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Daniel J Peart, Andy Hensby, Matthew P Shaw
The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 + 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 + 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 + 28.2W) completed 60-min of sub-maximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomised manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Katja Nagler, Antonina O Krawczyk, Anne De Jong, Kazimierz Madela, Tamara Hoffmann, Michael Laue, Oscar P Kuipers, Erhard Bremer, Ralf Moeller
In its natural habitat, the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis often has to cope with fluctuating osmolality and nutrient availability. Upon nutrient depletion it can form dormant spores, which can revive to form vegetative cells when nutrients become available again. While the effects of salt stress on spore germination have been analyzed previously, detailed knowledge on the salt stress response during the subsequent outgrowth phase is lacking. In this study, we investigated the changes in gene expression during B...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Robert G Hahn, Nina Grankvist, Camilla Krizhanovskii
OBJECTIVE: Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. METHODS: Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4...
2016: PloS One
Andrea J Morash, Sara R C Mackellar, Louise Tunnah, David A Barnett, Kilian M Stehfest, Jayson M Semmens, Suzanne Currie
Estuarine habitats are frequently used as nurseries by elasmobranch species for their protection and abundant resources; however, global climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of environmental challenges in these estuaries that may negatively affect elasmobranch physiology. Hyposmotic events are particularly challenging for marine sharks that osmoconform, and species-specific tolerances are not well known. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of an acute (48 h) ecologically relevant hyposmotic event (25...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Jennifer M Reinhart, Brad J White, Lisa M Pohlman, Thomas Schermerhorn
BACKGROUND: The measurement of osmolality is of interest in several clinical conditions and has been investigated in multiple veterinary studies. However, the stability of osmolality over time in frozen canine serum and urine has not been established. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the stability of osmolality in canine serum and urine stored frozen at -20°C and -80°C up to 90 days, and to assess the effect of storage temperature on osmolality measurement...
October 18, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Margarida Mendes, Julie Dubourg, Anne Blanchard, Damien Bergerot, Pierre-Yves Courand, Valentina Forni, Michael Frank, Guillaume Bobrie, Joel Menard, Michel Azizi
OBJECTIVES: The participation of vasopressin in the mechanisms of resistant hypertension is unclear. We compared plasma copeptin concentration, a surrogate marker for vasopressin secretion, between patients with resistant hypertension and those with controlled blood pressure (CBP), in a post hoc analysis of the Prise en charge de l'Hypertension Artérielle RESistante au traitement trial. METHODS: After 4-week treatment with irbesartan 300 mg/day, hydrochlorothiazide 12...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
James R Costello, Bobby Kalb, Diego R Martin
Since their clinical introduction in 1988, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have demonstrated an excellent safety profile with a reported acute adverse reaction rate ranging from 0.01% to 2%. By comparison, the acute adverse reaction rate of low osmolar nonionic computed tomography contrast agents (CTCs) ranges from 0.7% to 3.1%. Many of the risk factors associated with CTC reactions (drug allergies, asthma, atopy, prior contrast reaction) also point toward an increased incidence of acute adverse events to GBCAs...
June 29, 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Takuya Iwamoto, Masaki Maeda, Takuro Hisanaga, Issei Saeki, Koichi Fujisawa, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Isao Hidaka, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Taro Takami, Isao Sakaida
Objective Tolvaptan was first approved for use for cirrhosis in Japan in September 2013. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, on the prognosis of cirrhosis. Methods The effect of tolvaptan was evaluated in 26 patients with cirrhosis treated at our hospital from September 2013 to April 2015. Results The primary disease was hepatitis C in 20 patients, hepatitis B in 2, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in 2 and others in 2; and 12 had hepatocellular carcinoma...
2016: Internal Medicine
M Mahfujur Rahman, M Rahmat Ali, M Rafiqul Islam Sarder, M Fazlul Awal Mollah, Najmus Sakib Khan
The study was conducted to develop sperm cryopreservation protocol for the endangered spiny eel, Mastacembelus armatus as well as to use the cryopreserved sperm in breeding. Activation of sperm was evaluated by observing motility in different osmolalities of NaCl solution (48-319 mOsmol/kg) and found that sperm motility decreased with increasing osmolality of the NaCl solution and it was totally inhibited at 319 mOsmol/kg. The highest motility and swimming duration of sperm were observed as 14.5 ± 0.5 min and 4...
October 13, 2016: Cryobiology
Janet C Tait, Evan W Mercer, Lucie Gerber, George N Robertson, William S Marshall
In eurythermic vertebrates, acclimation to the cold may produce changes in physiological control systems. We hypothesize that relatively direct osmosensitive control will operate better than adrenergic receptor mediated control of ion transport in cold vs. warm conditions. Fish were acclimated to full strength seawater (SW) at 21°C and 5°C for four weeks, gill samples and blood were taken and opercular epithelia mounted in Ussing style chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) at 21°C and 5°C (measured at acclimation temperature), was significantly inhibited by the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine but the ED50 dose was significantly higher in cold conditions (93...
