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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334127/non-enzymatic-cross-linking-of-collagen-type-ii-fibrils-is-tuned-via-osmolality-switch
#1
Behdad Pouran, Parisa R Moshtagh, Vahid Arbabi, Jessica Snabel, Reinout Stoop, Jeffrey Ruberti, Jos Malda, Amir A Zadpoor, Harrie Weinans
An important aspect in cartilage ageing is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) after exposure to sugars. Advanced glycation results in crosslinks formation between the collagen fibrils in articular cartilage, hampering their flexibility and making cartilage more brittle. In the current study, we investigate whether collagen crosslinking after exposure to sugars depends on the stretching condition of the collagen fibrils. Healthy equine cartilage specimens were exposed to L-threose sugar and placed in hypo-, iso- or hyper-osmolal conditions that expanded or shrank the tissue and changed the 3D conformation of collagen fibrils...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322584/effects-of-fixation-on-electrophysiology-and-structure-of-human-jejunal-villi
#2
Anna Casselbrant, Herbert F Helander
The villi of human jejunum vary in size and shape during different functional conditions. In the base the lamina propria is isotonic with blood, in the tip hyperosmotic. Here we study electrophysiological and morphological effects of incubation in hypotonic, isotonic, or hypertonic solutions, and to test various isotonic fixatives for microscopy. Samples of jejunal mucosae, obtained during surgery in obese patients, were studied in Ussing chambers where electrical parameters were registered during incubation in Krebs solution at various osmolarities, and during fixation in formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, or osmium tetroxide (OsO4 )...
January 11, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314755/replanted-teeth-stored-in-a-newly-developed-powdered-coconut-water-formula
#3
Manuella Verdinelli de Paula Reis, Carlos José Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira Soares, Aletheia Moraes Rocha, Cristiane Clemente de Mello Salgueiro, Márcia Helena Niza Ramalho Sobral, Camilla Christian Gomes Moura
BACKGROUND/AIM: A newly developed powdered coconut water formulae (ACP-404) has been proposed to preserve periodontal ligament cell viability. The aim of this study was to investigate the periodontal healing of dog teeth replanted after storage in ACP-404 with two different osmolalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty teeth of 10 adult beagle dogs were extracted and randomly subjected to the following protocols: immediate replantation after extraction (positive control); dry conditions (negative control); and storage in ACP-404 I (G1), ACP-404 II (G2), in coconut water long-shelf (G3), or in pH-neutralized coconut water long-shelf (G4) for 50 minutes before replantation...
January 5, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308245/distribution-composition-and-functions-of-gelatinous-tissues-in-deep-sea-fishes
#4
Mackenzie E Gerringer, Jeffrey C Drazen, Thomas D Linley, Adam P Summers, Alan J Jamieson, Paul H Yancey
Many deep-sea fishes have a gelatinous layer, or subdermal extracellular matrix, below the skin or around the spine. We document the distribution of gelatinous tissues across fish families (approx. 200 species in ten orders), then review and investigate their composition and function. Gelatinous tissues from nine species were analysed for water content (96.53 ± 1.78% s.d.), ionic composition, osmolality, protein (0.39 ± 0.23%), lipid (0.69 ± 0.56%) and carbohydrate (0.61 ± 0.28%). Results suggest that gelatinous tissues are mostly extracellular fluid, which may allow animals to grow inexpensively...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307961/clinical-profile-of-patients-admitted-with-hyponatremia-in-the-medical-intensive-care-unit
#5
Prakash Babaliche, Siddharth Madnani, Sajal Kamat
Background and Aims: Hyponatremia is the predominant electrolyte abnormality with an incidence rate of approximately 22%. It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality with scarce data in Indian intensive care settings. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical features and etiology of hyponatremia in patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A 1-year prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted, including 100 adult patients with moderate-to-severe hyponatremia admitted to the Medical ICU...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306844/exploration-of-polyelectrolyte-incorporated-with-triton-x-114-surfactant-based-osmotic-agent-for-forward-osmosis-desalination
#6
Saikat Sinha Ray, Shiao Shing Chen, Nguyen Cong Nguyen, Hau Thi Nguyen, Nguyen Phuoc Dan, Bui Xuan Thanh, Le Thuy Trang
Selection of a proper osmotic agent is important to make the forward osmosis (FO) feasible. The objective of this study was to enhance FO by lowering reverse solute flux and maintaining high water flux. Poly(propylene glycol) with molecular weight of 725 Da (PPG-725) was found to possess high osmolality, making it a strong candidate for using as a draw agent. In addition, to reduce the partial leakage of draw solute, a non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) has been incorporated. Typically, when the hydrophobic tails of Triton X-114 interacted with the membrane surface, a layer on the surface of membrane is produced to constrict the pores and thus minimize the reverse solute flux...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302506/efficacy-and-safety-of-combined-oral-and-enema-therapy-using-polyethylene-glycol-3350-electrolyte-for-disimpaction-in-pediatric-constipation
