keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Osmolality

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920153/urine-osmolality-response-to-tolvaptan-and-outcome-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-results-from-the-tempo-3-4-trial
#1
Olivier Devuyst, Arlene B Chapman, Ron T Gansevoort, Eiji Higashihara, Ronald D Perrone, Vicente E Torres, Jaime D Blais, Wen Zhou, John Ouyang, Frank S Czerwiec
The vasopressin-cAMP-osmolality axis is abnormal in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In the Tolvaptan Efficacy and Safety in Management of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease and Its Outcomes 3:4 Trial, a 3-year randomized, placebo-controlled trial in adults, the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan slowed ADPKD progression in patients with preserved GFR. Here, we investigated the determinants of baseline urine osmolality (Uosm) and its value as a severity marker of ADPKD, the factors influencing the response to tolvaptan, and whether change in Uosm associated with key trial end points...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914708/generation-and-phenotypic-analysis-of-mice-lacking-all-urea-transporters
#2
Tao Jiang, Yingjie Li, Anita T Layton, Weiling Wang, Yi Sun, Min Li, Hong Zhou, Baoxue Yang
Urea transporters (UT) are a family of transmembrane urea-selective channel proteins expressed in multiple tissues and play an important role in the urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. UT inhibitors have diuretic activity and could be developed as novel diuretics. To determine if functional deficiency of all UTs in all tissues causes physiological abnormality, we established a novel mouse model in which all UTs were knocked out by deleting an 87 kb of DNA fragment containing most parts of Slc14a1 and Slc14a2 genes...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912887/nephroprotective-effects-of-%C3%AE-bisabolol-against-ischemic-reperfusion-acute-kidney-injury
#3
Tiago Lima Sampaio, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Marcus Felipe Bezerra da Costa, Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Mauren Cristina Villalta Arrieta, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Glayciane Bezerra de Morais, Alexandre Braga Libório, Renata Sousa Alves, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Alice Maria Costa Martins
BACKGROUND: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in kidney is commonly related to acute kidney injury (AKI), essentially through oxidative stress. (-)-α-Bisabolol is a sesquiterpene isolated from the essential oil of a variety of plants, including chamomile, which has important antioxidant activity. STUDY DESIGN: This study intends to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of (-)-α-bisabolol (Bis) in both in vivo and in vitro models of kidney I/R. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to right nephrectomy, followed by ischemia by clamping of the renal artery in the left kidney for 60min...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909962/efficiency-of-osmotic-concentration-after-combined-treatment-with-vasopressin-and-blockage-of-prostaglandin-synthesis
#4
V A Lavrinenko, A V Babina
We performed a complex functional study of the effects of prostaglandin synthesis blockage with diclofenac on manifestation of the hydroosmotic effect of vasopressin V2-receptor agonist desmopressin in the kidneys of Wistar rats with normal synthesis of endogenous vasopressin and homozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary impaired synthesis of neurohypophyseal hormone vasopressin. Blockage of prostaglandin synthesis led to more pronounced increase in urine osmolality in Brattleboro rats than in Wistar rats due to elevation of not only urine but also sodium gradient at the expense of elimination of the inhibitory effect of prostaglandins on sodium reabsorption and membrane permeability for urine...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907206/intestinal-fluid-permeability-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-is-affected-by-dietary-protein-source
#5
Haibin Hu, Trond M Kortner, Karina Gajardo, Elvis Chikwati, John Tinsley, Åshild Krogdahl
In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898643/effect-of-different-osmolalities-cho-types-and-cho-on-gastric-emptying-in-humans
#6
Xiaocai Shi, Kristin L Osterberg, Heather Petrie, John R Stofan, Robert Murray
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of beverage osmolalities, carbohydrate (CHO) type and CHO concentration on gastric emptying in euhydrated subjects at rest. METHODS: The gastric emptying of water (W), four glucose beverages (2, 4, 6, and 8% glucose: 2G, 4G, 6G, and 8G) and four sucrose beverages (2, 4, 6, and 8% sucrose: 2S, 4S, 6S, and 8S) were determined in eight healthy subjects using the modified George double-sampling technique. Subjects ingested a beverage (7 ml/kg body weight) containing 25-ppm phenol red as quickly as possible (≤1...
November 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895287/sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-is-there-a-connection-with-inner-ear-electrolytic-disorders-a-literature-review
#7
EDITORIAL
Andrea Ciorba, Virginia Corazzi, Chiara Bianchini, Claudia Aimoni, Henryk Skarzynski, Piotr Henryk Skarzynski, Stavros Hatzopoulos
Electrolytic disorders of the inner ear represent a model that could be implicated in partially explaining the pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Different types of electrolytes and different inner-ear loci are involved in cochlear homeostasis physiologically, to ensure the maintenance of an ion-balanced cochlear environment allowing a normal hair cell function. It has been hypothesized that a sudden loss of endocochlear potential, due to a rapid disruption of the inner ear fluid osmolality, could be responsible for a deterioration of the hearing function caused by damaged hair cells...
