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Leigh Anne Harden, Jennifer Fernandez, Joseph R Milanovich, Brock P Struecker, Stephen R Midway
Blood biochemical and hematology analyses are helpful indicators of the physiologic health of animals, particularly when making conservation and management decisions for threatened species. In this study, we 1) established blood biochemical reference intervals for two populations of threatened, free-ranging ornate box turtles ( Terrapene ornata) in northern Illinois during their active season and 2) examined the effects of individual carapace temperature ( Tc ) on blood biochemical variables by using a Bayesian hierarchic framework...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Beata Irena Cejko, Ákos Horváth, Timea Kollár, Eszter Kása, Jelena Lujić, Zoran Marinović, Béla Urbányi, Radosław Kajetan Kowalski
The effect of sodium and potassium concentrations as well as optimal pH on the motility of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. sperm during short-term storage in artificial seminal plasma (ASP) was investigated. Sperm was collected from individual males (n = 5) and each sample diluted tenfold (1:9) in ASP (sperm:extender) containing 2 mM CaCl2 , 1 mM Mg2 SO4 and 20 mM Tris at pH 8.0 and supplemented by the following concentrations of sodium and potassium (mM/mM): 0/150, 20/130, 40/110, 75/75, 110/40, 130/20 and 150/0...
March 21, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Marco Baldrighi, Pier Paolo Sainaghi, Mattia Bellan, Ettore Bartoli, Luigi Mario Castello
INTRODUCTION: Although hypovolemia remains the most relevant problem during acute decompensated diabetes in its clinical manifestations (diabetic ketoacidosis, DKA, and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, HHS), the electrolyte derangements caused by the global hydroelectrolytic imbalance usually complicate the clinical picture at presentation and may be worsened by treatment itself. AIM: This review article is focused on the management of dysnatremias during hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state with the aim of providing clinicians a useful tool to early indentify the sodium derangement in order to address properly its treatment...
March 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Silas C Principe, Alessandra Augusto, Tânia Marcia Costa
Temperature is one of the main environmental constraints to organism distribution, affecting physiology and survival. Organisms that inhabit the intertidal zone are exposed to temperature variation and, with climate change, they should face different conditions which include higher temperatures, leading to higher rates of water loss through evaporation and then fitness reduction or mortality. Here we tested the effects of desiccation and increased temperature in two fiddler crabs species that occupy distinct habitats in regard to vegetation cover and position on the intertidal zone and thus may respond differently to these stressors...
April 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Tony L R Silveira, Gabriel B Martins, William B Domingues, Mariana H Remião, Bruna F Barreto, Ingrid M Lessa, Lucas Santos, Danillo Pinhal, Odir A Dellagostin, Fabiana K Seixas, Tiago Collares, Ricardo B Robaldo, Vinicius F Campos
Silversides are fish that inhabit marine coastal waters, coastal lagoons, and estuarine regions in southern South America. The freshwater (FW) silversides have the ability to tolerate salinity variations. Odontesthes humensis have similar habitats and biological characteristics of congeneric O. bonariensis , the most studied silverside species and with great economic importance. Studies revealed that O. bonariensis is not fully adapted to FW, despite inhabiting hyposmotic environments in nature. However, there is little information about stressful environments for cultivation of silverside O...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Yuan Sheng Tao, Shang Guo Piao, Ying Shun Jin, Ji Zhe Jin, Hai Lan Zheng, Hai Yan Zhao, Sun Woo Lim, Chul Woo Yang, Can Li
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that a decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level induces a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, the expression and role of BDNF in the kidney have not been explored. The present study examined the expression of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors in an experimental model of chronic cyclosporine A (CsA) nephropathy. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats on a salt-deplete diet were treated daily for four weeks with vehicle or CsA...
