymet Tatlisu, Mehmet Eren
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasma osmolality with all-cause mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with a primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: This study included 3748 patients (mean age 58.3±11.8 years, men 81%) with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The following formula was used to measure the plasma osmolality at admission: osmolality=1...
January 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540247/application-of-pharmaceutical-knowledge-to-the-unconventional-use-of-a-rarely-used-anaesthetic-agent
#7
Caroline Cole
CASE SUMMARY: A 6 yr old 45 kg child with severe Cushinoid features was admitted to PICU with probable hypertensive encephalopathy. She presented with increasing headaches, vomiting and seizures becoming unresponsive with a GCS of 3. She was profoundly hypertensive and her cortisol levels were significantly elevated (>2000 nmol/L). Rapid reduction in cortisol levels was required to stabilise her condition prior to surgery. Etomidate is the only readily available intravenous preparation which reliably suppresses adrenocortical function...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464968/the-kidney-specific-expression-of-genes-can-be-modulated-by-the-extracellular-osmolality
#8
Britta Schulze Blasum, Rita Schröter, Ute Neugebauer, Verena Hofschröer, Hermann Pavenstädt, Guiliano Ciarimboli, Eberhard Schlatter, Bayram Edemir
With this study, we wanted to prove the hypothesis that the unique extracellular osmolality within the renal medulla modulates a specific gene expression pattern. The physiologic functions of the kidneys are mediated by the segment-specific expression of key proteins. So far, we have limited knowledge about the mechanisms that control this gene expression pattern. The hyperosmolality in the renal medullary interstitium is of major importance as a driving force for urine concentration. We made use of primarily cultured rat renal inner medullary collecting-duct cells and microarray analysis to identify genes affected by the environmental osmolality of the culture medium...
October 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392326/experimental-study-showed-that-adding-fortifier-and-extra-hydrolysed-proteins-to-preterm-infant-mothers-milk-increased-osmolality
#9
R Rosas, M P Sanz, P Fernández-Calle, M J Alcaide, M T Montes, N Pastrana, C Segovia, F Omeñaca, M Sáenz de Pipaón
AIM: Measuring milk osmolality after adjustable fortification is clinically relevant, as values exceeding recommended safety thresholds might result in gastrointestinal consequences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four fortification levels and storage time on the osmolality of human milk. METHODS: This was an experimental study using 71 spare samples of fresh breastmilk collected from 31 mothers of preterm infants. Osmolality was measured before and after adding commercial human milk fortifier containing dextrinomaltose and hydrolysed proteins at four different concentrations...
December 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085909/influence-of-osmotic-stress-on-thermal-perception-and-thermoregulation-in-heat-is-different-between-sedentary-and-trained-men
#10
Ken Tokizawa, Mayumi Matsuda-Nakamura, Yuki Tanaka, Yuki Uchida, Cheng-Hsien Lin, Kei Nagashima
Hyperosmolality in extracellular fluid in humans attenuates autonomic thermoregulation in heat, such as sweating and blood flow in the skin. However, exercise training minimizes the attenuation. The aim of the present study was to clarify the influence of hyperosmolality on thermal perception and to assess the training effect of exercise. Ten sedentary (SED) and 10 endurance-trained (TR) healthy young men were infused with 0.9% (normal saline [NS]) or 3% NaCl (hypertonic saline [HS]) for 120min on two separate days...
July 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080132/role-of-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-5-in-regulating-hypertonic-mediated-secretin-receptor-expression-in-kidney-collecting-duct-cells
#11
Oscar W H Chua, Kenneth K L Wong, Ben C Ko, Sookja K Chung, Billy K C Chow, Leo T O Lee
A growing body of evidence suggests that secretin (SCT) is an important element in the osmoregulatory pathway. It is interesting to note that both SCT and its receptor (SCTR) gene are activated upon hyperosmolality in the kidney. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of the SCTR gene expression in response to changes in osmolality have yet to be clarified. Detailed DNA sequence analysis of the promoter regions of the SCTR gene reveals the presence of multiple osmotic response elements (ORE)...
July 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27000064/antidiuretic-action-of-collecting-duct-pro-renin-receptor-downstream-of-vasopressin-and-pge2-receptor-ep4
#12
Fei Wang, Xiaohan Lu, Kexin Peng, Hui Fang, Li Zhou, Jiahui Su, Adam Nau, Kevin T Yang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Aihua Lu, Shu-Feng Zhou, Tianxin Yang
Within the kidney, the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is predominantly expressed in the collecting duct (CD), particularly in intercalated cells, and it is regulated by the PGE2 receptor EP4 Notably, EP4 also controls urinary concentration through regulation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2). Here, we tested the hypothesis that sequential activation of EP4 and PRR determines AQP2 expression in the CD, thus mediating the antidiuretic action of vasopressin (AVP). Water deprivation (WD) elevated renal PRR expression and urinary soluble PRR excretion in rats...
October 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26918919/oxytocin-a-conditional-anorexigen-whose-effects-on-appetite-depend-on-the-physiological-behavioural-and-social-contexts
#13
REVIEW
P K Olszewski, A Klockars, A S Levine
Central oxytocin suppresses appetite. Neuronal activity and the release of oxytocin coincide with satiation, as well as with adverse events (e.g. hyperosmolality, toxicity or excessive stomach distension) that necessitate an immediate termination of eating behaviour. Oxytocin also decreases consumption driven by reward, especially as derived from ingesting carbohydrates and sweet tastants. This review summarises current knowledge of the role of oxytocin in food intake regulation and highlights a growing body of evidence showing that oxytocin is a conditional anorexigen [i...
