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Osmolality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092112/aquaporin-2-excretion-in-hospitalized-patients-with-cirrhosis-relation-to-development-of-renal-insufficiency-and-mortality
#1
Troels M Busk, Søren Møller, Erling B Pedersen, Alexander Gerbes, Aleksander Krag, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Sona Frankova, Minneke J Coenraad, Flemming Bendtsen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Urinary aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a parameter of water transport in the principal cells in the distal part of the nephron and involved in water retention in cirrhosis and may be a marker of renal function. The aim of the study was to evaluate AQP2 as a predictor of renal insufficiency and death in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Urine samples from 199 patients (90 patients without organ failure (Group 1), 58 patients with organ failure excluding renal failure (Group 2) and 51 patients with organ failure including renal failure (Group 3)) from the CANONIC study were analyzed for urine AQP2 and urine osmolality...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091880/inhibition-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-activity-does-not-alter-vasopressin-secretion-in-septic-rats
#2
Camila Henriques Coelho, Thalita Freitas Martins, Gabriela Ravanelli Oliveira-Pelegrin, Maria José Alves da Rocha
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: During the early phase of sepsis, hypotension is accompanied by increase of plasma vasopressin hormone (AVP) levels, which decline during the late phase. This hypotension is due in part to increase of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme. Neuronal isoform of this enzyme (nNOS) is present in vasopressinergics neurons of hypothalamus, but its role in vasopressin secretion during sepsis is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the role of nNOS in NO production and vasopressin secretion during sepsis...
January 16, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091865/improving-the-diagnostic-workup-of-hyponatremia-in-the-setting-of-kidney-disease-a-continuing-medical-education-cme-initiative
#3
Ladan Golestaneh, Joel Neugarten, William Southern, Faraj Kargoli, Amanda Raff
PURPOSE: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder and is associated with mortality. We examined the frequency of appropriate testing in response to an episode of inpatient hyponatremia in a large urban hospital to better inform our educational intervention. We then evaluated the impact of a live CME activity with a focus on CKD- and ESRD-associated hyponatremia physiology, on diagnostic practices of audience hospitalist attendings. METHODS: We performed a retrospective database analysis of all patients admitted to Montefiore Medical Center in 2014 to examine the performance of hospital staff in response to hyponatremia across all CKD stages...
January 13, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090051/different-effects-of-tolvaptan-in-patients-with-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy-with-nephrotic-syndrome
#4
Atsushi Tanaka, Tsukasa Nakamura, Eiichi Sato, Yoshihiko Ueda, Koichi Node
This case report discusses the clinical indication for immunosuppressants in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Because this disease occasionally shows spontaneous remission, it is necessary to determine the predictive values for a therapeutic effect in order to provide appropriate treatment. Two distinct cases described herein illustrate the different effects of tolvaptan in responders and non-responders, according to the pre-treatment levels of AQP-2 immunostaining in the samples from renal biopsy and urinary levels of AQP-2 and osmolality, suggesting that these values may be useful predictors of response to tolvaptan in patients with nephrotic IMN...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088278/metabolomic-analysis-of-urine-samples-by-uhplc-qtof-ms-impact-of-normalization-strategies
#5
Yoric Gagnebin, David Tonoli, Pierre Lescuyer, Belen Ponte, Sophie de Seigneux, Pierre-Yves Martin, Julie Schappler, Julien Boccard, Serge Rudaz
Among the various biological matrices used in metabolomics, urine is a biofluid of major interest because of its non-invasive collection and its availability in large quantities. However, significant sources of variability in urine metabolomics based on UHPLC-MS are related to the analytical drift and variation of the sample concentration, thus requiring normalization. A sequential normalization strategy was developed to remove these detrimental effects, including: (i) pre-acquisition sample normalization by individual dilution factors to narrow the concentration range and to standardize the analytical conditions, (ii) post-acquisition data normalization by quality control-based robust LOESS signal correction (QC-RLSC) to correct for potential analytical drift, and (iii) post-acquisition data normalization by MS total useful signal (MSTUS) or probabilistic quotient normalization (PQN) to prevent the impact of concentration variability...
