keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Osmolality

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772474/mitochondria-rich-cells-adjustments-and-ionic-balance-in-the-neotropical-fish-prochilodus-lineatus-exposed-to-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles
#1
Talita L L Carmo, Vinícius C Azevedo, Priscila R Siqueira, Tiago D Galvão, Fabrício A Santos, Cláudia B R Martinez, Carlos R Appoloni, Marisa N Fernandes
Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NP) have been intensely applied in numerous industrial products and may be a risk for aquatic systems as they are not completely removed from domestic and industrial wastes after water treatment. This study evaluated the osmo- and ionic balance, Na+ /K+ -ATPase, H+ -ATPase and carbonic anhydrase activities and the mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) in the gills and kidney of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus after 2 (acute) and 14 (subchronic) days of exposure to nominal 0, 1, 5, 10 and 50 mg L-1 TiO2 -NP...
May 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771702/pathogenesis-of-cerebral-edema-in-patients-with-acute-renal-and-liver-failure-and-the-role-of-the-nephrologist-in-the-management
#2
Tamim Hamdi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe and complex illness and one of the most daunting conditions managed in the ICU. Because the renal care is intertwined with multiple disciplines, the aim of this review is to examine the multifactorial pathogenesis of cerebral edema in ALF, covering basic established facts as well as recent advances in our understanding of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Acetaminophen remains the most common cause of ALF in the United States and many European countries...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768446/inhibitory-effect-of-k-ions-and-influence-of-other-ions-and-osmolality-on-the-spermatozoa-motility-of-european-burbot-lota-lota-l
#3
Katarzyna Dziewulska, Malwina Pilarska
BACKGROUND: In fish with external fertilization, two main start-up mechanisms of the path that blocks or activates the spermatozoan motility apparatus are known. The main factor managing the path is osmolality or potassium ion. In burbot from the European and North American population, contradictory findings regarding the factors influencing the onset of spermatozoa motility were reported. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of potassium and osmolality on the spermatozoa activation of European burbot, Lota lota (Actinopterygii, Gadiformes, Lotidae)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754505/1-formula-see-text-2-formula-see-text-3-formula-see-text-4-formula-see-text-6-penta-o-galloyl-%C3%AE-d-glucose-from-galla-rhois-ameliorates-renal-tubular-injury-and-microvascular-inflammation-in-acute-kidney-injury-rats
#4
Ji Hun Park, Min Chol Kho, Hyun Cheol Oh, Youn Chul Kim, Jung Joo Yoon, Yun Jung Lee, Dae Gill Kang, Ho Sub Lee
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an important cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), causes increased renal tubular injury and microvascular inflammation. 1,[Formula: see text]2,[Formula: see text]3,[Formula: see text]4,[Formula: see text]6-penta-O-galloyl-[Formula: see text]-D-glucose (PGG) from Galla rhois has anticancer, anti-oxidation and angiogenesis effects. We examined protective effects of PGG on IRI-induced acute AKI. Clamping both renal arteries for 45[Formula: see text]min induced isechemia and then reperfusion...
May 13, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751506/neurocognitive-disorders-and-dehydration-in-older-patients-clinical-experience-supports-the-hydromolecular-hypothesis-of-dementia
#5
Michele Lauriola, Antonio Mangiacotti, Grazia D'Onofrio, Leandro Cascavilla, Francesco Paris, Giulia Paroni, Davide Seripa, Antonio Greco, Daniele Sancarlo
Abnormalities of water homeostasis can be early expressions of neuronal dysfunction, brain atrophy, chronic cerebrovasculopathy and neurodegenerative disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum osmolality of subjects with cognitive impairment. One thousand and ninety-one consecutive patients attending the Alzheimer’s Evaluation Unit were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), 21-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental-ADL (IADL), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Exton-Smith Scale (ESS), and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS)...
May 3, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748300/stability-of-isoniazid-injection-in-i-v-solutions
#6
Jun H Lee, Brad Moriyama, Stacey A Henning, Robert L Danner, Thomas J Walsh, Scott R Penzak, George J Grimes, Gopal K Potti
PURPOSE: Results of an assessment of the chemical stability of isoniazid injection in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection are reported. METHODS: Triplicate solutions of isoniazid (0.5 and 6.0 mg/mL) in the 2 diluents were prepared in ethylene and propylene copolymer i.v. containers and stored under light protection at room temperature (20-25 °C) or under refrigeration (2-8 °C). Standard aliquots were removed from each solution at time points up to 72 hours and analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743334/randomised-controlled-trial-of-high-versus-ad-libitum-water-intake-in-patients-with-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-rationale-and-design-of-the-drink-feasibility-trial
#7
Ragada El-Damanawi, Michael Lee, Tess Harris, Laura B Mader, Simon Bond, Holly Pavey, Richard N Sandford, Ian B Wilkinson, Alison Burrows, Przemyslaw Woznowski, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Fiona E Karet Frankl, Thomas F Hiemstra
INTRODUCTION: Vasopressin stimulates cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) leading to enlarged kidneys, hypertension and renal failure. Vasopressin receptor blockade slows disease progression. Physiological suppression of vasopressin secretion through high water (HW) intake could achieve a similar effect, necessitating a definitive large-scale trial of HW intake in ADPKD. The objective of the DRINK trial is to answer the key design and feasibility questions required to deliver a successful definitive water intake trial...