December 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894883/incubation-relative-humidity-induces-renal-morphological-and-physiological-remodeling-in-the-embryo-of-the-chicken-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#8
Greta Bolin, Benjamin Dubansky, Warren W Burggren
The metanephric kidneys of the chicken embryo, along with the chorioallantoic membrane, process water and ions to maintain osmoregulatory homeostasis. We hypothesized that changes in relative humidity (RH) and thus osmotic conditions during embryogenesis would alter the developmental trajectory of embryonic kidney function. White leghorn chicken eggs were incubated at one of 25-30% relative humidity, 55-60% relative humidity, and 85-90% relative humidity. Embryos were sampled at days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 to examine embryo and kidney mass, glomerular characteristics, body fluid osmolalities, hematological properties, and whole embryo oxygen consumption...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894067/quenching-the-thirst-for-hunger
#9
Paul Lee
Maintenance of energy and water balance is fundamental to survival across organisms. A recent study reveals a unique neuroendocrine node in Drosophila that simultaneously surveys systemic caloric and osmotic fluctuations to fine-tune food and water consumption, shedding new neuronal mechanistic insight on anti-diabetes therapeutics with dual glucose/osmolality modulatory actions.
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892464/wnt5a-induces-renal-aqp2-expression-by-activating-calcineurin-signalling-pathway
#10
Fumiaki Ando, Eisei Sohara, Tetsuji Morimoto, Naofumi Yui, Naohiro Nomura, Eriko Kikuchi, Daiei Takahashi, Takayasu Mori, Alain Vandewalle, Tatemitsu Rai, Sei Sasaki, Yoshiaki Kondo, Shinichi Uchida
Heritable nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by defective urine concentration mechanisms in the kidney, which are mainly caused by loss-of-function mutations in the vasopressin type 2 receptor. For the treatment of heritable NDI, novel strategies that bypass the defective vasopressin type 2 receptor are required to activate the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel. Here we show that Wnt5a regulates AQP2 protein expression, phosphorylation and trafficking, suggesting that Wnt5a is an endogenous ligand that can regulate AQP2 without the activation of the classic vasopressin/cAMP signalling pathway...
November 28, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889072/if-euhydric-and-isotonic-do-not-work-what-are-acceptable-ph-and-osmolality-for-parenteral-drug-dosage-forms
#11
REVIEW
Dieter Roethlisberger, Hanns-Christian Mahler, Ulrike Altenburger, Astrid Pappenberger
Parenteral products should aim toward being isotonic and euhydric (physiological pH). Yet, due to other considerations, this goal is often not reasonable or doable. There are no clear allowable ranges related to pH and osmolality, and thus, the objective of this review was to provide a better understanding of acceptable formulation pH, buffer strength, and osmolality taking into account the administration route (i.e., intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous) and administration technique (i.e., bolus, push, infusion)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885225/the-physical-signs-of-impending-dehydration-among-elderly-people-in-nursing-homes-the-association-with-axillary-skin-temperature-humidity-intraoral-moisture-content-and-salivary-components
#12
Mayumi Okuyama, Masumi Nishida
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between impending dehydration among elderly people in nursing homes and physical signs, including the axillary skin temperature, humidity, intraoral moisture content, and salivary components. METHODS: The study included 78 elderly individuals who required long-term care in a nursing home (11 men and 67 women; average age, 86.6±7.3 years). The elderly subjects were classified in two groups according to their serum osmolality levels: those with levels between the upper limit reference value (292 mOsm/kg H2O) and the diagnostic reference value of dehydration (300 mOsm/kg H2O) were classified into the boundary zone group and those with levels of <292 mOsm/kg H2O were classified into the normal range group...