February 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081165/urine-concentrating-capacity-vasopressin-and-copeptin-in-adpkd-and-iga-nephropathy-patients-with-renal-impairment
#6
Debbie Zittema, Niek F Casteleijn, Stephan J L Bakker, Lianne S M Boesten, A A Margreeth Duit, Casper F M Franssen, Carlo A J M Gaillard, Ron T Gansevoort
BACKGROUND: Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) patients have an impaired urine concentrating capacity. Increased circulating vasopressin (AVP) concentrations are supposed to play a role in the progression of ADPKD. We hypothesized that ADPKD patients have a more severely impaired urine concentrating capacity in comparison to other patients with chronic kidney disease at a similar level of kidney function, with consequently an enhanced AVP response to water deprivation with higher circulating AVP concentrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081152/increased-serum-sodium-and-serum-osmolarity-are-independent-risk-factors-for-developing-chronic-kidney-disease-5-year-cohort-study
#7
Masanari Kuwabara, Ichiro Hisatome, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Koichiro Niwa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Thomas Jensen, Petter Bjornstad, Tamara Milagres, Christina Cicerchi, Zhilin Song, Gabriela Garcia, Laura G Sánchez-Lozada, Minoru Ohno, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not due to diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension have been observed among individuals working in hot environments in several areas of the world. Experimental models have documented that recurrent heat stress and water restriction can lead to CKD, and the mechanism may be mediated by hyperosmolarity that activates pathways (vasopressin, aldose reductase-fructokinase) that induce renal injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated serum sodium, which reflects serum osmolality, may be an independent risk factor for the development of CKD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072656/isosorbide-induced-decompression-effect-on-the-scala-media-participation-of-plasma-osmolality-and-plasma-arginine-vasopressin
#8
Taizo Takeda, Setsuko Takeda, Natsumi Uehara, Shungaku Yanagisawa, Tatsuya Furukawa, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Akinobu Kakigi
OBJECTIVE: The correlation between the isosorbide-induced decompression effect on the endolymphatic space and plasma osmolality (p-OSM) or plasma arginine vasopressin (p-AVP) was investigated on comparing two different dosages of isosorbide (2.8 and 1.4 g/kg) to elucidate why the decompression effect is delayed with a large dose of isosorbide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two experiments were performed using 80 guinea pigs. Experiment 1 was designed to morphologically investigate the sequential influence of the oral intake of 1...
January 9, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056340/great-expectations-anticipatory-control-of-magnocellular-vasopressin-neurons
#9
Alan G Watts
Real-time activity measurements of genetically identified neuroendocrine vasopressin neurons show they can anticipate osmotic challenges. In this issue of Neuron, Mandelblat-Cerf et al. (2017) show that correlating these results with ongoing behavior and plasma osmolality points to the existence of brain networks that integrate exterosensory cues with interosensory signals to drive neuroendocrine output.
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054405/basic-or-extended-urine-sampling-to-analyse-urine-production
#10
Marie-Astrid Denys, Vansh Kapila, Jeffrey Weiss, An-Sofie Goessaert, Karel Everaert
BACKGROUND: Frequency volume charts are valuable tools to objectify urine production in patients with nocturia, enuresis or nocturnal incontinence. Analyses of daytime and nighttime urine (=basic collection) or analyses of urine samples collected every 3 h (=extended collection) extend this evaluation by describing circadian patterns of water and solute diuresis (=renal function profiles). AIM: To assess intra-individual correlation and agreement between renal function profiles provided using basic and extended urine collections, and using two extended urine collections...
January 5, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054400/nanopolymersomes-with-an-ultrahigh-iodine-content-for-high-performance-x-ray-computed-tomography-imaging-in-vivo
#11
Yan Zou, Yaohua Wei, Guanglin Wang, Fenghua Meng, Mingyuan Gao, Gert Storm, Zhiyuan Zhong
Biocompatible and biodegradable nanopolymersomes with an unprecedented iodine content, low viscosity, and iso-osmolality achieve significantly enhanced CT imaging of blood pool and the reticuloendothelial system. Moreover, in subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models in mice, they show enhanced in vivo imaging when compared to iohexol, a clinically used small molecule contrast agent.
January 5, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044462/freeze-drying-optimization-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-ocular-flurbiprofen-delivery-effect-of-protectant-agents-and-critical-process-parameters-on-long-term-stability
#12
Gladys Rosario Ramos Yacasi, Ana Cristina Calpena Capmany, María Antonia Egea Gras, Marta Espina García, María Luisa García López
CONTEXT: The stabilization of flurbiprofen loaded poly-Ɛ-caprolactone nanoparticles (FB-PƐCL-NPs) for ocular delivery under accurate freeze-drying (FD) process provide the basis for a large-scale production and its commercial development. OBJECTIVE: Optimization of the FD to improve long term stability of ocular administration's FB-PƐCL-NPs Methods: FB-PƐCL-NPs were prepared by solvent displacement method with poloxamer 188 (P188) as stabilizer. Freezing and primary dying (PD) were studied and optimized through freeze-thawing test and freeze-drying microscopy...