March 14, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Kengo Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Umeda, Kuniyoshi Niwa, Isao Naguro, Hidenori Ichijo
Cell volume regulation is a vital system for cellular activities. When perturbed by hypoosmotic or hyperosmotic stress, cells immediately induce the cell volume recovery system, regulatory volume decrease (RVD) or regulatory volume increase (RVI), respectively. In contrast to the knowledge about effector molecules, the molecular mechanisms linking osmosensing to RVD/RVI induction remain unknown. Additionally, few reciprocal responders in the bidirectional osmotic stress response have been identified. We previously reported that ASK3 bidirectionally switches its kinase activity under osmotic stress...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Mst Ishrat Jahan, Ryuta Tobe, Hisaaki Mihara
The extI gene in Geobacter sulfurreducens encodes a putative outer membrane channel porin, which resides within a cluster of extHIJKLMNOPQS genes. This cluster is highly conserved across the Geobacteraceae and includes multiple putative c -type cytochromes. In silico analyses of the ExtI sequence, together with Western blot analysis and proteinase protection assays, showed that it is an outer membrane protein. The expression level of ExtI did not respond to changes in osmolality and phosphate starvation. An extI -deficient mutant did not show any significant impact on fumarate or Fe(III) citrate reduction or sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics, as compared with those of the wild-type strain...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ana Margarida Monteiro, Olinda Marques, Sofia Martins, Ana Antunes
The authors report a case of a 15-year-old girl with hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome diagnosed in the neonatal period. The patient was admitted to the emergency room with impaired consciousness and hypoglycaemia. The day before, she increased her water intake to about 1.5 L to perform a pelvic ultrasound. In the following hours, she developed vomiting and food refusal. Blood analysis revealed hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, decreased serum osmolality and normal urinary density. Hyponatraemia and adrenal crisis were managed with a gradual but slow resolution of consciousness and electrolytic balance...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Ayse Ebru Bahadir Kilavuzoglu, Gurkan Yurteri, Nurgul Guven, Savas Marsap, Ali Riza Cenk Celebi, Cemile Banu Cosar
BACKGROUND: The effect of hemodialysis (HD) on intraocular pressure (IOP) has been investigated before, but there is a lack of consensus. Clinicians dealing with renal failure patients are interested in the potential negative effects of HD on IOP and the course of glaucoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HD on IOP in patients with end-stage renal disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study included 106 patients who were receiving outpatient hemodialysis...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Penelope Trimpou, Daniel S Olsson, Olof Ehn, Oskar Ragnarsson
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes insipidus (DI) and primary polydipsia (PP) are characterised by polyuria and polydipsia. It is crucial to differentiate between these two disorders since the treatment is different. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the short and an extended variant of the water deprivation test (WDT) and of measuring urinary vasopressin (AVP) in patients with polyuria and polydipsia. DESIGN: A retrospective, single-centre study based on WDTs performed between 2004 and 2014 including 104 consecutive patients with the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome...
October 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Natalie E Parks, Gaurav Goyal, Ronald S Go, Jay Mandrekar, W Oliver Tobin
Background: We describe the neuroradiologic features of a cohort of patients with Erdheim-Chester disease. Methods: We assessed patients at Mayo Clinic Rochester between January 1, 1990, and July 31, 2016, with pathologically confirmed Erdheim-Chester disease (n = 53). Results: Neuroimaging, including head CT (n = 17), brain MRI (n = 39), orbital MRI (n = 15), and spine MRI (n = 16), was available for 42 participants. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range 46-66) with higher male prevalence (33:20)...
February 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Mouhamad Reslan, Veysel Kayser
Ionic liquids (ILs) have recently emerged as versatile solvents and additives in the field of biotechnology, particularly as stabilizers of proteins and enzymes. Of interest to the biotechnology industry is the formulation of stable biopharmaceuticals, therapeutic proteins, and vaccines which have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases including debilitating conditions such as cancers and auto-immune diseases. The stabilization of therapeutic proteins is typically achieved using additives that prevent unfolding and aggregation of these proteins during manufacture, transport, and long-term storage...
