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Osmolality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928398/bumetanide-treatment-during-early-development-rescues-maternal-separation-induced-susceptibility-to-stress
#1
Die Hu, Zhou-Long Yu, Yan Zhang, Ying Han, Wen Zhang, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia. Early life stress, such as maternal separation, can have long-term effects on the development of the central nervous system and pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we found that maternal separation increased the susceptibility to stress in adolescent rats, increased the expression of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) on postnatal day 14, and increased the expression of K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2) and γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunits on postnatal day 40 in the hippocampus...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927875/dynamic-responses-of-prolactin-growth-hormone-and-their-receptors-to-hyposmotic-acclimation-in-the-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#2
Mingzhe Yuan, Qianqian Jia, Ting Wang, Qi Lu, Langlang Tang, Youji Wang, Weiqun Lu
Prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) play important roles in regulating salt and water balance through osmoregulatory organs in vertebrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes of GH/PRL hormone gene expressions in the pituitary gland and their receptors in gill and kidney, as well as the plasma osmolality when the olive flounder fish Paralichthys olivaceus were acclimated in freshwater (FW) conditions. After transfer from seawater (SW) to freshwater (FW), the osmolality of FW-adaption fish reached the lowest level at 1d which rose slightly afterwards...
September 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924482/atypical-presentation-of-central-pontine-myelinolysis-in-hyperglycemia
#3
Swapna Talluri, Raghu Charumathi, Muhammad Khan, Kerri Kissell
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) usually occurs with rapid correction of severe chronic hyponatremia. Despite the pronounced fluctuations in serum osmolality, CPM is rarely seen in diabetics. This is a case report of CPM associated with hyperglycemia. A 45-year-old non-smoking and non-alcoholic African American male with past medical history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stage V chronic kidney disease and hypothyroidism presented with a two-week history of intermittent episodes of gait imbalance, slurred speech and inappropriate laughter...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920781/refractometric-urine-specific-gravity-of-free-living-egyptian-fruit-bats-rousettus-aegyptiacus
#4
David Eshar, Roi Lapid, Maya Weinberg, Roni King, Lisa M Pohlman
In both human and veterinary medicine, urine specific gravity (USG) is commonly measured by refractometry to indirectly reflect the osmolality of urine to thereby evaluate the kidney's ability to concentrate or dilute urine according to physiologic need and certain disease conditions. However, for accurate interpretation of the significance of any value, knowledge of the expected USG for the healthy species in question is required. It is generally believed that fruit bats, and Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in particular, are unable to highly concentrate their urine...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918494/betaine-in-the-brain-characterization-of-betaine-uptake-its-influence-on-other-osmolytes-and-its-potential-role-in-neuroprotection-from-osmotic-stress
#5
Leena S Knight, Quinn Piibe, Ian Lambie, Christopher Perkins, Paul H Yancey
Betaine (N-trimethylglycine), a common osmolyte, has received attention because of the number of clinical reports associating betaine supplementation with improved cognition, neuroprotection and exercise physiology. However, tissue analyses report little accumulation of betaine in brain tissue despite the presence of betaine/GABA transporters (BGT1) at the blood brain barrier and in nervous tissue, calling into question whether betaine influences neuronal function directly or indirectly. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine what capacity nervous tissue has to accumulate betaine, specifically in the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learning and memory and one that is particularly susceptible to damage (e...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900833/cell-volume-regulation-in-the-proximal-tubule-of-rat-kidney-proximal-tubule-cell-volume-regulation
#6
Aurélie Edwards, Anita T Layton
We developed a dynamic model of a rat proximal convoluted tubule cell in order to investigate cell volume regulation mechanisms in this nephron segment. We examined whether regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which follows exposure to a hyposmotic peritubular solution, can be achieved solely via stimulation of basolateral K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] channels and [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] cotransporters. We also determined whether regulatory volume increase (RVI), which follows exposure to a hyperosmotic peritubular solution under certain conditions, may be accomplished by activating basolateral [Formula: see text]/H[Formula: see text] exchangers...