January 3, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040287/race-and-contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-angiography-and-cardiac-catheterization
#13
REVIEW
Raveen Chawla, Jeremy Turlington, Pradeep Arora, Ion S Jovin
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an acute worsening of renal function after receiving intravascular contrast during a procedure. Some of the predisposing factors include underlying diabetes, chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, periprocedural hypotension, anemia, contrast volume, and osmolality of contrast; however, it remains unclear if risk varies for CIN with race and ethnicity. There is evidence in the literature showing the link between race/ethnicity and the discrepancies in the utilization of preventive care services and the resources related to cardiovascular and renal health...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030867/medications-that-increase-osmolality-and-compromise-the-safety-of-enteral-feeding-in-preterm-infants
#14
Suresh Chandran, Mei Chien Chua, Wanyun Lin, Jia Min Wong, Seyed Ehsan Saffari, Victor Samuel Rajadurai
BACKGROUND: Medications added to preterm milk feeds have the potential to raise osmolality, causing feed intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the osmolality of milk feeds and water with 14 medications and the diluent amounts required to keep the osmolality below the safety threshold of ≤450 mOsm/kg. Changes in the osmolality of milk with medications while on continuous infusion over 2 and 4 h were determined...
December 29, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025803/metabolic-transition-of-milk-lactose-synthesis-and-up-regulation-by-akt1-in-sows-from-late-pregnancy-to-lactation
#15
Fang Chen, Baoliang Chen, Wutai Guan, Jun Chen, Yantao Lv, Hanzhen Qiao, Chaoxian Wang, Yinzhi Zhang
Lactose plays a crucial role in controlling milk volume by inducing water toward into the mammary secretory vesicles from the mammary epithelial cell cytoplasm, thereby maintaining osmolality. In current study, we determined the expression of several lactose synthesis related genes, including glucose transporters (glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter 8, sodium-glucose cotransporter 1, sodium-glucose cotransporter 3, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 5), lactose synthases (α-lactalbumin and β1,4-galactosyltransferase), and hexokinases (hexokinase-1 and hexokinase-2) in sow mammary gland tissue at day 17 before delivery, on the 1st day of lactation and at peak lactation...
December 26, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017270/effect-of-fixed-volume-and-weight-based-dosing-regimens-on-the-cost-and-volume-of-administered-iodinated-contrast-material-at-abdominal-ct
#16
Matthew S Davenport, Kushal R Parikh, William W Mayo-Smith, Gary M Israel, Richard K J Brown, James H Ellis
PURPOSE: To determine the magnitude of subject-level and population-level cost savings that could be realized by moving from fixed-volume low-osmolality iodinated contrast material administration to an effective weight-based dosing regimen for contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT. METHODS: HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-exempt retrospective cohort study of 6,737 subjects undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT from 2014 to 2015. Subject height, weight, lean body weight (LBW), and body surface area (BSA) were determined...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012639/-guidelines-for-multivitamin-administration-in-fortified-human-milk-prepared-for-preterm-infants
#17
V Rigourd, I Dridi Brahim, S Smii, H Razafimahefa, F Quetin, E Leroy, C Pichon, A Giuseppi, L Berthier, B Pommeret, R Serreau
BACKGROUND: To reach nutritional standards, human milk has to have 2g/dL of protein. In 2013, Lafeber stated that when human milk is fortified up to 2g/dL, it may increase its osmolality up to 500 mOsm/kg. He also warned that care must be taken when adding a drug or vitamins to human milk. AIM: We studied, for the first time, the impact of adding multivitamins (ADEC) on human fortified milk osmolality. METHOD: The osmolality of 36 pasteurized, fortified human milk samples was measured...
December 21, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011746/the-pharmacology-of-autonomic-failure-from-hypotension-to-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Italo Biaggioni
Primary neurodegenerative autonomic disorders are characterized clinically by loss of autonomic regulation of blood pressure. The clinical picture is dominated by orthostatic hypotension, but supine hypertension is also a significant problem. Autonomic failure can result from impairment of central autonomic pathways (multiple system atrophy) or neurodegeneration of peripheral postganglionic autonomic fibers (pure autonomic failure, Parkinson's disease). Pharmacologic probes such as the ganglionic blocker trimethaphan can help us in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and diagnosis of these disorders...
January 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007306/a-quick-reference-on-chloride
#19
REVIEW
Andrea A Bohn, Helio Autran De Morais
Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations...
December 19, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003210/plasma-hyperosmolality-improves-tolerance-to-combined-heat-stress-and-central-hypovolemia-in-humans
#20
Daniel Gagnon, Steven A Romero, Hai Ngo, Paula Ys Poh, Craig G Crandall
: Heat stress profoundly impairs tolerance to central hypovolemia in humans, via a number of mechanisms including heat-induced hypovolemia. However, heat stress also elevates plasma osmolality; the effects of which on tolerance to central hypovolemia remain unknown. This study examined the effect of plasma hyperosmolality on tolerance to central hypovolemia in heat stressed humans. Using a counterbalanced and cross-over design, 12 subjects (1 female) received intravenous infusion of either 0...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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