May 9, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743073/parallel-substrate-supply-and-ph-stabilization-for-optimal-screening-of-e-coli-with-the-membrane-based-fed-batch-shake-flask
#8
P Philip, D Kern, J Goldmanns, F Seiler, A Schulte, T Habicher, J Büchs
BACKGROUND: Screening in the fed-batch operation mode is essential for biological cultivations facing challenges as oxygen limitation, osmotic inhibition, catabolite repression, substrate inhibition or overflow metabolism. As a screening tool on shake flask level, the membrane-based fed-batch shake flask was developed. While a controlled supply of a substrate was realized with the in-built membrane tip, the possibilities for replenishing nutrients and stabilizing pH values was not yet exploited...
May 9, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740231/haemolymph-constituents-and-osmolality-as-functions-of-moult-stage-body-weight-and-feeding-status-in-marron-cherax-cainii-and-yabbies-cherax-destructor-clark-1936
#9
Ha Van Mai, Ravi Fotedar
The study investigates the change in osmolality and haemolymph constituents in marron Cherax cainii and yabbies Cherax destructor associated with moult stages, body weights and their feeding status. A total of 582 haemolymph samples from 5 moult stages (postmoult-AB, intermoult-C, and premoult stages - D0 , D1 , D2 ), two body weight classes (2-15 g and 61-75 g) and nutritional status were used for analysis of osmolality, protein, glucose, and ionic concentrations of potassium and chloride following the standard biochemical procedures...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735658/osmotic-stabilization-prevents-cochlear-synaptopathy-after-blast-trauma
#10
Jinkyung Kim, Anping Xia, Nicolas Grillet, Brian E Applegate, John S Oghalai
Traumatic noise causes hearing loss by damaging sensory hair cells and their auditory synapses. There are no treatments. Here, we investigated mice exposed to a blast wave approximating a roadside bomb. In vivo cochlear imaging revealed an increase in the volume of endolymph, the fluid within scala media, termed endolymphatic hydrops. Endolymphatic hydrops, hair cell loss, and cochlear synaptopathy were initiated by trauma to the mechanosensitive hair cell stereocilia and were K+ -dependent. Increasing the osmolality of the adjacent perilymph treated endolymphatic hydrops and prevented synaptopathy, but did not prevent hair cell loss...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734444/the-ability-of-pectins-to-modulate-the-action-of-glycerol-in-the-freezing-of-nucleated-cells
#11
M I Serqushkina, A N Khudyakov, T V Polezhaeva, O M Bezmeltseva
BACKGROUND: Pectins have a large number of active -OH and -COOH groups (3), suggesting the presence of this group of substances specific cryoprotective effect. OBJECTIVE: This research is aimed at studying the ability of pectins (zosteran, apple pectin АU-701, E-440) to change the freezing temperature of glycerol, which can increase the effect in the cryopreservation of nuclear cells. METHODS: Using the cryoscopic method we studied the ability of pectins (zosteran, apple pectin AU-701, E-440) to change the freezing temperature of glycerol...
November 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731632/development-of-nanoemulsion-for-efficient-brain-parenteral-delivery-of-cefuroxime-designs-characterizations-and-pharmacokinetics
#12
Siti Norhawani Harun, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Ahmad Fuad Shamsuddin, Mahiran Basri, Hamidon Bin Basri
Background and aim: Drugs that are effective against diseases in the central nervous system and reach the brain via blood must pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a unique interface that protects against potential harmful molecules. This presents a major challenge in neuro-drug delivery. This study attempts to fabricate the cefuroxime-loaded nanoemulsion (CLN) to increase drug penetration into the brain when parenterally administered. Methods: The nanoemulsions were formulated using a high-pressure homogenization technique and were characterized for their physicochemical properties...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723596/combination-of-urea-crosslinked-hyaluronic-acid-and-sodium-ascorbyl-phosphate-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-lung-diseases-an-in-vitro-study
#13
Arianna Fallacara, Laura Busato, Michele Pozzoli, Maliheh Ghadiri, Hui Xin Ong, Paul M Young, Stefano Manfredini, Daniela Traini
This in vitro study evaluated, for the first time, the safety and the biological activity of a novel urea-crosslinked hyaluronic acid component and sodium ascorbyl phosphate (HA-CL - SAP), singularly and/or in combination, intended for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. The aim was to understand if the combination HA-CL - SAP had an enhanced activity with respect to the combination native hyaluronic acid (HA) - SAP and the single SAP, HA and HA-CL components. Sample solutions displayed pH, osmolality and viscosity values suitable for lung delivery, and showed to be not toxic on epithelial Calu-3 cells at the concentration used in this study...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720646/hyperosmotic-tolerance-of-adult-fish-and-early-embryos-are-determined-by-discrete-single-loci-in-the-genus-oryzias
#14
Taijun Myosho, Hideya Takahashi, Kento Yoshida, Tadashi Sato, Satoshi Hamaguchi, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Mitsuru Sakaizumi
The acquisition of environmental osmolality tolerance traits in individuals and gametes is an important event in the evolution and diversification of organisms. Although teleost fish exhibit considerable intra- and interspecific variation in salinity tolerance, the genetic mechanisms underlying this trait remain unclear. Oryzias celebensis survives in sea and fresh water during both the embryonic and adult stages, whereas its close relative Oryzias woworae cannot survive in sea water at either stage. A linkage analysis using backcross progeny identified a single locus responsible for adult hyperosmotic tolerance on a fused chromosome that corresponds to O...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718707/arginase-ii-negatively-regulates-renal-aquaporin-2-and-water-reabsorption
#15
Ji Huang, Jean-Pierre Montani, François Verrey, Eric Feraille, Xiu-Fen Ming, Zhihong Yang
Type-II l-arginine:ureahydrolase, arginase-II (Arg-II), is abundantly expressed in the kidney. The physiologic role played by Arg-II in the kidney remains unknown. Herein, we report that in mice that are deficient in Arg-II (Arg-II-/- ), total and membrane-associated aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein levels were significantly higher compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Water deprivation enhanced Arg-II expression, AQP2 levels, and membrane association in collecting ducts. Effects of water deprivation on AQP2 were stronger in Arg-II-/- mice than in WT mice...