October 13, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
T Ravindran, Paneerselvam, Radha, T Allwyn Yabesh
Osmotic demyelination syndrome is an acute shift in serum osmolality causing demyelination, which may be due to rapid correction of hyponatremia, hyperglycaemia, hypokalemia and ketoacidosis. We present a case of 55yr old female and a known diabetic presented with the choreic movements involving left upper and lower limb for 2 days without any weakness.Her blood sugar was 428mg/dl at the time of admission with wide fluctuations.Her CT Brain showed hyperdensity in the right basal ganglia and the MRI brain showed hyperintense lesion in T2 weighted images showing features suggestive of osmotic demyelination...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yuzheng Huang, Wei Li, Wuguang Lu, Chunrong Xiong, Yang Yang, Huaijiang Yan, Kun Connie Liu, Peng Cao
As one of the three major human pathogens that cause schistosomiasis, Schistosoma japonicum is the only one that is endemic in China. Despite great progress on schistosomiasis control over the past 50 years in China, S. japonicum transmission still occurs in certain endemic regions, which causes significant public health problems and enormous economic losses. During different life stages, parasites are able to survive dramatic osmolality changes between its vector, fresh water, and mammal host. However, the molecular mechanism of parasite osmoregulation remains unknown...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sophia Sakellariou, Wenguang Li, Manosh C Paul, Giles Roditi
Iodinated contrast media (CM) are the most commonly used injectables in radiology today. A range of different media are commercially available, combining various physical and chemical characteristics (ionic state, osmolality, viscosity) and thus exhibiting distinct in vivo behaviour and safety profiles. In this paper, numerical simulations of blood flow with contrast media were conducted to investigate the effects of contrast viscosity on generated vessel wall shear stress and vessel wall pressure to elucidate any possible relation to extravasations...
October 8, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Behdad Pouran, Vahid Arbabi, Amir A Zadpoor, Harrie Weinans
The metabolic function of cartilage primarily depends on transport of solutes through diffusion mechanism. In the current study, we use contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography to determine equilibrium concentration of solutes through different cartilage zones and solute flux in the cartilage, using osteochondral plugs from equine femoral condyles. Diffusion experiments were performed with two solutes of different charge and approximately equal molecular weight, namely iodixanol (neutral) and ioxaglate (charge=-1) in order to isolate the effects of solute's charge on diffusion...
October 6, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Benjamin Derman, Milli Jain, Elizabeth McAninch, Casey Gashti
A 59-year-old man presented with polyuria and polydipsia immediately following his sixth cycle of rituximab and bendamustine for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. He initially compensated by increasing his oral fluid intake at home, but later developed septic shock and was admitted with orders to be kept nil per os (NPO). This prompted an episode of acute hypernatremia during which he exhibited continued polyuria with inappropriately dilute urine. Desmopressin challenge yielded no response in the urine osmolality, indicating a nephrogenic source of his diabetes insipidus (DI)...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Anna Antecka, Marcin Bizukojc, Stanislaw Ledakowicz
Morphological engineering techniques have recently gained popularity as they are used for increasing the productivity of a variety of metabolites and enzymes in fungi growing in submerged cultures. Their action is mainly associated with the changes they evoke in fungal morphology. Traditional morphological engineering approaches include manipulation of spore concentration, pH-shifting and mechanical stress exerted by stirring and aeration. As the traditional methods proved to be insufficient, modern techniques such as changes of medium osmolality or addition of mineral microparticles to the media (microparticle-enhanced cultivation, MPEC) were proposed...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Tory J Andrews, Robert D Cox, Christina Parker, James Kolb
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor medications are a class of antihyperglycemic agents that increase urinary glucose excretion by interfering with the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubules. In May of 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a warning concerning a potential increased risk of ketoacidosis and ketosis in patients taking these medications. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking a combination of canagliflozin and metformin who presented with progressive altered mental status over the previous 2 days...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Maulee Hiromi Arambewela, Noel P Somasundaram, Chaminda Garusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a frequent occurrence among hospitalized patients. Severe hypernatremia is associated with mortality rates of over 60 %. Extreme hypernatremia, defined as sodium levels >190 mmol/l, is a rare occurrence. The literature on electrocardiographic changes occurring with this degree of hypernatremia is extremely scarce. We report the case of an 11-year-old Sri Lankan girl who presented with sodium levels of 226 mmol/l following infusion with 3 % hypertonic saline who developed diffuse QT prolongation leading to fatal ventricular tachycardia...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
E M Lepicard, M Maillot, F Vieux, M Viltard, F Bonnet
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to analyse the nutritional quality of childrens' breakfasts using data collected during a cross-sectional observational study on the prevalence of urinary osmolality in 529 French children aged 9-11 years. METHODS: Total nutrient intake, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), energy density and solid energy density were calculated from breakfast food and fluid nutritional composition. To identify the main qualitative breakfast patterns, each breakfast item was categorised into 15 solid and liquid food categories and a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis was performed...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
R Donovan, S G Kelly, P Prazad, P N Talaty, C Lefaiver, M L Hastings, D N Everly
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of fortification and storage on nutrients and properties of various human milk (HM) types. STUDY DESIGN: Mother's own milk (MOM) and pasteurized donor human milk (DHM; n=118) were analyzed pre- and post fortification with Enfamil and Similac human milk fortifier (EHMF and SHMF) before and after 24 h of refrigerated storage. RESULTS: Milk fortified with SHMF had significantly greater osmolality, pH and lipase activity than EHMF...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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