September 12, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898238/glucosamine-stimulates-pheromone-independent-dimorphic-transition-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-by-promoting-crz1-nuclear-translocation
#7
Xinping Xu, Jianfeng Lin, Youbao Zhao, Elyssa Kirkman, Yee-Seul So, Yong-Sun Bahn, Xiaorong Lin
Morphotype switch is a cellular response to external and internal cues. The Cryptococcus neoformans species complex can undergo morphological transitions between the yeast and the hypha form, and such morphological changes profoundly affect cryptococcal interaction with various hosts. Filamentation in Cryptococcus was historically considered a mating response towards pheromone. Recent studies indicate the existence of pheromone-independent signaling pathways but their identity or the effectors remain unknown...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893666/physiological-and-behavioral-responses-to-salinity-in-coastal-dice-snakes
#8
François Brischoux, Yurii V Kornilev, Harvey B Lillywhite
Secondarily marine tetrapods have evolved adaptations to maintain their osmotic balance in a hyperosmotic environment. During the transition to a marine habitat, the evolution of a euryhaline physiology likely encompassed successive changes in behavior and physiology that released organisms from regular access to fresh water. Deciphering these key steps is a complicated task. In this study, we investigated a species of freshwater natricine snake in which some populations are known to use marine environments...
September 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892600/the-suspect-siadh
#9
Kristen Tee, Jerry Dang
BACKGROUND: Hyponatraemia is one of the most commonly encountered electrolyte abnormalities in general practice. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is an important but under-recognised cause. OBJECTIVE: This article explores the presentation, investigation, diagnosis and management of SIADH. DISCUSSION: SIADH can occur secondary to medications, malignancy, pulmonary disease, or any disorder involving the central nervous system...
September 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891536/urine-osmolality-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-positive-subjects-in-southeast-nigeria
#10
E N Anyabolu, I I Chukwuonye, I Ezeani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urine osmolality varies over a wide range of values in a healthy state. Dilute urine or concentrated urine may be observed in many environmental, physiologic, and disease conditions. Urine osmolality is not commonly evaluated in routine clinical practice and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subjects. The factors that influence urine osmolality have not been completely identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate urine osmolality in treatment-naïve HIV subjects and to identify the factors that may influence dilute and concentrated urine in this group of patients...
August 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887630/ncb5or-deficiency-in-the-cerebellum-and-midbrain-leads-to-dehydration-and-alterations-in-thirst-response-fasted-feeding-behavior-and-voluntary-exercise-in-mice
#11
Matthew A Stroh, Michelle K Winter, Kenneth E McCarson, John P Thyfault, Hao Zhu
Cytosolic NADH-cytochrome-b5-oxidoreductase (NCB5OR) is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues. We have previously reported that global ablation of NCB5OR in mice results in early-onset lean diabetes with decreased serum leptin levels and increased metabolic and feeding activities. The conditional deletion of NCB5OR in the mouse cerebellum and midbrain (conditional knock out, CKO mice) results in local iron dyshomeostasis and altered locomotor activity. It has been established that lesion to or removal of the cerebellum leads to changes in nutrient organization, visceral response, feeding behavior, and body weight...
September 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887234/vaginal-semisolid-products-technological-performance-considering-physiologic-parameters
#12
Rita Monteiro Machado, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira
Vaginal semisolid products are frequently used to treat vaginal infections and atrophy-related symptoms of menopause. Formulations composition and the methods for their characterization, especially those developed concerning the target epithelia, are key tools to predict in vivo results at early stages of product development. However, recent studies on this subject have been almost exclusively focused on anti-HIV preparations. The aim of this work consists on improving traditional characterization methods by using physiological parameters in order to construct predictive tools to characterize a new ideal vaginal semisolid formulation whatever target it may have...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880151/salivary-markers-for-quantitative-dehydration-estimation-during-physical-exercise
#13
Matthias Ring, Clemens Lohmueller, Manfred Rauh, Joachim Mester, Bjoern M Eskofier
Salivary markers have been proposed as noninvasive and easy-to-collect indicators of dehydrations during physical exercise. It has been demonstrated that threshold-based classifications can distinguish dehydrated from euhydrated subjects. However, considerable challenges were reported simultaneously, for example, high intersubject variabilities in these markers. Therefore, we propose a machine-learning approach to handle the intersubject variabilities and to advance from binary classifications to quantitative estimations of total body water (TBW) loss...
September 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878889/preoperative-fluid-retention-increases-blood-loss-during-major-open-abdominal-surgery
#14
Robert G Hahn, Hans Bahlmann, Lena Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Quantification of renal fluid conservation is possible by urine analysis, and the results can indicate dehydration. The present report sought to determine whether this fluid retention correlates with fluid requirements during major abdominal surgeries that have estimated operating times ≥ 2 h. METHODS: Urine colour, specific weight, osmolality and creatinine concentration were used to calculate a composite "fluid retention index" (FRI) in 97 patients prior to major abdominal surgery...