March 6, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Ágata Paim, Isabel C Tessaro, Nilo S M Cardozo, Patricia Pranke
Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field of research in which the cells, biomaterials, and processes can be optimized to develop a tissue substitute. Three-dimensional (3D) architectural features from electrospun scaffolds, such as porosity, tortuosity, fiber diameter, pore size, and interconnectivity have a great impact on cell behavior. Regarding tissue development in vitro, culture conditions such as pH, osmolality, temperature, nutrient, and metabolite concentrations dictate cell viability inside the constructs...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Physics
Petter Bjornstad, David M Maahs, Carlos A Roncal, Janet K Snell-Bergeon, Viral N Shah, Tamara Harra, Samuel L Ellis, Matthew Hatch, Linh T Chung, Marian J Rewers, Satish Garg, David Z Cherney, Laura Pyle, Kristen J Nadeau, Richard J Johnson
Uricosuria and crystallization are increasingly recognized risk factors for diabetic tubulopathy. This pilot clinical trial aimed to determine the acute effect of urinary alkalinization using oral sodium bicarbonate [NaHCO3 ] on UA crystals in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Adults with T1D ages 18-65 years (n=45, 60% female, HbA1c 7.5±1.2%, 20.2±9.3 years duration) without chronic kidney disease (eGFR ≥60ml/min/1.73m2 and albumin-to-creatinine ratio <30mg/g) received two doses of 1950 mg oral NaHCO3 over 24 hours...
March 2, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Paolo Calzavacca, Lindsea C Booth, Yugeesh R Lankadeva, Simon R Bailey, Louise M Burrell, Michael Bailey, Rinaldo Bellomo, Clive N May
INTRODUCTION: Supra-clinical doses of clonidine appear beneficial in experimental sepsis, but there is limited understanding of the effects of clonidine at clinically relevant doses. METHODS: In conscious sheep, with implanted renal and pulmonary artery flow probes, sepsis was induced by infusion of live Escherichia coli. At 24 hours, a high clinical dose of clonidine (HCDC) [1.0 μg/kg/h], a low clinical dose of clonidine (LCDC) [0.25 μg/kg/h] or vehicle, was infused for 8 hours...
February 27, 2018: Shock
Florencia Dadam, Ferenc Zádor, Ximena Caeiro, Edina Szűcs, Anna I Erdei, Reza Samavati, Róbert Gáspár, Anna Borsodi, Laura Vivas
Numerous studies demonstrate the significant role of central β-endorphin and its receptor, the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), in sodium intake regulation. The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between chronic high-NaCl intake and brain endogenous MOR functioning. We examined whether short-term (4 days) obligatory salt intake (2% NaCl solution) in rats may induce changes in MOR mRNA expression, G-protein activity and MOR binding capacity in brain regions involved in salt intake regulation...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Emmanuel Amabebe, F O Robert, L F O Obika
Pregnancy and lactation are accompanied by an increase in circulating blood volume secondary to a 10 mOsmol/kgH20 decrease in plasma osmolality, decrease in the osmotic threshold for thirst and arginine vasopressin (AVP) release, prolactin-induced AVP, oxytocin and aldosterone release, as well as increased water intake and retention. The increased blood volume as a result of increased thirst; drinking and fluid retention could be beneficial for milk production and secretion during lactation. Furthermore, AVP can directly initiate milk ejection similar to oxytocin by interacting with both vasopressin and oxytocin receptors located in myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Daniela Chlíbková, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle, Josef Bednář
Purpose: Hypohydration and hyperhydration are significant disorders of fluid metabolism in endurance performance; however, little relevant data exist regarding multi-stage endurance activities. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of running seven marathons in 7 consecutive days on selected anthropometric, hematological and biochemical characteristics with an emphasis on hydration status. Methods: Participants included 6 women and 20 men (age 42.6 ± 6.2 years). Data was collected before day 1 (B1 ) and after day 1 (A1 ), 4 (A4 ), and 7 (A7 )...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Faith N Lambert, Jason R Treberg, W Gary Anderson, Catherine Brandt, Andrew N Evans
Although secondary stress physiology of elasmobranchs is fairly well studied, gaps remain in our understanding of species differences, including stress recovery. We examined the physiological stress response to air exposure in Atlantic stingrays (Hypanus sabinus) using a serial sampling method requiring minimal handling. Many elasmobranch stress studies exclusively quantify glucose, although there is evidence that elasmobranchs are unusually reliant on ketone bodies. Therefore, we also tested the hypothesis that ketone bodies play a significant role in the elasmobranch stress response by examining plasma β-hydroxybutyrate...
February 23, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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