2016: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882829/the-effects-of-heat-stress-on-a-number-of-hematological-parameters-and-levels-of-thyroid-hormones-in-foundry-workers
#13
Sahar Norloei, Mohammad Javad Jafari, Leila Omidi, Soheila Khodakarim, Davood Bashash, Mohammad Bagher Abdollahi, Mina Jafari
The objective of this research was to determine the effects of heat stress on some hematological parameters and thyroid hormones among foundry workers. This study was performed on 25 heat-acclimated subjects while 10 office workers were selected as the control group. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was determined to estimate the heat stress. Blood sampling was conducted before and after the daily work shift. The mean value of the WBGT index was 35 °C. The levels of plasma osmolality (p = 0.04) and white blood cells (p = 0...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876808/water-intake-and-urinary-hydration-biomarkers-in-children
#14
S A Kavouras, D Bougatsas, E C Johnson, G Arnaoutis, S Tsipouridi, D B Panagiotakos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were as follows: (1) examine fluid intake and urinary hydration markers of children in Greece, (2) determine the calculated relative risk of hypohydration in children who did not meet the recommendations for daily water intake provided by the Institute of Medicine and the European Food Safety Authority compared with those who did and (3) analyze the efficacy of the recommendations as a method to achieve euhydration in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred and fifty Greek boys and girls (age 9-13) recorded their fluid intake for 2 consecutive days...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872507/calculated-chemistry-parameters-do-they-need-to-be-harmonised
#15
REVIEW
David Hughes, James Cg Doery, Kay Weng Choy, Robert Flatman
In clinical chemistry, harmonisation of the testing process is a global initiative with the purpose of improving patient safety, allowing better integration of research data and enabling the use of national electronic heath records. In Australia, as in other countries, the initial focus has been on the harmonisation of the more commonly measured analytes. There are also a number of calculated parameters, derived from these measured analytes, which could also be considered for harmonisation. Calculated parameters that are reported by laboratories and used for clinical decision-making should undergo the same robust process of harmonisation as is the case for the measured analytes...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872505/harmonisation-of-osmolal-gap-can-we-use-a-common-formula
#16
REVIEW
Kay Weng Choy, Nilika Wijeratne, Zhong X Lu, James Cg Doery
Osmolal gap is the difference between the measured osmolality and a calculated osmolality based on the major commonly measured osmotically active particles. The perceived gap indicates the presence of unmeasured osmotically active particles. The major use of osmolal gap today is to screen for the possible presence of exogenous toxic substances in patients in an emergency department or intensive care unit. There is a long history of osmolal gap calculations and it needs to be appreciated that the uncertainty of the osmolal gap will be determined by the sum of errors in the calculated osmolality, error in measured osmolality and variability in unmeasured analytes...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872504/harmonising-reference-intervals-for-three-calculated-parameters-used-in-clinical-chemistry
#17
REVIEW
David Hughes, Gus Koerbin, Julia M Potter, Nicholas Glasgow, Nic West, Walter P Abhayaratna, Juleen Cavanaugh, David Armbruster, Peter E Hickman
For more than a decade there has been a global effort to harmonise all phases of the testing process, with particular emphasis on the most frequently utilised measurands. In addition, it is recognised that calculated parameters derived from these measurands should also be a target for harmonisation. Using data from the Aussie Normals study we report reference intervals for three calculated parameters: serum osmolality, serum anion gap and albumin-adjusted serum calcium. The Aussie Normals study was an a priori study that analysed samples from 1856 healthy volunteers...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865497/invited-review-abomasal-emptying-in-calves-and-its-potential-influence-on-gastrointestinal-disease
#18
Johann Burgstaller, Thomas Wittek, Geof W Smith
Creating the ideal nutrition program for calves is a demanding task that has undergone tremendous change in recent years. Products and technologies including novel milk replacers and automated calf feeding systems have been developed to facilitate the ability of dairy producers to feed for higher growth rates before weaning. The creation of new feeding programs and milk replacers has to be looked at carefully, not only from a nutrition point of view but also from the perspective of a potential effect on physiologic digestion and calf health...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865300/effect-of-dapagliflozin-treatment-on-fluid-and-electrolyte-balance-in-diabetic-rats
#19
Ling Chen, Lauren M LaRocque, Orhan Efe, Juan Wang, Jeff M Sands, Janet D Klein
AIM: This study evaluates the effect of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on fluid or electrolyte balance and its effect on urea transporter-A1 (UT-A1), aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) protein abundance in diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by injection of streptozotocin into the tail vein. Serum Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) concentration, urine Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) excretion, blood glucose, urine glucose excretion, urine volume, urine osmolality and urine urea excretion were analyzed after the administration of dapagliflozin...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862070/are-ultrasound-renal-aspects-associated-with-urinary-biochemistry-in-fetuses-with-lower-urinary-tract-obstruction
#20
Ahmed A Nassr, Chester Koh Koh, Alireza A Shamshirsaz, Jimmy Espinoza, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Dina Sharhan, Stephen Welty, Joseph Angelo, David Roth, Michael A Belfort, Michael Braun, Rodrigo Ruano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between ultrasonographic renal parameters and urine biochemistry in fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO). METHODS: Data were collected prospectively from 31 consecutive fetuses with LUTO that underwent vesicocentesis for fetal urinary biochemistry between April 2013 and September 2015. The following renal ultrasound markers were assessed immediately before the vesicocentesis: renal echogenicity, presence of cortical cysts, presence of findings suggestive of 'renal dysplasia' (hyperechogenic cystic kidneys with no cortical-medullary differentiation) and severe oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid < 5th percentile)...
November 12, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
keyword
keyword
23719
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"