#7
Taeyeon Yoo, Sun Hwan Bae
Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined oral and enema therapy using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 with electrolyte solution for disimpaction in hospitalized children. Methods: We retrospectively studied 28 children having functional constipation who received inpatient treatment between 2008 and 2016. The amount of oral PEG 3350 electrolyte solution administered was 50-70 mL/kg/d (PEG 3350, 3-4.1 g/kg/d), and an enema solution was administered 1-2 times a day as a single dose of 15-25 mL/kg (PEG 3350, 0...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299475/total-knee-arthroplasty-fibrosis-following-arthroscopic-intervention
#8
Jessica L Churchill, Nipun Sodhi, Anton Khlopas, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Sarah E Dalton, Morad Chughtai, Assem A Sultan, Steven Jones, Nick Williams, Peter M Bonutti, Michael A Mont
Background: Although arthroscopy is generally considered to be a relatively benign procedure with limited trauma to periarticular soft tissues, post-arthroscopic bleeding as well as osmolality differences between the normal saline used to irrigate and the native synovial fluid (282 vs. 420 mOs) can lead to capsular reactions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether capsular reaction occurred after knee arthroscopy, by comparing a matched cohort of patients who either did or did not undergo prior arthroscopic surgery...
December 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285782/hyperpolarized-13-c-15-n2-urea-t2-relaxation-changes-in-acute-kidney-injury
#9
Christian Østergaard Mariager, Per Mose Nielsen, Haiyun Qi, Steffen Ringgaard, Christoffer Laustsen
PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between renal ischemia and 13 C-urea T2 relaxation rate in an acute kidney injury (AKI) rat model. METHODS: Six rats subjected to unilateral renal ischemia were investigated. Creatinine clearance, urine output, plasma creatinine as well as blood-urea nitrogen (BUN) values were acquired before and after the procedure. 1 H T2* mapping was acquired using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI and hyperpolarized 13 C-urea T2 mapping was acquired using a 2D golden-angle radial approach...
December 28, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282644/a-case-of-nephrogenic-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuresis-caused-by-carbamazepine
#10
Naoko Sekiya, Midori Awazu
We report a case of nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis caused by carbamazepine (CBZ). CBZ, an antiepileptic drug, is known to cause hyponatremia. The mechanism is generally considered to be inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, whereas an experimental study suggests a direct effect of CBZ on the kidney by stimulating vasopressin receptor. An 18-year-old male with atypical autism and epilepsy has been treated with CBZ and clobazam since age 9 and 10 years, respectively. At age 11, he was found to have asymptomatic hyponatremia...
December 27, 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281092/the-biosynthesis-of-quebrachitol-a-transportable-photosynthate-in-litchi-chinensis
#11
Zi-Chen Wu, Jie-Qiong Zhang, Jie-Tang Zhao, Jian-Guo Li, Xu-Ming Huang, Hui-Cong Wang
Although methylated cyclitols constitute a major proportion of the carbohydrates in many plant species, their physiological roles and biosynthetic pathway were largely unknown. Quebrachitol (2-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) is one of the major methylated cyclitols in some plant species. In litchi, quebrachitol represents around 50% soluble sugars in mature leaves and 40% of the total sugars in phloem exudation. In the present study, we identified bornesitol as a transient methylated intermediate of quebrachitol and measured the concentrations of methyl-inositols in different tissues and in tissues subjected to different treatments...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280480/identification-of-process-conditions-influencing-protein-aggregation-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cell-culture
#12
Albert Jesuran Paul, René Handrick, Sybille Ebert, Friedemann Hesse
Protein aggregation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a common phenomenon associated with the production of these biopharmaceuticals. These aggregates can lead to adverse side effects in patients upon administration, thus expensive downstream processing steps to remove the higher molecular weight species are inevitable. A preferable approach is to reduce the level of aggregation during bioprocessing by a careful adjustment of critical process parameters. Recently, new analytical methods enabled characterization of mAb aggregation during bioprocessing of mammalian cells...
December 27, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247499/cardiac-output-changes-after-osmotic-therapy-in-neurosurgical-and-neurocritical-care-patients-a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-literature
#13
Georgia Tsaousi, Elisabetta Stazi, Marco Cinicola, Federico Bilotta
AIM: Osmotherapy constitutes a first-line intervention for intracranial hypertension management. However, hyperosmolar solutes exert various systematic effects, among which their impact on systemic hemodynamics is poorly clarified. This review aims to appraise the clinical evidence of the effect of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS) on cardiac performance in neurosurgical and neurocritical care patients. METHOD: A database search was conducted to identify randomized clinical trials and observational studies reporting HTS or mannitol use in acute brain injury setting...