April 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26764055/the-effect-of-plasma-osmolality-and-baroreceptor-loading-status-on-postexercise-heat-loss-responses
#14
Gabrielle Paull, Sheila Dervis, Juliana Barrera-Ramirez, Ryan McGinn, Baies Haqani, Andreas D Flouris, Glen P Kenny
We examined the separate and combined effects of plasma osmolality and baroreceptor loading status on postexercise heat loss responses. Nine young males completed a 45-min treadmill exercise protocol at 58 ± 2% V̇o2 peak, followed by a 60-min recovery. On separate days, participants received 0.9% NaCl (ISO), 3.0% NaCl (HYP), or no infusion (natural recovery) throughout exercise. In two additional sessions (no infusion), lower-body negative (LBNP) or positive (LBPP) pressure was applied throughout the final 45 min of recovery...
March 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26546722/osmolar-regulation-of-endothelin-1-production-by-the-inner-medullary-collecting-duct
#15
Meghana M Pandit, Yang Gao, Alfred van Hoek, Donald E Kohan
AIMS: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an autocrine inhibitor of collecting duct (CD) Na(+) and water reabsorption. CD ET-1 production is increased by a high salt diet and is important in promoting a natriuretic response. The mechanisms by which a high salt diet enhances CD ET-1 are being uncovered. In particular, elevated tubule fluid flow, as occurs in salt loading, enhances CD ET-1 synthesis. Tubule fluid solute content and interstitial osmolality can also be altered by a high salt diet, however their effect on CD ET-1 alone, or in combination with flow, is poorly understood...
August 15, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26525164/plasma-hyperosmolality-attenuates-skin-sympathetic-nerve-activity-during-passive-heat-stress-in-humans
#16
Daniel Gagnon, Steven A Romero, Hai Ngo, Paula Y S Poh, Craig G Crandall
KEY POINTS: Plasma hyperosmolality delays the onset for sweat production and cutaneous vasodilatation during heat stress in humans; however, the mechanism by which hyperosmolality exerts this effect remains unknown. This study examined if plasma hyperosmolality exerts a central and/or peripheral modulation of thermoregulatory function in humans. The main findings are that plasma hyperosmolality delays the increase in skin sympathetic nerve activity during whole-body passive heat stress in humans...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26466837/evaluation-of-electrocardiographic-parameters-in-patients-with-diabetes-insipidus
#17
Ferhat Deniz, Alper Kepez, Seyit Ahmet Ay, Okan Ergogan, Kamil Baskoy, Mustafa Nuri Guncıkan, Zekeriya Dogan, Arif Yonem
BACKGROUND: There is limited data regarding the effect of altered serum osmolality on cardiac electrical activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the electrocardiographic (ECG) effects of diabetes insipidus (DI) and any related hyperosmolality in a population of young patients with DI and without any known cardiovascular disease or risk factors. METHODS: Twelve-lead ECG's of 44 consecutive untreated young male patients (age: 21.8 ± 2.9 years) who had been referred to endocrinology clinic and diagnosed as DI based on water deprivation test were retrospectively evaluated...
November 2015: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26333788/catecholaminergic-neurons-in-the-comissural-region-of-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-modulate-hyperosmolality-induced-responses
#18
Andre H Freiria-Oliveira, Graziela T Blanch, Gustavo R Pedrino, Sergio L Cravo, David Murphy, José V Menani, Débora S A Colombari
Noradrenergic A2 neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) have been suggested to contribute to body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of lesions of A2 neurons of the commissural NTS (cNTS) on the c-Fos expression in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei, arterial pressure, water intake, and urinary excretion in rats with plasma hyperosmolality produced by intragastric 2 M NaCl (2 ml/rat). Male Holtzman rats (280-320 g) received an injection of anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase-saporin (12...
November 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26305422/hypo-and-hypernatremia-results-in-inaccurate-erythrocyte-mean-corpuscular-volume-measurement-in-vitro-when-using-sysmex-xe-2100
#19
Jens Peter Philipsen, Kirsten Vikkelsø Madsen
INTRODUCTION: Automated hematology analyzers dilute patient erythrocytes with an isoosmotic diluent before quantitating the erythrocyte mean cell volume (MCV). However, if patient plasma osmolality differs from the diluent, water will cross the erythrocytes membrane and establish a new equilibrium across the membrane. Since the new equilibrium is reached before the measurement of the MCV, the measured MCV may not reflect the true MCV in vivo. AIM: Calculation of the theoretical change in MCV at changed P-Sodium/P-Osmolality and to investigate if the automated blood cell counter Sysmex XE 2100 measures MCV correctly in hypo- and hyperosmolality and hypo-and hypernatremia...
November 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26264427/hypo-and-hypernatremia-results-in-inaccurate-erythrocyte-mean-corpuscular-volume-measurement-in-vitro-when-using-sysmex-xe-2100
#20
Jens Peter Philipsen, Kirsten Vikkelsø Madsen
INTRODUCTION: Automated hematology analyzers dilute patient erythrocytes with an isoosmotic diluent before quantitating the erythrocyte mean cell volume (MCV). However, if patient plasma osmolality differs from the diluent, water will cross the erythrocytes membrane and establish a new equilibrium across the membrane. Since the new equilibrium is reached before the measurement of the MCV, the measured MCV may not reflect the true MCV in vivo. AIM: Calculation of the theoretical change in MCV at changed P-Sodium/P-Osmolality and to investigate if the automated blood cell counter Sysmex XE 2100 measures MCV correctly in hypo- and hyperosmolality and hypo-and hypernatremia...
November 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
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