2017: Perioperative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867687/rapid-exacerbation-of-renal-function-after-administration-of-hydroxyethyl-starch-in-a-dog
#15
Junwoo Bae, Mahmoud Soliman, Hyunwoo Kim, Seongwoo Kang, Woosun Kim, Soomin Ahn, Kyoungoh Cho, Jihye Choi, Suhee Kim, Jinho Park, Sangki Kim, Yoonjung DO, Jaegyu Yoo, Dohyeon Yu
Hydroxyethyl starches (HES) are commonly used synthetic colloidal solution in veterinary medicine. Despite of possible adverse effect to kidney injury in human, there is no report about nephrotoxic effects of HES in dogs. HES was administered to a Golden retriever (4-year-old, intact male) with ascites in order to increase plasma osmolality. Initially, the dog was mild azotemic, however, kidney function was rapidly deteriorated after several days of HES administration. Finally, histopathological examination revealed remarkable osmotic nephrosis...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863350/ice-nucleating-agents-allow-embryo-freezing-without-manual-seeding
#16
Magda Teixeira, Samuel Buff, Hugo Desnos, Céline Loiseau, Pierre Bruyère, Thierry Joly, Loris Commin
Embryo slow freezing protocols include a nucleation induction step called manual seeding. This step is time consuming, manipulator dependent and hard to standardize. It requires access to samples, which is not always possible within the configuration of systems, such as differential scanning calorimeters or cryomicroscopes. Ice nucleation can be induced by other methods, e.g., by the use of ice nucleating agents. Snomax is a commercial preparation of inactivated proteins extracted from Pseudomonas syringae...
August 18, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862988/feto-maternal-osmotic-balance-at-term-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
Vibeke Moen, Lars Brudin, Ivar Tjernberg, Mats Rundgren, Lars Irestedt
OBJECTIVE: We performed the present study to investigate the feto-maternal osmotic relationship at term with the hypothesis that, in contrast to the literature, maternal plasma osmolality is lower than fetal levels. In a previous study, we found that maternal plasma sodium at delivery was consistently lower than the sodium in the umbilical artery. Our aim was to corroborate these results with analysis of osmolality. METHODS: Blood was sampled from 30 women immediately before cesarean section and from the umbilical artery and vein before cord clamping and osmolality, sodium and albumin were analyzed...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861607/glomerular-and-tubular-effects-of-nitric-oxide-no-are-regulated-by-angiotensin-ii-ang-ii-in-an-age-dependent-manner-through-activation-of-both-angiotensin-receptors-at1rs-and-at2rs-in-conscious-lambs
#18
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
Renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems and the balance and interaction between them are considered of primary importance in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been suggested that the effects of NO may be modulated at least in part by the angiotensin (Ang) II, yet the roles of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) are not well understood. Even though both Ang II and NO are elevated at birth and during the newborn period, their contribution to the adaptation of the newborn to life after birth as well as their physiological roles during development are poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858828/arsenic-and-obesity-a-comparison-of-urine-dilution-adjustment-methods
#19
Catherine M Bulka, Sithembile L Mabila, James P Lash, Mary E Turyk, Maria Argos
INTRODUCTION: A commonly used approach to adjust for urine dilution in analyses of biomarkers is to adjust for urinary creatinine. However, creatinine is a product of muscle mass and is therefore associated with body mass. In studies of urinary analytes and obesity or obesity-related outcomes, controlling for creatinine could induce collider stratification bias. We illustrate this phenomenon with an analysis of urinary arsenic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate various approaches of adjustment for urinary dilution on the associations between urinary arsenic concentration and measures of obesity...
August 28, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856420/iodine-based-contrast-media-multiple-myeloma-and-monoclonal-gammopathies-literature-review-and-esur-contrast-media-safety-committee-guidelines
#20
Fulvio Stacul, Michele Bertolotto, Henrik S Thomsen, Gabriele Pozzato, Donatella Ugolini, Marie-France Bellin, Georg Bongartz, Olivier Clement, Gertraud Heinz-Peer, Aart van der Molen, Peter Reimer, Judith A W Webb
OBJECTIVES: Many radiologists and clinicians still consider multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathies (MG) a contraindication for using iodine-based contrast media. The ESUR Contrast Media Safety Committee performed a systematic review of the incidence of post-contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI) in these patients. METHODS: A systematic search in Medline and Scopus databases was performed for renal function deterioration studies in patients with MM or MG following administration of iodine-based contrast media...
August 30, 2017: European Radiology
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