May 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717050/mouse-embryo-cryopreservation-by-high-osmolality-vitrification
#16
Keiji Mochida
In conventional vitrification methods, the embryos are vitrified under considerable supercooling (i.e., under nonequilibrium conditions). This protocol is a refinement of newer equilibrium vitrification methods. The equilibrium vitrification solution contains a high concentration of cryoprotectants that increase its osmolality and allows vitrified embryos to survive not only during storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2 ) at -196°C but also during temporary holding at -80°C (for at least 5 mo). This high-osmolality vitrification (HOV) method is as simple as conventional vitrification and provides essentially the same high postwarming survival rate...
May 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707541/personalized-hydration-strategy-attenuates-the-rise-in-heart-rate-and-in-skin-temperature-without-altering-cycling-capacity-in-the-heat
#17
Denise de Melo-Marins, Ana Angélica Souza-Silva, Gabriel Lucas Leite da Silva-Santos, Francisco de Assis Freire-Júnior, Jason Kai Wei Lee, Orlando Laitano
The optimal hydration plan [i.e., drink to thirst, ad libitum (ADL), or personalized plan] to be adopted during exercise in recreational athletes has recently been a matter of debate and, due to conflicting results, consensus does not exist. In the present investigation, we tested whether a personalized hydration strategy based on sweat rate would affect cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses and exercise capacity in the heat. Eleven recreational male cyclists underwent two familiarization cycling sessions in the heat (34°C, 40% RH) where sweat rate was also determined...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706418/seminal-plasma-differentially-alters-the-resistance-of-dog-ram-and-boar-spermatozoa-to-hypotonic-stress
#18
Guillaume Tsikis, Karine Reynaud, Stéphane Ferchaud, Xavier Druart
During ejaculation and the deposition in the female genital tract, spermatozoa undergo hypo-osmotic stress and need to withstand it for optimal fertility. Resistance to hypo-osmotic stress may be affected by the interaction of the spermatozoa with seminal fluid components. The hypo-osmotic resistance of epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa from dogs, rams and boars was assessed by flow cytometric measurement of sperm viability after incubation in NaCl solutions with osmolalities ranging from 0 to 300 mmol/kg...
February 2, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704441/improving-culture-performance-and-antibody-production-in-cho-cell-culture-processes-by-reducing-the-warburg-effect
#19
Maria Buchsteiner, Lake-Ee Quek, Peter Gray, Lars K Nielsen
Lactate is one of the key waste metabolites of mammalian cell culture. High lactate levels are caused by high aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect, and are usually associated with adverse culture performance. Therefore, reducing lactate accumulation has been an ongoing challenge in cell culture development in order to improve growth, productivity and process robustness. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) plays a crucial role for the fate of pyruvate, as it converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA...
April 28, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691812/excipient-selection-and-aerodynamic-characterization-of-nebulized-lipid-based-nanoemulsion-loaded-with-docetaxel-for-lung-cancer-treatment
#20
Azren Aida Asmawi, Norazlinaliza Salim, Cheng Loong Ngan, Haslina Ahmad, Emilia Abdulmalek, Mas Jaffri Masarudin, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman
Docetaxel has demonstrated extraordinary anticancer effects on lung cancer. However, lack of optimal bioavailability due to poor solubility and high toxicity at its therapeutic dose has hampered the clinical use of this anticancer drug. Development of nanoemulsion formulation along with biocompatible excipients aimed for pulmonary delivery is a potential strategy to deliver this poorly aqueous soluble drug with improved bioavailability and biocompatibility. In this work, screening and selection of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients at their minimal optimal concentration have been conducted...
April 24, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
keyword
keyword
23719
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"