December 16, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242269/siadh-in-systemic-jia-resolving-after-treatment-with-an-il-6-inhibitor
#14
Juanita K Hodax, Shara R Bialo, Ali Yalcindag
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is implicated in the pathogenesis of both systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but the 2 have not been previously described as occurring together. We report a case of a 6-year-old girl with symptoms of arthralgia, daily fevers, evanescent rash, lymphadenopathy, and laboratory evaluation showing elevated inflammatory markers, consistent with SJIA. At presentation, the patient had hyponatremia with a sodium level of 128 mEq/L...
December 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242247/chip-regulates-aquaporin-2-quality-control-and-body-water-homeostasis
#15
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238038/fluid-consumption-pattern-and-hydration-among-8-14-years-old-children
#16
Dimitris Bougatsas, Giannis Arnaoutis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Adam D Seal, Evan C Johnson, Jeanne H Bottin, Spiridoula Tsipouridi, Stavros A Kavouras
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children consume various fluids to meet dietary water intake needs. However, the contribution of different fluid types on hydration is unclear. The purpose of this study was to develop fluid intake patterns and examine their association with hydration, as indicated by 24-h urine osmolality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two hundred ten (105 girls) healthy children (height: 1.49 ± 0.13 m, weight: 43.4 ± 12.6 kg, body fat: 25.2 ± 7.8%) recorded their fluid intake for two consecutive days, and collected their urine for 24-h during the 2nd day, while conducting their normal daily activities...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237574/late-rise-in-hemolymph-osmolality-in-macrobrachium-acanthurus-diadromous-freshwater-shrimp-exposed-to-brackish-water-early-reduction-in-branchial-na-k-pump-activity-but-stable-muscle-hsp70-expression
#17
Carolina A Freire, Anieli C Maraschi, Alessandra F Lara, Enelise M Amado, Viviane Prodocimo
Some Macrobrachium shrimps (Caridea, Palaemonidae) are diadromous; freshwater adults are truly euryhaline, while larvae need saline water for development. Branchial Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in NaCl absorption in freshwater. This study aimed at verifying the time course of the osmoregulatory response of adult Macrobrachium acanthurus to high salinity brackish water (20‰), from the first 30min to 5days. The goal was to detect possible transition from hyper- to hyporegulation, the putative involvement of branchial NKA and CA, or the induction of muscular HSP70 expression...
December 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233909/oral-contraceptives-and-renal-water-handling-a-diurnal-study-in-young-women
#18
Charlotte Graugaard-Jensen, Gitte M Hvistendahl, Jørgen Frøkiær, Peter Bie, Jens Christian Djurhuus
To test the hypothesis that use of oral contraceptives (OC) changes diurnal variation in fluid balance mechanisms including blood pressure, secretion of vasopressin and oxytocin, and renal water and electrolyte excretion. Fifteen naturally cycling (NC) women in mid-follicular phase and 11 long-term OC users were included in a 24-h standardized inpatient study for measurements of vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium, and osmolality in plasma as well as urinary excretion of electrolytes, aquaporin-2, and prostaglandin E2...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233458/development-of-hyper-osmotic-resistant-cho-host-cells-for-enhanced-antibody-production
#19
Yasuharu Kamachi, Takeshi Omasa
Cell culture platform processes are generally employed to shorten the duration of new product development. A fed-batch process with continuous feeding is a conventional platform process for monoclonal antibody production using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. To establish a simplified platform process, the feeding method can be changed from continuous feed to bolus feed. However, this change induces a rapid increase of osmolality by the bolus addition of nutrients. The increased osmolality suppresses cell culture growth, and the final product concentration is decreased...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229561/effect-of-trehalose-and-sucrose-based-extenders-on-equine-sperm-quality-after-vitrification-preliminary-results
#20
C C Pérez-Marín, F D Requena, A Arando, S Ortiz-Villalón, F Requena, E I Agüera
There has been a lack of research into equine sperm vitrification to date, but studies of other species suggest it may have significant potential. To evaluate the impact of various cryoprotectant agents (CPA) and vitrification on equine sperm quality, a controlled study was carried out. A total of 12 ejaculates were subjected to exposure to CPA and vitrification. Sperm was diluted in a range of CPA: fresh, control (BSA), sucrose (0.15M, 0.3M and 0.5M), trehalose (0.15M, 0.3M and 0.5M) and the combination of sucrose and trehalose (M1: 0...
December 8, 2017: Cryobiology
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